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Introduction : page 

Northumberland vii. 

Adjacent Dialects xiii. 

The Dales and the Shire . . . . xiv. 

The Speech xvi. 

The Northumberland Burr - - - - xxi. 

The Glossary xxv. 

Notes xxxi. 

The Glossary, A to F i to 309 


THE district represented in this glossary includes the present 
county of Northumberland and that portion of the county of 
Durham lying on the right bank of the river Tyne from Wylam 
to Jarrow. Scotland is frequently regarded as a country lying 
eniirely to the north of England. It may be well, therefore, to 
correct this impression by stating that Berwickshire and 
Roxburghshire lie on the western confines, while some of the 
southern counties of Scotland lie, not to the north, but to the 
west of Northumberland. 

This northernmost English county is triangular in form, 
measuring about forty-five miles across the base, by about sixty 
miles from the bottom to the top. Great upland moors connect 
the lofty elevation of the Cheviot Hills with the outliers of the 
Pennine Range, and form the western frontier of the countj ; 
and, from the head of South Tyne, the southern boundary is 
carried on a tract of lofcy moorlands, along the high lands of 
Allenhead.-', Blanchland Moor, and Hedley, and on towards 
Wylam. Except in the valleys, the western and southern 
portions of this district are wild and desolate; and they form 
an effective division on the landward side. The short stretch 
along the river Tweed from Carham to the sea, and the equally 
short stretch of the river Tyne, where it becomes the southern 
boundary of Northumberland, form the only open frontiers on 
the north and south respectively. Here the great name of the 
kingdom of Northumberland, the home of those Angles who 
were settled on the north side of the river Humber, has survived. 
(Note I.) 

fn the tradition preserved by Nennius, the Northern Anglian 
settlements originated soon after the time of the arrival of 


Hengist in Kent. (Note 2.) It is clear that the Anglian settle- 
ment of Northumbria had so far advanced that in a.d. 547 Ida 
began to reign, *'from whom arose the royal race of Northumbria." 
(Note 3.) According to Nennius, he was the first king in 
Bernicia and in Cair Ebrauc (York.) (Note 4.) But the Angles 
north of the Humber and south of the Tees were called by the 
Britons Deur, whilst the same people north of the Tees were 
known as Berneich. The sections of this dual kingdom were, 
however, so near akin as to possess, probably, a common 
language, and also, from time to time, to be subject to the 
government of a common head. (Note 3.) 

The names of two remarkable men are attached to Bernicia, 
those of Saint Cuthbert and of the Venerable Baeda. But very 
little remains of the literature of this period. (Note 6.) That 
much vernacular literature existed seems evident from what one 
of his scholars tells us, that Ba^da " was learned in our poetry.*' 
(Note 7.) The Danish invasions during the last years of the 
eighth and throughout the ninth century had an important 
effect upon the English settlements in Deira. The attacks upon 
Bernicia were not less ruthless ; but they were confined chiefly 
to piratical descents on the coasts or to forays carried out on a 
vast scale, the Tyne being made use of for winter quarters and 
as a port to refit. Deira was conquered, divided, and 
permanently settled by the Dane. The Tyne, however, was 
the limit beyond which this complete conquest did not extend. 
Modern Northumberland was left in a great measure in the 
hands of its Anglian inhabitants, who were permitted to live 
under rulers of their own race, in subordination to the Danish 
kings. (Note 8.) A succession of English rulers thus maintained, 
in their capital at Bamburgh, the integrity of Bernicia throughout 
the tenth century, and eventually passed into the line of the 
Earls of Northumberland. 

The old Northumbrian dialect, the language of the northern 
English people from Doncaster to Aberdeen, was, by these 
events, subjected to influences which had, as early as the ninth 


and tenth centuries, already begun to affect its inflectional 
character. This gave a uniformity to the written language 
of northern England. But the variety of these influences 
would, without doubt, at a very early period, begin to affect the 
manner of speech in each district and give permanence to the 
characteristic dialect of each locality. Thus Deira, with its 
colonies of Northmen, may henceforth be said to be separated 
from Bernicia by the powerful solvent of a racial difference in 
the two peoples. 

The e\-idence of place-names affords important confirmation 
of the extent and nature of the Danish settlements. In the 
part of Bernicia north of the Tyne, the terminations -liam and 
■loH are everywhere conspicuous, while the terminal -by does 
not occur. The streams are burns, and nowhere " becks." The 
pronunciation of the is always full, and is never clipped, as in 
the (', or more Danish dialects. (Note g.) The contrast in this 
respect with the southern part of the county of Durham 
(Note lo), but more especially with East Yorkshire, is a very 
marked one; for, there, -by and -beck are everywhere prevalent, 
whilst in speech a short (' is used for th(. 

A further severance was yet to take place on the northern 
border. After the disastrous battle of Carham, in loiS, 
Lothian, hitherto a part of Bernicia, became attached to the 
Scottish kingdom. " From this period the Tweed became the 
recognised limit between the eastern marches of England and 
Scotland." (Note ii.) Following this political change, the 
language of the English people beyond the Tweed eventually 
became, in its further development, that of the Court, of 
education, and of the national literature of Scotland. 

The Norman Conquest appears to have affected Northumber- 
land httle or no more than the Danish conquests had done. 
The Conqueror himself was but once within the county north 
of the Tyne, in going to and in returning from his Scottish 
expedition in 107a. (Note 12.) He reserved to himself the 
appointment of the Earls; but, beyond this, did not interfere 

the incenxftL ^n^jmirritamrrn z£ Nocrsiiimrecsmf. Ot zxeas 
S^irtff, whc gavcchsiaKL cheir gcprinmgir. Gviscazrui 
90ffflesfl&i iiexsdixafcrj riaim,. Wiloecc. htltt, ^vas sen. zr 
^*3»3cf, ami heir zj hss TifirhiT s 3ioe g i^te r;;yr«:rnT. C'!z c^ 
dfOOGx fJ. l^iJcueci. Wdfcjdier^ ci LiirrtTm*. die irsc Bisbrc 
accmncfid bv WHiazxi rs tie aee cf DurrajL wTia mufe F.iri ci 

2iinuni9Cra:iniu jurng- it rnffifr:?^ oeiii ij: Gr¥"'^f*iif rhe Tierr of 
>»<srtiium cgr*anii ^mr-mmfei i3:e -firrrcri wbere cbe Esccc aai 
met ^e pcpii^ar leackcs. T3 the zri^x-rf*. ~ Sircrt retie ccoi 
rerfe" ijhcrr zdMnaei ia jg-^of ccuraeT, rrnsrs was s-iiiei ia 
r^-.isiyia -xjKzajrjt^ Tbt czj wa* nised- - SbGrt retie zccd retie, 
siAj 7* the Btaccp " : i2iL aiffier ^linj at his crr^-fa?:^ WTsre kiZeif . 
cr^ EisEofv hi.Tseif was siaia. ;■ Note 13-.J 

Waucher's rrmrc^ Led ca retalutiaii : acd an exreictica in 
Sirot waa cotiriactcd by Robert, called Corthcse, tbc Kitrg's soc. 
Its main r«alt was tbe Soczidir^ of the New Castle, ziroc the 
iu>rth batk of tfae Tvce, near the site ai wcat had fcitherro been 
the chjfici^re place r^V.eif, Mocikchester. Albrms appears to have 
beea appointed Earl afeer WalcLer: fcot soon withdrew, and 
was 3ix>uwded by Robert de Mcwbray. During his adminis- 
tratkiCi ol Nonhomberland the Docnesday surv-ey was coccpiled. 
bcrt tbe ccmnij of Xorthamberlazid 6nds no place in that 
snnre; ; £or it was a 6ef withoat the realm of England. That 
Mtrvey was ondertaken kx financial purposes^ and therefore it 
trjald OC4 be expected to extend to a district in which the Crown 
had no financtai interest. The Earldom of Carlisle or Cumber- 
b&d was in this respect precisely similarly situated, and these 
two Earldoms, with the Bishopric of Durham, included the 
entire territory which is omitted in that survey. (Note 14.) 
The realm of England proper, at that time, terminated at the 
wapentake of Sadberge on the Tees ; which was still counted 
within the territory of the Earl of Northumberland. 

Tbe rdiellion and defeat of Robert de Mowbray, in 1095, was 
MIowed by tbe annexation of Northumberland to the Crown of 


|land, and the appointment of a sherifT in place of the Earl. 

(Note 15.) Within the Earldom, the Palatinate of Durham 
had been a privileged, and was now a rapidly growing, power. 
The choir of its great cathedral church had been built by 
WiHiara de Saint Carilef. His successor, Ralph Flambard, 
continued the great work. (Note 16.) In 1121, Flambard built 
the Castle of Norham-upon-Tweed, on the northern frontier of 
Northumberland, and within the episcopal jurisdiciion of 

The year 1139 witnessed the revival of the Norlhumbe:land 
Earldom in ihe person of Henry, son of David, King of Scotland. 
Henry's mother was the daughter of Ear! Waltheof and grand- 
daughter of Siward the Earl. But this hereditary claim would 
of itself have been insufficient to obtain so important an 
appointment. Stephen's own reasons of state led him to accept 
the arrangement. In the Earldom thus reconstituted, however, 
exception was made of the Palatinate of Durham. (Note 17.) 
Here, then, we may practically date the separation of Durham 
from Northumberland. Northumberland at this time had, 
on its western bounds, the franchises of Reedsdale, North 
and South Tynedale, and Hexhamshire ; and all these separate 
jurisdictions remained long apart from Northumberland itself. 
The Earldom, in this last return to the Government of its 
hereditary chiefs, was thus enclosed by the Palatinate on the 
south, the episcopal teriitory of islandshire and Norhamshire 
on the north, and the hanchiscs above-mentioned on the 

The accession to the throne of England of Henry II. was 
followed by his seizure of Northumberland in 1157. This act 
provoked the reasserlion of their hereditary claim by successive 
Scottish kings; who, from this time, began the seriesof invasions 
that so devasted the country. Pudsey, Bishop of Durham, 
obtained the Earldom, in 1 190, by purchase from King Richard. 
(But, eventually, Northumberland was, in 1243, indissolubty 
irmed to the Crown of England. 


The history may well be summarized in the language of the 
able writer of the introduction to the history of the county. 
*« Up to the close of the reign of Henry III., Northumberland 
still had a sort of nationality of its own, not completely absorbed 
in the sovereignty of England. For a considerable portion of 
the period, indeed, it was in the hands of Scottish princes, nor 
did the kings of Scotland abandon their claim till its very close. 
In the reign of John, and even in that of his successor, it was 
yet doubtful whether Northumberland would ultimately be 
attached to the southern or northern monarchy in Britain." 
(Note i8.) From the reign of Henry III. it was henceforward 
«« as much an integral portion of England as Surrey or Middlesex, 
bound by a common interest, and influenced by the same 
feelings which prevailed throughout the realm." (Note 19.) 

The conditions, which gave individuality to the land from 
Tyne to Tweed, were thus continued down to a period when 
the language had arrived at an advanced stage of development. 
In the examples of northern literature of the latter end of the 
thirteenth and the early part of the fourteenth centuries it appears 
little removed from the local dialect of the present day. So 
much is this the case, that the Cursor Mundi and TJu Prickc 
of Conscience present few or no difficulties to the Northumbrian 
reader. (Note 20.) 

To the fact, that the autonomy of Northumberland was 
maintained throughout so long and so momentous a period, we 
may further ascribe the preservation of an archaic character in 
its dialect, as a spoken tongue. By outside people, almost 
without exception, this is regarded as singularly barbarous. 
It is, however, barbarous only inasmuch as it sounds strange to 
the hearer. Its real character is seen in the almost passionate 
regard in which it ia held by its people ; and the history, thus 
rapidly reviewed, suggests that our modern Northumberland 
includes within it territory, where, probably, the •* Inglis of the 
Northin Icdc " has been least affected, in its vocalization, by 
Mtfratdc influences. 



Included within the limit of the burr, a characteristic of 
Northumberland speech, is the northern portion of the county of 
Durham, within a line, drawn from the river Derwent, near 
Shotley, to the Tyne at Jarrow Slake, and extending southward, 
almost to the valley of the Wear. It is a district where the 
coal deposits, wrought extensively during the early development 
of that industry, attracted the settlement of those colonies of 
pitmen, presently to be referred to. But between this and the 
dialect outside of the line a marked difference is perceptible. 

The folk-speech of Tynemouth and the estuary of the Tyne, 
which resembles that of the Durham coast, is rapidly losing its 
former characteristics. But South Shields yet maintains its 
own dialect sound in a more primitive form. In this portion of 
the county of Durham the line of demarcation between the 
different dialects coincides in a somewhat remarkable manner 
with the prominent features of the Permian formation. But in 
this district the earlier available coal deposits have probably 
more to do with the settlement of a population than have the 
natural features of the country. 

Among neighbouring dialects, that of Lower Weardale 
remains similar to that of Northumberland. Both in this 
feature, as well as in its place-names, it affords a striking 
contrast to the upper part of the same dale beyond Stanhope, 
to Teesdale, and to the district east of Wolsingham. (Note 21.) 
The dialect of North Cumberland has close affinity with that of 
Northumberland ; but, in its vocalization, its light tongue-trill 
and its varied cadence produce a quite different effect upon the 
ear. In the upper valleys of the Allen and the South Tyne, 
beyond the limit of the burtf the effect of the Cumbrian 
influence is observable. Here, possibly, the introduction of 
lead miners from adjacent districts has largely influenced the 


Teviotdale, in its dialect, closely resembles, in many respects, 
the neighbouring folk-speech of North Xonhumberland. (Note 
22.) In fact, the Northumberland and Durham dialects differ 
so little from that of Teviotdale, that Prince Lucien Bonaparte, 
in his Hints on the CijS5ijL'j:ic9 cf iki En^Ifsk DialectSy 
makes them one with it, under a heading of the " Scotch in 
England," as distinguished from the true North English of 
Weardale, Westmoreland, and Yorkshire. (Note 23.) In this 
connection, it is interesting to note an extension of the area of 
Northumberland made by the capture of Roxburgh in 1346, 
and its continued occupation by the English until 1460, doring 
the long period of a hundred and fourteen j-ears. This period 
was memorable in man}* wa^-s. It included the time which saw 
the brilliant career of Hotspur. It also embraced that, when 
Earl Douglas, in 1380, led on, against Hotspur, " full twenty 
hundred Scottish speares,** to the battle of Otterbum or Chevy 

Chase — 

All men of pleasant Teviotdale 
Fast by the river Tweed. 

The period embraced by the English occupancy of Roxburgh 
is otherwise memorable, as carr^nng us from the time of Wykliffe 
to the time of William Caxton, 


Of the franchises of Reedsdale and Tynedale before-mentioned, 
some notice may here be given. *• There is many dales," said 
Gray, in 1649, 'Mhe chief are Tinedale and Reedsdale, a 
countrey that William the Conquerour did not subdue, retaining 
to this day the ancient laws and customs (according to the 
county of Kent), whereby the lands of the father is equally 
divided at his death amongst all his sonnes." (Note 24.) The 
Chief Lord was in possession of all taxes and civil jurisdiction, 
both here and in Hexhamshire ; and the King of England's 
writs did not run within their pale. (Note 25.) It was not 


until the year 1496 thai North and South Tynedale, and with 
them Reedsdale (Note 26), were madegildable and parcel of the 
county of Northumberland. (Note 27.) The character of the 
populations of these valleys was attributed, in part at least, to 
tbe long period of warfare which had existed on the Border: 
"Gud honast men and true sauyng a little shiftyng for their 
liviDg. God and our Leddie help them, silie pure men I" 
(Note aa.) In the Musters of Noithumberland, in 1538, the 
light- horsemen of Reedsdale are very numerous; and are 
described as "able men with horse and harnes and all speres ; 
besides all the foot theucs." The muster of the neighbouring 
dale is also bluntly headed, " Northe Tyndel! iheiffs " ; all of 
whom are described as "able with hors and harnes." 
(Note 29.) 

The liberty of Hexhamshire, belonging to the Archbishop of 
York, had become httle less notorious when it was made parcel 
of the county of Northumberland, in the 14th Elizabeth, A.D. 
1572. But, even at this late date, the dales and moors of the 
west country were attached to Northumberland in name rather 
than in reality, and their turbulent inhabitants became the 
objects of severe legislative repression. In 1550 (Note 30), Sir 
Robert Bowes, in his report on the state of the Borders, 
recommended the transportation of the superfluous population 
to places too far distant for their relations and countrymen to 
resort to. (Note 31,) That such an exodus shortly afterwards 
took place is evident ; for the Redesdale Beggar, in that century, 
describes how he everywhere met with those " of our cuntrith 
borne," even in the far south where he then was. (Note 32.) 
A circumstance which specially bears upon this subject is the 
fact that those who now went forth from Tynedale and Redes- 
dale, to seek their fortune on the lower Tyneside, were held in 
aversion ; ar.d were denied admittance to the crafts and fellow- 
ships of the towns. On the 14th November. 1554, the Merchant 
I -Adventurer's Company of Newcastle passed an Act precluding 
^^^^tb''°">cr from taking an apprentice of " such as is or shall 


Im home or brought up in Tyndall, Ryddisdall or anye other 
imrho lycke places." (Note 33.) The Act continued in force 
UiUil 1676; when it was modified, **in regard those parts are 
uioru rlvilized than formerly." The men of Tynedale were, all 
Mllktt, inciuded under the stigma of their district. '* On Sunday 
luhl," writes the Deputy-keeper of Tynedale, in 1559, ** I appre- 
hiMulml two notable thieves, being gentlemen called Fenwicks, 
fihil liHvci sent them to the gaol of Newcastle.*' (Note 34.) 
Yu«tr by yi^ar, hereafter, <' there is many of them brought in of 
(hiiiii Into the goale of Newcastle, and at the Assizes are 
(.(uubinned and hanged." (Note 35.) 

Thn rapid spread of the use of coal in the time of Queen 
|illi/.uhtith called forth a demand for workers to hew and to 

I Miiy it. (Note 36.) Great numbers of the former light horse- 
uiiiii wrre driven by the stress of circumstances to find in this 
u« ( iipfttion a less precarious, but not less hazardous, employment. 
A I u later date, they are described as ''Scottish men and 
ItiinU^nirH that came out of Tynedale and Riddesdale." 
|Niit« 37.) To these dalesmen we owe the strong clanship of 

I I IIS colonies of pitmen and keclmen scattered along Tyneside 
mikI tlironghout the colliery districts; where the dialect of 
Ntirthuinbcrlund has been preserved with a vigour peculiar to 
lliciM! localities. It is in this connection that the mining terms, 
iihiul in the pit districts, retain many words of importance to the 
ilialuct. They originate in the common speech of the workmen ; 
and arc hence included in this vocabulary. 


Within the area where the guttural r, or Northumberland 
bnrVf prevails there are four districts, each with variations in 
the manner of speech. They are North Northumberland, 
South Northumubrland, Tyneside, and West-Tvne, and are 
shown on the sketch map by the letters N., S., T., and W.-T. 


The main characteristics of the dialect generally, and of each of 
its subdivisions, are noticed throughout the glossary in more or 
less detail. Only the more striking points will therefore be 
here referred to. 

Of the consonants, B is not sounded in humble, scramble, 
grumble, tumble, timber, clamber, thimble, <&c. Occasionally 
it is used for v, as ribet, for rivet. Ch has both the sound of K 
and of CH in the words kist and chist (chest), kirk or charch 
(church), and kairn or chom (churn); both forms being used with 
about equal frequency. But in Chester , a Roman camp, the 
sound is always soft ; never caster. The tch sound, heard in 
picture, venture, &c., is spoken as tur^ or tor; thus pic-tur^ 
vcn-tur, &c. 

D is commonly used alternately for th (^). Thus, fodder or 
fother, haddor or hathor (heather), forder or forther (further), 
smiddy or smithy, shoolder or shoother (shoulder), pooder or 
poother (powder), ladder or lather, &c. It is equally common 
to sound it or to omit it in bin(d), fin(d), gran(d), grun(d), 
han(d), &c. ; and it is usually omitted in Andrew, candle, 
handle, <&c. 

G, in the termination ough^ yet retains slight traces of the 
guttural gh in such words as rough, enough, and laugh. These 
are sometimes heard as rou'h^ ee-nee-uk, and lee-uh. Plough is 
pUeuf or />/«/, faugh (fallow) is faf, through (in through-stone) 
is thruff burgh (a halo) is bruf, lough (a lake) is lof. Trough, 
sought, bought, brought, are spoken trow, sowt, bowt, browt, 

H is invariably used correctly, and is never omitted when it 
ought to be sounded. In some words the aspirate is given with 
a very strong breathing, as in which, when, where, while, what, 
all of which are sounded with the hw distinctly spoken. The h 
is also used in quick (alive) and quite, pronounced hwick and 

L is sometimes omitted when it follows o. In hold, fold, cold, 
a modification of the vowel takes place; and when the / is 


dropped these words are heard as kad^ fad^ caad. Or they are 
spoken with the /, as kould, fotdd, comld. It is also omitted or not, 
at will, in wvm(/) (wall), sMaa(l) (smallj, <&c. 

R is heard in the strong guttural form, caUcd the hmrr^ or hcr^ 
of which a special notice will be given presently. 

S appears as a worn down form of shall in such expressions 
as " Aa'5 be wi' ye syun" (I shall be with yon soon). In the 
form " aa's '' it stands for am ; " Aa'5 aal reet ** (I am all right). 
S is used for skin ass (ashes), buss (bush). 

TH, in the, is never shortened to a mere /*. It is spoken 
lightly in hyeth (both), lyetk (loth), breetk (breath, breadth), &c., 
and heavily in the, them, thor (those), &c. Its alternative use 
with d has already been noted 

Of the vowels, the most characteristic are the following. 
The short A, like the sound of a in a \a mode, or in the German 
sa\z (salt). Salt, malt, fault are pronounced thus, except in 

The same sound prolonged produces the Northumberland aa 
(or aw as it is sometimes written) in waa (wall), blaa (blow), snaa 
(snow), &c.,which are thus spoken in South Northumberland and 
on Tyneside. 

The long ai, heard in chair, is heard throughout Northum- 
berland in maisUr (master), gaird (guard), qttairi (quart), &c. 

OW, pronounced as the ow in now, is sounded in howld (bold), 
fowl (roll), cowld (cold), howld (hold), &c. 

The Southern English pronunciation of man (maen) and 
similiar words, is the sound here given to the plural form (m^n) 
and to prent (print), splet (split). 

The short I, as in fil or sm, is heard in rich (to reach), and^n 
r (to find). 



££, the sound in &^1, is heard in breest (breast), and in all 
parts, excepting in North Northumberland, in the words sect 
(sight), leet (light), neet (night). 

O long, as in for, is sounded in forst (first), porse (purse), horl 
(hurl), &c., except in parts of the north of the county. 

The U, heard in utter, is in every part spoken in rut (root), 
fut {ioot)f fun{d) (found), bun(d) {hound), grun{d) (ground). 

00, as in tool^ is the general form in spoot {spout)fProod (proud), 
iroot (trout), doot (doubt), &c. 

The words, stone, bone, home, whole, &c., represent a vowel 
to which a remarkable prolongation of the sound is given in 
South Northumberland, where stee-yen is heard for stone. On 
Tyneside and in North Northumberland this is shortened to 
styen, whilst in West-Tyne the sound is steen. Moon also is 
heard in each of these districts respectively as mee-yun, myttn, 
and meehn or mecn. 

The following comparative tables will show the range and 
variations of the foregoing sounds in the subdivision of the 
dialect : — 

South Northumberland . . 



fait (fault), 

Tyneside . 

• • • • • 

sail malt 


a as in 



. German 

North Northumberland . . 

salt ^ 


fat ■ 


f oa as heard 
in the o 
in solo. 


• • • • 

soat moat 



waa[\] (wall) 

waa [1] 

blaa (blow) 

snaa (snow 

long a. 






{ snaw I 

do/ as in awe. 

W.-T. . . 




as in solo. 


bowld (bold) 

fowl (roll) 

cowld and 
cactd (cold) i 

howld and 
had (hold) 




cowld and i 
ccutd i 

howld and 

N. .. 


tow [1] 

jcaad ) n 
{cowld\ \i 






'oad ) 






brefsi (breast) 

seit (sight) 

Jeet {light) neet {nighi) 


















forst (6rst) 

porse (purse) 

horl (hurl) 
















stee-yen (stone) 

bee-yen (bone) 



hee-yel (whole) 






































\pyei \ 










In the folk-speech a euphonious effect is produced by the 
use of particles with varied forms, regulated by the following 
vowel or consonant. Bi (by) is used before a consonant — 
as, ''Bi this an' hi that'' (by this and by that). But 
when a vowel follows, the form becomes hiv, or bin ; thus — 
" Biv all he saa " (by all he saw) ; or, ** It wis deun bin a crood 
on them " (it was done by a crowd of them). The prepositions 
in common use have these alternative forms, of which fre^ frev^ 
ffcn (from), i\ iv (in), wi\ wiv, win (with) are examples. To, 
is represented by a further form, and can be spoken as ti, ttv, 
til and tin. The usage is also applied to some verbs ; thus, di, 
div (do), he, hev (have), ga, gav (gave), are spoken at discretion 
to suit the euphony of the sentence in which they occur. 

Of verbal forms, the use of aa's, for I am, is general. The 
termination -ing in the present participle is pronounced in, and 
in South Northumberland een ; and the -ing, commonly heard in 
hing, ring, bring, &c., is nowhere sounded in the participle. The 
termination -in, or -een, is sometimes pronounced as a mere 
modification of n ; like waithn, for waiting ; or it approaches the 
sound of an ; as makan, for making. (Note 38.) 


The passive participle in -en is characteristic of many verbs, 
beelden (built), hrungen (brought), cassen (cast), drucken (drunk), 
foutcn (fought), gdten (got), kitten (hit), putten (put), sirucken 
(struck), sitten (sat), tJiouten (thought), are examples of passive 
participles which may be multiplied greatly, as the form is of 
constant occurrence in the folk-speech. 

In weak verbs the preterite usually ends in -eed^ or -ect. Thus, 
kurteet (hurt), waiteet (waited), sorteet (sorted), &c. 

In colloquial talk the personal pronoun is frequently repeated 
in a sentence ; especially if it be a recriminatory one. " Ye clarty 
young monkey, ye," **Thoo greet lout, thoo," are familiar 
examples of this. 

Another tendency is that of placing the subject of a sentence 
at the end of a phrase. " He*d getten a sair tumm'le, Jack 
had." " They've come oot o* skyul, the bairns hez." ** Th'or 
myestly a* that colour, wor coos." 

The use of the third person of the pronoun, when the subject 
of a sentence is a compound one, is a usual form. ^^Me an* me 
marrow wis gannin ti wark." '* Bella an* hint's faan oot.** 

The tendency to assimilate the form of the dialect with the 
current English of the schools is increasing. But the vocaliza- 
tion remains ; and this is observable in the characteristic 
vowel sounds, in the cadence of the speech, and especially in the 
biiff^ or hor. 


The letter r, in England spoken with a glide of the palate, 
and in Scotland trilled sharply on the point of the tongue, is, 
in Northumberland, sounded from the tonsils. This tonsil, or 
uvular r, is commonly known as " the Northumberland hor *' ; 
and it is used, in whatever part of a word the letter may occur, 
as an initial, medial, or final sound. 


The hot is said to be a slovenly pronunciation of the letter. 
It is also described as an attempt to compromise between the 
smooth English sound and the Scottish trilled r. And, again, 
it is alleged that the Northumberland people elide the r in their 
speech on account of their inability to pronounce it. But the 
hurr is difficult to acquire, and few, not born and bred in the 
county, learn to speak it. In actual sound it is an exaggerated, 
rather than a suppressed or elided, r ; and its utterance requires 
vigour to enunciate it with its characteristic force. 

The uvular r in various parts of England is an occasional 
family peculiarity. It is also heard in the speech of a few small 
places on the East Coast of Scotland. Of the village of Charlton, 
in Leicestershire, it is said: **A11 that are born therein have an 
harsh and rattling kind of speech, uttering their words with 
much difficulty and wharling in the throat ; and cannot well 
pronounce the letter R." (Note 39.) In all these instances 
the hurr may be said to be sporadic. In Northumberland it is 
general ; and nowhere else in these Islands does it extend over 
a large area as a characteristic of a spoken dialect. 

The uvular y, or r grasseye, is prevalent in many parts of the 
Continent. ** Anyone who will pronounce forcibly the Parisian 
r in Paris, may produce the Northumberland burr.'' (Note 40.) 
But, to speak it as the Northumberland man does, it is not 
sufficient to produce the sound of the letter itself. Its peculiarity 
and difficulty lie in its modification of the preceding vowel. 

In the words rain, roar, rob, &c., the initial r is so strongly 
uttered as to sound like orr, or arr (arrain, arroar, orrob). The 
medial r, in early, merry, mercy, verse, very, terrier, &c., 
modifies the preceding vowel, so that the er becomes ar, and 
sometimes or, and the words are spoken arly, marry, marcy, varse, 
varry, farriery &c. So, also, the final er, in mother, brother, sister, 
father, &c., has the same or and ar sound. 

Again, the ir and ur in the following words become or. Bird, 
sir, first, shirt, fir-tree, &c., are sounded bord, sor, forst, short, 


for-tree; and purse, turn, burn, curse, hurry, &c., ^.xe porse, torn^ 
horn, corse, horry. These rules are applied to all words in which 
the vowels are sounded as in the examples given. 

The line which encloses the hurr extends along the eastern 
seaboard ; but does not follow the county boundary on its 
landward side. "The Northern limits of the hurr are very 
sharply defined, there being no transitional sound between it 
and the Scotch r. From Carham eastwards, the boundary 
follows the Tweed, which it leaves, however, to include the 
town and liberties of Berwick, which in this, as in other 
respects, now adheres to the Southern in preference to its own 
side of the Tweed. Along the line of the Cheviots, the Scotch 
r has driven the hurr a few miles back, perhaps because many 
of the farmers and shepherds are of Scottish origin.'* (Note 41.) 
The limit is continued southward by Alwinton, to Birness in 
Reedsdale, thence to the neighbourhood of Falstone in North 
Tynedale. As the Border is approached from any of these 
points the Scotch trill becomes more apparent. From Falstone, 
across the moors, the boundary goes on to the South Tyne. 
which it crosses at a point about two miles west of Bardon 
Mill. It then turns south eastward, passing north of Allendale 
Town and crossing the river Allen. From the latter river the 
line trends eastward, across Hexhamshire, to the moors 
immediately north of Blanchland. Thence it follows the line 
of the river Derwent to the neighbourhood of Shot ley Bridge, 
where it passes the river and enters the county of Durham. 
In this district of ironworks and collieries a mixed and 
fluctuating population is met with. Crossing the high land by 
Pontop, the line is continued down into the upper valley of the 
river Team ; passing thence to the south of Birtley it avoids 
the valley of the Wear and strikes north-east till, in a few 
miles, it reaches the Tyne at Jarrow Slake. 

There is no evidence of any extension of this boundary line 
having taken place in recent times. On the contrary it appears 


to have been driven in on the west and south-west ; and effort 
is made, in the large towns especially, to overcome the tendency 
to burr. 

It is a common supposition that this peculiarity of speech 
has come down from remote times. (Note 42.) But Professor 
Trautmann's investigations show that, as in Anglo-Saxon 
generally, so in Old Northumbrian, the supposition must be 
rejected. (Note 43.) The Old Northumbrian r was spoken 
with the tongue ; and, even in later periods of the Northumbrian 
dialect, the burr cannot be regarded as existing. Professor 
Trautmann infers that the burr in Northumberland is of com- 
paratively recent origin ; an3 is confirmed in this view by the 
fact, established by his researches, of the recentness and rapid 
spread of the burr in France and Germany. Originating in 
France no earlier than the middle of the seventeenth century, 
the burr has been traced in its progress, from that time, through 
Germany. It has passed to Denmark, which it now dominates 
absolutely. It has also spread in Belgium, and has reached 
as far as Norway in one direction, and has affected Switzerland 
in the other. (Note 44.) 

The work of Professor Trautmann called forth an important 
communication from Dr. J. A. H. Murray, in which reference is 
made to a tradition formerly current in Northumberland. ** The 
tradition is that the Northumberland burr began as a personal 
defect of the celebrated Hotspur, was imitated by his 
companions, and by the Earldom as a whole." (Note 45.) 
Shakspere's description of Hotspur is highly suggestive. His 

" Stuck upon him as the sun 
In the grey vault of heaven : and by his light, 
Did all the chivalry of England move 
To do brave acts ; he was indeed the glass 
Wherein the noble youth did dress themselves. 
He had no legs, that practis'd not his gait : 
And speaking thick, which nature made his blemish, 
Became the accents of the valiant ; 
For those that could speak low, and tardily, 


Would turn their own perfection to abase, 

To seem like him : So that, in speech, in gait, 

In diet, in affections of delight. 

In military rules, humours of blood. 

He was the mark and glass, copy and book. 

That fashioned others." 

King Henry IV., second part, act ii., sc. 3. 

Whether the tradition originated in this description; or 
whether Shakspere gives expression to a tradition current in his 
time, is yet a matter for investigation. The fact of the existence 
of the tradition, altogether apart from Shakspere*s reference to 
Hotspur's pecuUarity, affords the only light that has, so far, 
been thrown on this obscure subject. 


The word-list which follows was originally begun by noting 
down, on the spot, words and phrases commonly heard in 
the social life of Tyneslde, among the hills and dales of 
Northumberland, and in the fields and working-places of the 
district. Thus, in the course of observations extending over 
many years, a considerable number of local words in every- 
day use was accumulated. As soon as the collection had 
attained to sufticient dimensions it was roughly arranged and 
classified ; and every available publication in the dialect of 
Northumberland was carefully read, in order to provide 
illustrative examples of the materials in hand and to add 
to the stock. Finally, the list, revised and augmented by 
further research and intercommunication, was collated with 
the Glossary of North-Country Words, published by John 
Trotter Brockett. 

At this stage of the work the compilation became known to 
Mr. Joseph Cowen, proprietor of the Newcastle Chronicle ; and, 
shortly afterwards, arrangements were made for its publication 
in the weekly edition of that well-known newspaper. On the 
8th October, 1887, the first instalment of the glossary appeared 
in the Newcastle Weekly Chronicle ; and thenceforward it was 
continued uninterruptedly. 


The columns of a popular newspaper have usually been 
considered a somewhat ephemeral medium of publicity. In 
this instance the medium proved to be the very best that could 
have been adopted. Through the pages of the CkronicU the list 
was submitted in detail to the scrutiny of innumerable readers, 
intimately acquainted with and naturally jealous of the correct 
rendering of their mother tongue. As the series unfolded itself 
week by week there came from all parts of Northumberland, 
and from Northumberland men resident in distant shires of 
England and Scotland, corrections and additions of interest and 
value ; while, through the far-reaching circulation of the paper, 
others who had settled abroad, in America, South Africa, 
Australia, and New Zealand, contributed to the enrichment of 
the store. 

In acknowledging the generous aid which he has received 
from all quarters, in his effort to elucidate and exemplify the 
rich and expressive dialect of his native county, the author 
desires to make special mention of those who entrusted to his 
care treasured documents relating to the subject, in which were 
embodied the result of long continued observation and the fruit 
of careful research. 

Among these documents were two MSS. compiled by the 
Rev. John Hodgson, the historian of Northumberland. From 
materials obtained during the progress of his great work, 
Mr. Hodgson had prepared a glossary, evidently intended 
for publication; but with characteristic generosity, finding 
Mr. Brockett engaged upon a similar undertaking, he placed 
the collection at his service. A transcript of the MS. came into 
the possession of Mr. \V. H. Willans, of Newcastle-upon-Tyne, 
who kindly offered it for use in the present work, and has since 
presented it to the library of the Society of Antiquaries of 
Newcastle-upon-Tyne. Later in life Mr. Hodgson, reverting 
to his original intention, copied out his word-list, with a few 
variations; but did not live to complete it. This second MS., 
now in possession of the historian*s grandson, Mr. John George 


Hodgson, of Newcastle-upon-Tyne, was generously lent by him, 
and, with the transcript before mentioned, is indicated, in the 
succeeding pages herein, by the words Hodgson MS, 

Another collection, the result of many years observation, was 
supplied by Mr. Middleton H. Dand, of Hauxley, who, for 
more than quarter of a century had noted down the farm words 
and agricultural phraseology of North Northumberland in the 
margin of a copy of Brockett's Glossary, which he kindly placed 
at the disposal of the compiler. Mr. Dand also contributed 
notes and explanation during the progress of the work. 

An annotated copy of Brockett's Glossary, bearing the 
signature of "J. Ord," and containing many marginal notes, 
was also placed at the disposal of the author, from the library 
of Mr. Richard Welford, to whom the writer is indebted for 
many kindnesses, and for practical help and counsel throughout 
the undertaking. Similar service was cheerfully rendered by 
Mr. G. H. Thompson, of Alnwick; who also copied, for 
the writer's use, his extensive and valuable collection of 
Northumberland words ; and who gave assistance, during the 
weekly issues, of the most helpful character. 

To Mr. J. E. Anderson, of Lillswood, Hexhamshire, the 
author is indebted for numerous observations on the peculiarities 
and variations of the dialect, with notes of words, valuable 
from the writer's special knowledge of the county. 

Much valuable material was furnished by Mr. John Avery, 
of Christon Bank. As a naturalist, his observations on local 
names were especially helpful ; whilst his practical knowledge 
of the detail and the technicalities of farming was embodied in 
an unstinted supply of notes sent in as each letter of the 
alphabet was successively reached in publication. 

Colonel J. A. Cowen, of Blaydon Burn, an assiduous observer 
of bird life, had formed a collection of the common names by 
which birds are known in various parts of England. This 


extensive catalogue he carefully annotated for the use of this 
work, distinguishing the names peculiar to Northumberland. 

Mr. Thomas Dunlop prepared lists of bird-names used in 
North Northumberland, and added examples of many colloquial 
and general terms. Mr. R. Y. Green, of Newcastle, revised a 
list of local plant-names, based upon Dr. Johnson's invaluable 
Botany of the Eastern Borders. Many lists of salmon fishing 
general farm terms,* and colloquialisms were contributed by 
Mr. R. Cecil Hedley, of Cheviott. 

The use of extracts was generously allowed by Mr. G. C. 
Greenwell, now of Duffield, near Derby, from his important 
Glossary of Terms used in tJu Coal Trade of Northumberland and 
Durham. This work was issued by him, anonymously, in two 
editions, dated 1849; and, avowedly, in a third edition, 
published in i888. Where the title is not fully cited, extracts 
from these works are marked Greenwell. 

A Glossary of Terms used in the Coal Trade of Northumberland and 
Durham, based upon the 1849 editions of Mr. Greenwell, was 
published in i888, by Mr. W. E. Nicholson, librarian to the 
North of England Institute of Mining and Mechanical 
Engineers. This contained additions to the earlier glossary, 
which were kindly allowed to be used in the present work. 
Mr. Nicholson also rendered many services in explaining 

Professor G. A. Lebour, of the Durham College of Physical 
Science, added notes of many local terms for geological 
phenomena. At the outset of this work, Mr. W. J. Haggerstone, 
of the Newcastle Public Library, arranged, for reference, the 
large collection of local books in that institution. 

Most of all is this work indebted to Mr. W. E. Adams, Editor 
of the Newcastle Weekly Chronicle, for invaluable assistance, and 
for continued interest in and direction of the undertaking 

throughout its serial issue. It is difficult to express the measure of 
indebtedness, where great personal kindness has been added 
to wise counsel, based upon wide experience. 

Obligations for assistance and for contributions are further 
due to the following: — Mr. J. B. Atkinson, H.M. Inspector of 
Mines; Mr. Wm. Aynsley, Ferry Hill; Mr. R. Atkin, 
Corbridge; Mr. James Anderson, Newcastle; Mr. Thomas 
Allan, Newcastle ; the Rev. J. R. Boyle, F.S.A. ; Mr. William 
Bultnan, Victoria, British Columbia ; Mr, Robert Bewick. 
Whalton; Mr. Robert Blair, F.S.A.,SouthShields; Mr. George 
Burnett, Whangarei, New Zealand ; Mr. M. Walton Brown, 
Mining Institute, Newcastle; Mr. W. S. L. Charlton, The 
Reenes, Bellingham ; Captain Carr-Ellison, Maclousti, South 
Africa; Mr. D. D. Dixon, Rolhbury; Mr. T. Embleton, Horn- 
cli0e Mains, Berwick; Mr. Matthew Glass, London; Mr. J. 
Gibson, Custodian, Norman Keep, Newcastle; Mr. T, Gilchrist, 
M.E., Pensher; Mr. J. P. Gibson, Hexham; Mr. W. Colville 
Gibson, Scotswood ; Mr, J. S. Hounam, Rothbury ; Mr, Sheriton 
Holmes, C.E., Newcastle ; the late Mr. James Horsley. New- 
castle ; Mr. J, Harbottle, Gateshead ; Mr. J, Humble, Mining 
Engineer, West Pelton ; Mrs. H. A. Jackson, Lowick ; 
Mr. Isaac Jeavons, Winlaton ; Mr. Thomas Laws, Napier, 
New Zealand ; Mr. T. Matheson, Morpeth ; Mr. A. L. Miller, 
Berwick; Dr. Hugh McLean, Corbridge; Mr. Matthew 
Mackey. Jnnr., Newcastle; Mr. John Oxberry, Felling; 
Mr. John Rowell, Twizell, Co. Durham ; Mr. W. Simpson, 
Newcastle ; Mr. W. N. Strangeways, Birmingham ; Mr. A. G. 
Schaeffer, Newcastle; Mr. C. J. Spence, North Shields; the 
Kev. F, Stephens, Horsley, Otterburn ; the Rev. E. J. Taylor, 
F.S.A., New Shildon ; Mr, R. S. TurnbuU, Newcastle ; 
Mr. Thomas Taylor, Dunston ; Mr. George Thompson, New- 
castle ; Mr. Cuthbert Thompson, London ; Mr. John Wilson, 
Leazes Park, Newcastle ; and Mr. James Wright, Ryton. 

In addition to the assistance received from correspondents 
specially acquainted with the local dialect, much outside help 


was cordially rendered. The Rev. A. Smythe Palmer, of 
Woodford, Essex, readily suggested sources of information, and 
always responded willingly to the many calls made upon him 
for advice and criticism. Throughout the serial issue of the 
work the Rev. Professor W. W. Skeat patiently and courteously 
answered enquiries, and, from time to time, made corrections 
and added valuable notes. To the Rev. Canon Greenwell, 
Durham, the writer has been imder many obligations. From 
Dr. J. A. H. Murray, of Oxford, unstinted help was received, 
especially in the investigation of the peculiarity of the 
Northumberland burr. To Mr. John Butterworth, of The 
Market Street Press, Manchester, much is due for the appear- 
ance of the work in its present form. Lastly, the author is 
greatly indebted to Mr. John H. Nodal, the Honorary 
Secretary of the English Dialect Society, not only for direction 
in the preparatory work, but, more especially, for patient 
supervision in the process of recasting the list from the serial 
into its present form. 

While this work was appearing in the pages of the Chronicle ^ 
a comprehensive collection of Tynesidc Songs and Readings was 
published by Messrs. Thomas and George Allan (Newcastle- 
upon-Tyne, 1 891). When quoted in these pages, Messrs. 
Allan's book is specially designated. The words Allan* s 
Collection refer to a former, undated, work, published under 
the editorship of Mr. Thomas Allan, about the year 1863. 

Readers, anxious for a ready-made etymology in every case 
may be disappointed to find that Dr. Johnson's definition of a 
lexicographer is but partially fulfilled in the writer of these 
pages. For he defines : — ** Lexicographer. A writer of 
dictionaries ; a harmless drudge that busies himself in tracing 
the original, and detailing the signification of words." But, if 
the writer of these Northumberland Words has not " busied 
himself in tracing the original," he has otherwise done his part 
as " a harmless drudge." Etymologies are given in very few 
instances ; and, in these, only on authority. For, as has been 


observed by one who has so vastly added to a knowledge of the 
history of our English words, " If we could but have an 
understanding that etymology is, in general, best left alone or 
very warily handled, and, as far as may be, left to experts, we 
should do much more to advance the study of it. The 
collection of words and facts ought to go first; it is very 
unphilosophical to rush to conclusions before all the attainable 
information is at hand.*' (Note 46.) In the spirit of this 
admonition the collection of words and facts in this volume 
is presented to the reader. 


z. Bseda, Ecclesiastical History, book ii. c. 9. 

2. See Nennius, The History, § 38. 

3. Saxon Chronicles, Earle, 1865, p. 16. 

4. Nennius, The History, § 50. 

5. Ida, the Bemician, Aelle, the Deiran, or their respective successors 

appear as rulers of a united Northumberland, or of one or other of 
its component states. 

6. See Rev. Professor Skeat, Principles of English Etymology, first series, 

p. 41 ; also Anglo-Sdxon Literature, Professor Earle, 1884. pp. no, 
III, 169, and note ; and Dialects of the Southern Counties of Scotland, 

i. A. H. Murray, 1873, p. 20. 
bert's Letter on Death of Baeda, Symeon, Durham, de Ecc. i. 15. 

8. Hinde, History of Northumberland, pp. 120, 158, &c. For tables of 

Bemician kings and earls, see Hinde. pp. 124 and 158. Also 
Longstaffe in Archaeologia i^Iiana, vol. vii., pp. 89 and 196. 

9. Dialects of the Southern Counties of Scotland, J. A. H. Murray, 1873, 

pp. 25, 86, 89. and notes. 
zo. For comparison of place-names, see Place-Names of the County of 

Durham, by J. V. Gregory, Archaeologia JEMam, vol. x., p. 180. 

See also Weardale Names of Field and Fell, by W. M. Egglestone. 
iz. History of Northumb^land, Hinde, p. 162. Border History, Ridpath, 

p. 54. An account of the battle is given by Symeon, History of the 

Church of Durham, lib. iii., c. 5. 

12. Saxon Chronicle, Earle, 1865, P- 211. Details of this expedition are given 

in the Vita Oswini of John de Tynemouth. 

13. Roger de Wendover, Ed. Coxe, vol. ii., p. 18. Symeon, bk. iii., ch. 24, 

p. 213. Saxon Chronicle, Earle, p. 2x6. 

14. History of Northumberland, Hinde, p. 247. 
13. History of Northumberland, Hinde, p. 203. 

16. Durham Cathedral, Rev. W. Greenwell, second edition, 1886, p. 21. 

17. History of Northumberland, Hinde, p. 215. 

18. History of Northumberland, Hinde, preface, p. vi. 
29. History of Northumberland, Hinde, p. 289. 

20. See Dialects of the Southern Counties of Scotland, J. A. H. Murray, 
p. 24, with examples pp. 31 et sea. Also observations by Rev. Prof. 
W. W. Skeat, Principles of English Etymology, first series, p. 34. 


21. Weardale Names of Field and Fell, W. M. Egglestone, p. 12. *' An 

extraordinary infusion of Northumberland blood exists in Weardale. 
The Waltons and Featherstons have for ages been the prevailing 
clans in that once semi-barbarous valley." — W. H. D. Ix)ngstaffe. 
Fragments. Richardson's reprint of Denham*s " Slogans," &c., p. 31. 
Harrison, Gibson, and Watson were also prevalent surnames in 
Lower Weardale. 

22. Dialects of the Southern Counties of Scotland, J. A. H. Murray, 1873, 

p. 86. 

23. Berwickshire Naturalists' Field Club Transactions, 1873, vol. vii., p. 26, 

quoting letter from Dr. J. A. H. Murray. 

24. Gray, •• Chorographia," 1649, p. 26. 

25. History of Northumberland, Hodgson, pt. ii., vol. iii., p. 3 

26. History of Northumberland, Hodgson, pt. ii.. vol i.. pp. 66, 67. Berwick- 

shire Naturalists' Field Club Transactions, 1863-68, vol. v., p. 427. 
Article, Harbottle Castle, by Geo. Tate. 

27. History of Northumberland, Hodgson, pt. ii., vol. iii., p. 3. 

28. A Dialogue against the Feuer Pestilence, by Wm. Bullein, 1578, E. £. 

Text Society, 1888, p. 6. 

29. Archaeologia iCliana, 4to. series, vol. iv., pp. 169, 181. 

30. As to this date, see Border Holds of Northumberland, by C. J. Bates, 

p. 51, note 185. 

31. History of Northumberland, Hodgson, pt. ii., vol. i., p. 70. 

32. W. Bullein, supra, p. 7. 

33. Vestiges of Old Newcastle. Boyle and Knowles. p. 20. Merchant 

Adventurers, Surtees Society, p. 27. 

34. Sadler, State Papers, vol. i. History of Northumberland, Hodgson, 

pt. ii., vol. i., p. 190, note. 

35. Gray, Chorographia, 1649, p. 26. 

36. History of Coal Mining in Great Britain, W. L. Galloway, i892. p. 33. 

Gray, in his Chorographia, says, the coal trade " began not past 
four score years since," p. 21. Evidently meaning that it only then, 
that is in 1569 or thereabouts, began to assume large proportions. 

37. History of Newcastle and Gateshead, Richard Welford, vol. iii., pp. 348 

and 392. 

38. See article " On the present participle in the Northumbrian dialect," 

by Ralph Carr. " History of Berwickshire Naturalists' Field Club," 
vol. iv., p. 356. In this the ethnography of Northumberland 
is also considered. 

39. Fuller's Worthies, pt. ii., p. 126. 

40. Dr. J. A. H. Murray, " Dialects of the 5>outhern Counties of Scotland," 

1873, p. 86. 

41. Ibid. 

42. Saint Cuthbert is described as speaking " the rough Northumbrian 

burr," J. R. Green, Short History of England, 1876, p. 25. 

43. Professor Moritz Trautmann, " Anglia," vol. iii., 1880, p. 212. 

44. Ibid, p. 221. 

45. Ibid, p. 376. 

46. The Rev. Prof. W. W. Skeat, preface Ray's Glossary, E.D.S., p. xxvii. 


[The letters N., S., T,, W.-T., when following a word, refer 
to divisions of Northumberland wherein characteristic 
variations of the dialect are heard ; and a word so marked 
means that the form or sound is proper to the district 
indicated. N. is North Northumberland, the district 
north of the river Coquet, including Redesdale. S. is 
South, or Central, Northumberland, including the part of 
the county south of the river Coquet and lying between 
that line and the eastern portion of the Tyne valley. T. is 
Tyneside, with Newcastle as its centre, including the valley 
of the Tyne and both its banks from Wylam to the sea, 
and a portion of the northern part of the county of Durham. 
W.-T. is West Tyne, the district west of Wylam, having 
Hexham as its centre. When no sign follows a word the 
form may be understood as common to all the districts 

A, an Interjection — pronounced like a in niay. ^*AI man!" 
"i4 / man alive !" '*A ! what sport we had !'* 

A is substituted for rt«, as " not a oonce." 

An Adjective ; descriptive of quantity. ** Hinny ! what 
a bairns thor is." ''What a picturs he hes iv his hoose." 
The meaning is, what a number of bairns — what a number of 

A Preposition ; on. *M this side" = on this side. 

A Verb ; ** Aa wad a been there," ** Aa sud a thowt se," &c., 
(a worn-down form of have) ; but * He ' (the e as in pet) is 
a more frequent form. 


AA, AW, AH, I — the pronoun of the first person. This long, 
broad sound is a characteristic of the dialect of the Tyneside 
and of South Northumberland. In local works it is generally 
represented by the letters aw. 

AA, A', AALL [S. and T.], all. "It's aa ower." "Not 
at aa,'' " Are ye aa there?" **Aall *at aa aad wis eyteen- 
pence " = all that I owed was eighteenpence. Compare OA. 

"Aall the warld an' pairt o' Gyetside," a common proverb, 
used jocularly. It suggests some sly humour at the expense 
* of the good people of the Tyneside borough. 

"Aall togither, like the folks o' Shields." The clanship of 
the seafaring folk at the mouth of the Tyne is proverbial ; 
hence a little coterie is said to be **Aall togither^ like the folks o' 

"That's a* aw can tell ye aboot My Lord 'Size.'*— John Shield, died 
1848, My Lord *Sise. 

A A, to owe, " Aa aa nowt." ^4^ is used to denote ownership or 
possession, as in the interrogative phrase, "Whe's aa this ?" 

AABUT, almost, "all but." 

" When want has a'but owertyen us, 
She a'ways keeps ma heart abuin.'* 

Pitman's Pay, ed. 1843, p. 14. 

AAD, AWD, AUD, old ; AADISH, oldish. Ould is another 
form of the word. The West Tyne pronunciation is Oad. 

** An aud wife cries. • Wor on the Bar.* " 

E. Cor\'an, died 1865, Warkworth Feast. 

AA'D, I had, I would. ^^Aa'd a been there mesel" = I would 
have been there myself. 

*'They said aa'd got me claes i' weekly numbers." — ^J. Weams, Gates- 
head Masher. 

AAD-BAT, in the old form, just in usual gocd health and 

*' Aa's just the aad-bat, aa*s just the aad-bat, 
Thor's nowt aboot me ye may fear, lad. 
But elways aa's glad, whether good time or bad, 
Just to say, ' aa's aboot the aad-bat.* " 

Song, The Aad-bat. 

AADER, the comparative of Aad = older. Aadcst = oldest. 


AAD-FARRAND, AAD-FARRAN, precocious, or, as it is 

termed, old-fashioned. 

** An aad'farran little fellow, sitting in the neuk, would put in his claim 
for a history beuk or ballant if deddy had a penny to spare." — Thomas 
Wilson, note to part first Pitman*s Pay, ed. 1843. 

" Auld'/arrandt ' favouring ' ; that is, resembling the old or adult ; having 
the manners or sagacity of age." — New Eng. Diet. 

AAD-FASHINT, precocious, applied to a child ; old-fashioned, 

AAD-LANG-SYNE, ** a favourite phrase, by which old persons 
express their recollections of former kindnesses and juvenile 
enjoyments in times long since past." — Brockett. 

AAD MAN, the name for old and unknown pit workings. The 
reference is to diabolic agency. See Aad*un. 

"The more modern workings have often suddenly holed into the old 
mine wastes, . . . which had been already excavated by the industry 
of the *Old Man,' as such ancient workings are called." — Tom John 
Taylor, Archaology of the Coal Trade, 1852. 

AAD PEG, old milk cheese ; a very tough and thrifty sort of 

AAD'UN, a familiar name for the devil. " Ye he' the impittence 
o* the aad^UHf'* the aad one, 

AAFUL, awful. " She let off the aafulest skrikes." 

AAGUST, August. 

AAH (or Eh-ah ?), What ? interrogative, or. What do you say ? 

AAKERT, perverse, stubborn, awkward. 

AA*LL, I will. Whilst will is here shortened to an / sound only, 
as it is in ordinary conversational English (" 77/ be with you 
just now '*), shall in the dialect has shared the same fate, and 
appears as an s only. **Aas be there thereckly." ** Thorns be 
bonny gam on when aa get there.*' " Aa*s hev setisfaction o' 
thoo.*' See Aa's 2. 

" Come list ye Sandgate skippers a*, 
Aa*ll sing a bonny sang." 

AALLGATES, in every way. "AaVe been up and doon 
aallgaUs" ** Aa've sowt for'd aallgaUs" See Gate. 

AAM ACKS, of all kinds. ** They he' fornitor, an' crockery, an' 
byuts, an' shoes, an* aamachs o* things.*' 


AAMUS, ALMOUS, alms ; pronounced in two syllables. 
O.E. aelmysse. 

"With their dooles and almost we are relieved." — RedesdaU Beggar, 1565. 

*' To ew'y hows of almouse ordeynet for bedrydens in Newe Castle ; 
i marc." — Will of Roger Thornton, 1429. Richard Welford's History of 
Newcastle and Gateshead, vol. i., p. 281. 

A AN, to own, to acknowledge, to possess. ** He aan^d to beein 
there hissel." It is also the present participle of oa, to owe — 
" What's he aan (owing) ye ?" 

AAN, AWN, own. " Me aan fireside." ** Wor aan hoose." 

" Item, paid to the porters for bringing home the tapsterye from the 
Manor to thar awne howeses that did owe the tapstery, i6d. — Newcastle 
Municipal Accounts, Nov., 1561. 

AANER, OUNER, owner. 

AANSEL, own self, himself. ** Let him ax for*d his aansel,*' 
"Thor'll be nyen but wor aansels there." 

AARIDDY, already. 

AA'S, AW'S (/ is). I. I am. 

*• A w*s a clivver chep, aw's sure, 
Tho' aw de say'd mesel." 

Billy Olivers Ramble. 

2. I will, I shall. 

** But aa*s gV ye, Will, to understand, 
As lang as aa can wield me hand.'* 

Aa's gie ye — I will give you; *'Aa's be there thereckly" — I shall be 
there, &c. [S.] 

3. I have. ''Aa's did it.' — [S.] ''Aa's deunU' — [T.] 
AASOME, awful. ** The seet on*t wis aasomC* 
AA'VE, I have. 

A A- WARN, AA-WARND, AA'S-WARN, I warrant, I suppose. 
**Aa-warnd, noo, ye think yorsel* clivvor?" *^Aa'S'Wam a 
kyem hesn't been iv his hair this twee months." 

ABACK, ABACKA, ABACKEN, behind, at the back of— 
sometimes shortened to back. ** Howay aback o' the hoose an* 
aa'll show ye." " He com' in at the finish just aback on him." 

*• Aw dream 'd aw was at the North Powl, 
It's a fine place aback o' the mean." 

R. Emery, Pitman's Dream, 

Bards of the Tyne, 1849, p. 186. 

'* She lost her pocket and all her money, 
Abach o' the bush i' the garden, honey/' 

Elsie Marley. 


ABACK, backward. **Hadaway aback, aa tell ye." ''Ye've 
com* ower far on ; gan aback ti the road end." 

ABACK-A-BEHINT, the very last behind. '* Aback-a-behint 
the set," means the very last waggon, not simply a hinder 
waggon. It means the extreme rear of anything. " Get up 
aback-a-behint " is get up over the horse's rear. 

AB ACK-A-BEYONT, far away behind— out of ken. 

ABAWE, to daunt, astonish, lower, abash. — Brockett, third ed. 

" Probably from old French abaub-ir, abab-ir^ to astonish, confound, 
frighten, disconcert."— Dr. Murray, New Eng. Diet. 

ABBUT, aye but. " Abbut aa'll not let ye." Very commonly 
used for but. 

ABEE (or Let abee), to let alone. 

" Let's away and he' some yell, and let sic things abee man.*' — The 
Keelman*s reasons for attending church, — Allan's Collection, 1863. 

"Probably from at-be, early Northern infinitive =/o be, — Dr. Murray, 
New Eng. Diet. 

ABEER, to endure, to bear. •* She couldn't aheer to sit aside 
him." "A word of honourable antiquity," says Dr. Murray, 
"widely diffused in the dialects; in London reckoned as 
a vulgarism." 

ABEYUN [S.], ABYUN, [T.] , above. The word is often 

contracted as byun, 

•'An' ower abyun this band o' men." — J. Horsley, The Cuddies an' the 
Horses, 188 1. 

ABLE, wealthy ; as **an able man'* — Brockeit. (Obs.) 

ABLEEZE, ablaze, on fire. 

ABOON, ABOUN [N.] , above. It is often shortened to beun. 
See Abeyun. 

•• In Chyviat the hills aboun.*'— CA^ry Chase. 

ABOOT, about. 

ABREDE, in breadth, spread out. — Brockett. 

ABY, aside, that is, a-by or a-oncside. ** Stan* aby there " is a 
familiar shout in a crowd when a way is to be cleared. 

ACAS, because ; ACAS ON, on account of. ** He wadn't gan 
ocas he wis flaid.*' " He couldn*t run acas on his bad foot." 


ACCYDAVY, affidavit. 

ACKER, to curl, as the curl of water from the wind. — Brochett. 

ACKER, a ripple on the surface of the water. — Brochett. A 
** catspaw." Compare Caal, 2. 

ACKERSPRIT, ACKERSPEIR, " verb ; used when the 
blade in mault growes out at the opposite end of the root." — 
Ray's Collection of North-Country Words, E.D.S. A variant of 


ACKNOW, to acknowledge, to confess. — Brochett. 

ACLITE, out of joint, awry. See Cleyt, Clite. 

'* Newcastle's now a dowly place, all things seems sore acUte, 
For here at last Blind Willie lies, an honest, harmless wight.*' 

R. Gilchrist, died 1844, Blind Willie's Epitaph. 

ACOW, ACAW, crooked, oblique, awry. — Brochett. 

apportioned in acre strips. Deal is a portion. To deal is to 
give to each his lot. Hence Acre-deal Lands were lands so 
dealt out or apportioned, each deal or lot being an acre strip, 

" The fields round a Saxon village were open fields, and generally 
divided into acre strips, in the tenth century, just as the vision of Piers 
Plotvman was quoted in proof that it was so in the fourteenth century. — 
F. Seebohm, English Village Community^ third edition, 1884, p. 106. 

ACRON, an acorn. 

ADAM AND EVE, the tubers of Orchis latiforia ; the tuber 
which sinks being Adam and that which swims being Eve. 
Cain and Abel is another name for these tubers, Cain being 
the heavy one. — ^Johnston, Botany of Eastern Borders, p. 193. 


ADDER-GRASS, the spotted orchis. Orchis maculata ; called 
also Hens, Hen's-kames, and Deed-man's Hand. 

ADDER-STYEN, a stone with a hole through it. These were 

picked up and hung behind the door as a charm. Mr. M. 

H. Dand says : ** Within my recollection no fishing-boat was 

without one of these stones suspended from the inwiver. Now 

entirely disused." See Holey-stone. 

" And vain Lord Soulis's sword was seen, 
Though the hilt was adderstone,*' 

The Cout of Keeldar. 


ADDIWISSEN, had I wissen ; that is, **Had I but known ! " 

'* A phrase nearly obsolete, but still retained by some old persons. — 

ADDLE, AIDLE, EDDLE, to earn. 

" He addles three ha'pence a week, 
That's nobbut a fardin' a day." 

Song, Ma Laddie. 

**Not from the A.S. word edlean, a reward, recompense, &c. ; but from 
Icelandic odlask. to earn." — Prof. Skeat, Note to Ray, Collection of North- 
Country Words, E.D.S. 

•• Now exclusively dialectical — used everywhere from Leicestershire to 
Northumberland; not in Scotland." — Dr. Murray, New Eng. Diet. 

ADDLINS, earnings. ** He's had good addlins this quarter.*' 

ADGE, an adze. 

ADIT, a horizontal gallery for draining a mine. See Water- 

ADNA, the sound of aa de na, I do not. ^*Adna want ye." 

AD SMASH 1 A profane exclamation. See Exclamations. 

ADVENTER, adventure. 

"The early English auentu're soon passed in popular speech through 
the forms au entur, aun tur, to auntur and anter (still common in Scotland), 
while aventu re remained a literary form. In fifteenth to sixteentn 
centuries the French was often re-spelt adventure in imitation of Latin, a 
fashion which (though it soon died out in France) passed into England 
and permanently affected the word." — Dr. Murray, New Eng. Diet, 

AE [N.] , one. 

"Tweed says to Till, 

What ears ye rin sae ill ?• — 
* Sae still as I rin, and sae fast as ye gae, 
Where ye drown ae man, I drown twae. 

• »» 

AFEARD, afraid. ** Aa was afeard ye warn't comm'." See 


•• His hore beard 
Was fowly dight, and he of death a/ear' d.'* 

Spenser, Faerie Queene, bk. iii., cant, x., st. 52. 

AFER [N.], a horse. — HalliwelVs Diet. This is the same as 
Aver, which see. 

AFIRE, on fire. 

*' Ma keeps aa afire, ma fortin's aa spoiled." — E. Corvan, died 1865, 
Keel Afire. 


AFOOR [N.] , AFORE [T.] , before. "Gan on aforer 

" Afore yor fit to fight yor way." — Thomas Wilson, The Pitman's Pay, 
1843 ed., p. 45. 

AFOOR LANG, shortly, in a short time. 

AFORCE, a term in colliery working ; **to hole a board into 
an adjoining board unintentionally.** — GreenwelL 

AFOREHAND, beforehand. This is sometimes worn down 
and sounded as aforan. See next word. 

AFORRAN, AFORN, on hand, ready for use. " Nowt aforran^'' 
nothing ready. 

AFTER-DAMP, the noxious gas resulting from a colliery 

" This afUr-damp is called choak-damp and surfeit by the colliers, and is 
the carbonic acid gas of chymists." — A Description of Felling Colliery 
previous to May 25, 181 2, by Rev. John Hodgson. 

" The sense of vapour, steam, smoke expressed by the German dampf, 
Dutch damp, demp, domf^ may have arisen in two ways. The German 
dampf si|;nifies short wmd, dampfig, breathing with difficulty, and as the 
designation of the phenomenon is commonly taken from the most 
exaggerated manifestation of it, the term may have been applied in the 
first instance to the breath, and thence to exhalation, steam, smoke. Or 
the designation may have been taken from regarding smoke, dust, vapour, 
steam as suffocating, stifling, choking agents. The German dampf is 
explained by Adelung. ' Any thick smoke, mist, or vapour, especially 
when it is of sulphureous nature,* where the reference to the idea of 
suffocation is obvious. In the choke-damp of our mines there is a 
repetition of the element signifying suffocation, added to supply the loss 
of that meaning in the English damp.'' — Wedgwood, Dictionary of English 
Etymology, 1872. 

AG, to hack, or cut with a stroke. — Brocheti, 

AGATE, AGYET, afoot, astir, on the way, out and about. 
•* Aa's pleased to see ye agate agyen.'* 

"-Gate in the Northern dialect signifies a way ; so that agate is at or 
upon the way." — Ray's Collection, 1691. 

AGE, to advance in years, to appear old. " He ages fast." 

AGEE, atwist. The g is sounded soft. See Aglee. 

" Hae ye seen my Jocker. comin' up the quay. 
Wiv his short blue jacket, and his hat agee?" 

R. Nunn. died 1853, Jocker. 


A-GE-YEN [S.] , AGYEN [T.] , again, against. 

" Forty thousand Skottes and fowre 
That day fought them agayne.*' 

BattU of Otterhum. 

" The keel went bump agyen Jarrow, 
An' three o' the bullies lap oot." 

Little Pee Dee. 

A-GE-YEN [S.] , AGYEN [T.], on or before. " Aall be there 
agyen ye come." 

"To be Let immediately or against May -day next." — Advertisement, 
February 4, 1742. 

AG-E-YEND, A-GYEND, against it. 

" He stuck 0^^." — ^Thomas Wilson, Pitman's Pay, 1826, pt. ii., v. 38. 
AGG, a grudge, a spite. — HalliwelVs Diet, 
AGLEE, awry. "A gleed eye is a crooked eye." See Ajye, 


" Awd Jack was dozin in his chair, 
His stockin's lyin' ower his knee. 
His wig hung up wi' greatest care, 
His neet-cap thrawn on a' aglee." 

Thomas Wilson, Pitman's Pay, pt. iii., v. 26. 

AGRUN, aground. 

AGYE, aside, askew. See Ajye. 

AHAD, hold. " Stop till aa get ahad on't." " If aa get ahad 
on ye, aa*ll warm ye." 

AHINT, behind. "Come in ahinf' — the familiar cry of the 
drover to his dog. ^* A hint yor hand," to have someone to 
look after your interest in your absence. 

" He set me down ahint ma door." — Thomas Wilson, Pitman's Pay, 
1826, part ii., v. 39. 

*' There was a man followin' ahint to pick up the fish that were 
killed."— "OW Salmon Poacher,'' S. Oliver's Rambles in Northumberland, 

1835. P- 156- 

AI, yes. **Av, yes. Pronounced », as, indeed, it is spelt in 
most old books." — HalliweWs Diet, 

AIBLINS, perhaps. Not very common, but used by old people. 
In a case lately tried before Mr. Justice Manisty in Newcastle, 
a Northumberland man in his evidence said, ** Wey, aa aihlins 
hed twee, or aihlins hed three glasses o* whisky." The judge 
had to translate this to the bar. See Yeblins. 


AIDLE, to earn, to manage. See Addle 

AIGHT, eight {pronoasced tyt (). Aigktk^ eighth. 

AIK 'N.' , oak. See Yek. 

AILSEY, Alice ; also Elsie. 

AIR-BOXES, tubes of wood used for \'entilation in a pit where 
there is only one passage or opening. — ^3/iji. Glass., Niwcastie 
TermSt 1852. 

AIRC, ARK, a large chest. A mtal-ark is still the name given 

to a meal-chest in country places. 

" Arks were made of oak, and contained the hmUy dresses, ftc. The 
front was often ornamented with carved borders and joined with wooden 
pins.'* — Hodgson MS. 

AIRCH, an arch. 

AIR-CROSSING, an arch built over a horseway or other road, 
with a passage or air-way above it. — Mim. Gloss,, Newcastle 
Terms, 1852. 

AIRF, AIRFISH [N. and S.] , ARF [T.] , apprehensive. A 
condition of mind in which it is necessary to proceed with 
great caution. ** Yen's rether airfish aboot eet." See Arf, 
AiRTH, which with airf 2Lxe forms of the word argh. 

AIRM, an arm. Soimded as two syllables in S. Northumber- 

" An* send amang the gang, Mr. Mayor, Mr. Mayor, 
Airm—WYiaX d'ye ca' him }— Strang, Mr. Mayor." 

Quayside Ditty, 1816. 
" And he haves on thorn his antm, 
Therof is ful mikel hamm.** 

Havelok, quoted by Halliwell. 

AIRSBIT, Archbold. A frequent surname. 

AIRT, to find out, to discover. " Til airt it oot." 

AIRT (pronounced d-art), art or part of the compass, direction. 
" What airt's the wind in thi day ?" People commonly say, 
when starting on a journey, that they go east, west, north, or 
south, as the case may be. "What airt ar' ye gan thi day ?" 

•• Oflf they rade— 
They rade the airt o' Liddesdale.** 

Death 0/ Parcy Reed. 

" A stranger — who cannot very well comprehend the country people 
when directing him what airts to observe — will be very liable to lose Lis 
road." — S. Oliver, jun., Rambles in Northumberland, 1835, P- 9- 


AIRTH, fearful, afraid. " He was airth to do it/' that is, afraid. 
" An airthful night," that is, a frightful night. — Hodgson MS. 
See Arf, Airf. 

AIRTHFUL, fearful. See above. 

AIRWAY, a passage along which the current of air travels in 
a colliery. 

AITH, an oath. 

AITS [N.] , oats. See Yetts. 

AIX, an axe. 

** Cut off wiv a choppin aix. — Geordy^s Last^ 1878, p. 4. 


AJYE, AJEE, on one side, atwist ; same as Agee, Aglee. 

AKWERT, AAKERT, awkward. "An aalcert thing for the 
coo ! " In North Northumberland, aukert. 

ALANG, along. 

•' Fre there aa went alang the brig.*' — Ma Canny Hinny. 

ALANTOM, ALANTUM, at a distance, a long time. — Brockeit. 
In Ray's Collection it appears as Alantom, adv., at a distance. 
Kennett, MS. Lansd., 1033, gives the examples, ** I saw him 
at alungtun," and ** I saw him alantum off.** — HalliweWs Diet. 

" Some of our lads b'ing very kind, Alantom followed me behind.*' — 
G. Stuart, Joco-Serious Discourse, 1686, p. 72. 

•' ? Corruption of French a loiniain—Sit a distance.*' — Dr. Murray, New 
Eng. Diet. 

ALDE-HE-WAY, the ancient road which continued the Carel 
Street, or Karlegate, eastward from Howford, by Acomb 
and Anick, to Corbridge, thence to Newcastle and 
Tinmouth. — Hodgson, Northumberland, iii. 2, p. 411. 

ALEAN [N. and S.], ALYEN [T.] , alone. •* Let's alyen,'' 
let me alone. ** Thor wis three on them, let alyen his fethor " ; 
here it means let alone, or besides. 

ALGATES, always ; all manner of ways ; however ; at all 
events. A compound of all and gates, or ways. — Anglo-Saxon, 
HaUiwelVs Diet. 


ALLER, the alder, Alnus glutinosa. See Eller and Oller. 

•• There growyth many allers and other ramell wood, which servethe 
muche for the buyldinge of suche small houses as be used and inhabyted 
by husbandmen in those partes." — Survey of Cheviot, 1542 Cott, MSS — 
Hodgson, Northumberland ^ part iii., vol. 2. 

•• Paide for 3 alter spars, i6^J*'— Newcastle Municipal Accounts, Nov. 1595. 
" The historical form alter survived till the eighteenth century in litera- 
ture, and is still general in the dialects." — Dr. Murray, New Eng. Diet, 

ALLERS, clog soles. ** He has on a pair o' new allers,*' Clog 
soles were made of alder wood. 

ALLER-TROOT, ALDER-TROOT ; the smaU brandling 
trout or ** skegger," called from their habit of haunting the 
roots of alder trees that grow by the side of the stream. — 
S. Oliver, Fly-Fishing, 1834, p. 17. 

ALLEY, a boy*s marble made of alabaster or of any fine white 


ALL-IN-THE-W^LL, a juvenile game in Newcastle and the 
neighbourhood. A circle is made about eight inches in 
diameter, termed the well, in the centre of which is placed a 
wooden peg, four inches long, with a button balanced on the 
top. Those desirous of playing give buttons, marbles, or 
anything else, according to agreement, for the privilege of 
throwing a short stick, with which they are furnished, at the 
peg. Should the button fly out of the ring, the player is 
entitled to double the stipulated value of what he gives tor the 
stick. The game is also practised at the Newcastle Races, 
and other places of amusement in the North, with three pegs, 
which are put into three circular holes, made in the ground, 
about two feet apart, and forming a triangle. In this case 
each hole contains a peg, about nine inches long, upon which 
are deposited either a small knife or some copper. The 
person playing gives so much for each stick, and gets all the 
articles that are thrown off so as to fall on the outside of the 
holes. — HalliwelVs Diet. 

ALMERY, a cupboard. See Ambry. 

ALMOUS, alms. See Aamus. 

ALN ; the pronunciation of this word is notable. It is sounded 

as Ale river, Yel waater, An-nich (Alnwick) towtiy and at its 

mouth is the village of Yel-mooth (Alnmouth). 

'* The Lord Evers claymed from the confynes of Berwick, south-east- 
ward to the water of Ay lie.'* — Sir Robert Bowes' s Refort to the Marquis of 
Dorset, 1551. 


ALOW, ablaze, alight. The ow is sounded like ou in trout. 
"It wis aall iv alow iv a minute." See Lowr, 

ALOWSE, loose, free. ** Let yorsel alowse^'* was the exhorta- 
tion of a pitman to a friend who was batting stiffly at a 
cricket match. 

ALSWA [S.] , also ; in Old English this is dsua; alswa. So in 
the dialect has retained this sound of swa^ soo-a. 

AM ACKALLY, in a manner, as well as one can. — Hodgson MS. 

AMAIN, to run without check. When a set of waggons run 

down an incline without break, or without being attached to 

the rope, or through the accidental detaching or breaking of 

the rope, they are said to *^run amain," 

*' As if ma wits had run amain.** 

Thos. Wilson, The Pitman's Pay, 1826, p. ii. v. 12. 

" Couch'd his speare, and ran at him amaine.'* 

Spenser, Faerie Queene, bk. vi., cant, i., 33. 

AMANG, AMANGST, among, amongst ; often shortened to 

fftang, mangst, 

*' That at the last thai ordeind tuelve, 
The thoughtfulest amang thamselve." 

Cursor Mundi, a.d. 1320. 

" Amang the rest aw cowped ma creels." 

T. Thompson, d. 1814, Jimmy Joneson*s Wherry. 

A MANY, a great many. ** Thor*s amany at dissent knaa where 
te torn for thor next meal.*' 

AMBRY (pronounced aumry)^ **a pantry, or cupboard to set 
victuals in. Proverb — *No sooner up, but the head in the 
aumbry^ and nose in the cup.* I suppose we might have it of 
the Normans." — Ray's Collection of North-Country Words, 1691. 
Mr. Brockett quotes the proverb above as if familiar in New- 
castle. Sometimes spelt aumery or aumry, 

" Some slovens from sleeping no sooner be up, 
But hand is in aumbrie, and nose in the cup." 

Tusser's Five Hundred Points, 1573, ii., 5. 

" Against the north and south walls there were almeries, richly decorated, 
containing a large number of precious relics." — Rev. Prov. Consitt, Life 
of St, Cuthbert, p. 205. 

AMEAST (pronounced a-mc-ast), almost. It is also abbreviated 
to meast^ niyesty the former the S. Northumberland form, the 
latter Tyneside. 

**This wine's amaist got in my head." — Joco-Serious Discourse, p. 20. 


AMELL, among, betwixt. Some pronounce it ameld. — Rays 
Collection, 1691. Compare Mell, 2. 

" Amell them twa to drive a bargain.'* — Jodo-Serious Discourse, p. 29. 

^''Beivieen— Northumberland. It seems to be Islandic 6, milli. It is 
stated not to be used in Scotland." — HallittfelVs Diet. 

AN, if. *'An yer gannin the mom, will ye tyek us wi' ye ?" 

" To the new castell when they cam, 
The Skottes they cryde on hyght. 
Sir Harye Perssye, and thow byste within, 
Com to the fylde and fyght. 

Battle of Otterbum. 

AN AA, AN AAL, also, too, likewise. See In Aa. 

** The folks was gann in, so aw bools in an a*.'* 

J. P. Robson. died 1870, A Cut at Wor Toon, 1 849. 

" They brought up the Fee-dee just like a duck'd craw, 
And the skipper wi' laughin' fell smack ower an* a*.** 

'' Half-Droon*d Skipper:*— MarshalVs Songs, 1825, p. 196. 

" This ean night, this ean night, 
Every night and awle, 
Fire and fleet and candle light. 
And Christ receive thy sawle." 

Old northern song over a dead corpse, 
MS. Lansdown, 1033, under word Flat, quot. Halliwell. 

ANANTER, peradventure, in case, in the event that. From 
an, on, or in, and aunter, aventure, adventure, chance. That 
is, "if peradventure.*' ^^ Ananters didi get well home," means 
** In case I get well home.*' See Adventer. 

ANCE, ANES, once. Yence is more commonly used, however. 
** He went ance eerand,'* means he went a special journey. 

ANCHOR, ANKER, the bend of a scythe, or of an adze, or 
other workman's tool. Some men prefer the angle at which 
a scythe blade is set from the handle to be more or less acute. 
Hence the direction in fixing a new handle is : <' Give 'or a 
bit mair ankor,'' or " A bit less anhor,'' as the case may be. 
The same direction is given in fixing a new handle to an adze. 
The word come, or cum, has precisely the same meaning. 

ANCHORAGE, the abode of an anchoret or hermit. The 

Anchorage School at Gateshead Church. 

•• 13A0, Nov. 14. License granted to John Wawayn, rector of Brance- 
peth, for building a cell in the churchyard of St. Mary's, Gateshead, for 
an anchoress, provided a convenient place can be found for her, and the 
rector of the church gives his consent. The name is preserved to this 
day in the Anchorage School attached to Gateshead Church." — Richard 
Welford, History 0/ Newcastle and Gateshead, vol. i., p. 107. 


ANDIRONS, irons on the hearth to support burning wood. 
Old French, andier. 

ANE [N],one. 

ANEAR, near. ** Dinna gan anear the watter." ** The kettle's 
boilin* ; dinna gan anear' d.'' 

ANEATH, beneath, underneath. ** Where's the maister ? — 
He*s aneath the steeth.'* 

ANENST, ANENT, over against. Often spoken as nemt. 

"Thar was sartaye shipes taken from anens Hartilpowll, taken by 
Franchemen.** — Newcastle Municipal Accounts^ Aug., 1563. 

ANES, once, at any one time. See Ance. 

•* I ne'er yet saw the Tyne se big 
Nor running anes se like a sea." 

Jock 0* the Side, 

ANG, the hairy part of an ear of barley — probably a corruption 
of awn. — Halliweirs Diet. 

ANGER-NAIL, a piece of skin at the side of the nail which 
has become semi-detached and gives pain. The word is 
always sounded ang-cr not an-gev. 

ANGER-BERRY, ANGLE-BERRY, a warty excrescence 
growing on the umbilicus, or scrotum, or teats of an animal. 
These are highly vascular and easily hurt. 

" Among old people in Northumberland, as at Whelpington, angleherry 
is the name of a vetch ; probably because it angles or catches hold and 
clings to plants or shrubs stronger and taller than itself." — Hodgson MS. 

ANGORT (pronounced ang-ori), angered. 

•• Me muthor's bairns gat angort at us." — J. P. Robson. d. 1870, Sang 
0' Solomon, Newcastle version, ch. i., v. 6. 

ANGRY (anq-ry), inflamed or painful, as a suppurating sore. 
** Me fingr*s beeldin' aa's flaid — it leuks se angry.'' 

ANKISH, anxious. 

ANKLET, ancle. 

•• Wi* anklets shaw'd, an* scathered feet."--T. Wilson, Pitman's Pay, 
1843, pt. ii., V. 16. 

•• Sometimes a gaiter." — HalliwelVs Diet. 

ANNET, the common gull, so called in Northumberland. — 
Halliweirs Diet. 


ANUNDER, ANUNER, under. "Mind yor eye, wUl ye? 
Aa*s gan anuner.'' 

" Aw sets me ways doon anunder his shada."— J. P. Robson, d. 1870, 
Sang 0* Solomon, Northumberland version, ch. ii., v. 6. 

" There's plenty of coal dug from the deep mine, that gans through 
anunder wor river. — W. Mitford, " Tyn$ Heroes,** Bards ofth$ Tyne, 1849, 
p. 540. 

A-ONE, an individual, one person. — HalliwelPs Diet. " Thor's 
not a-one on ye dar come." 

APORPOSE, on purpose. " He's deund aporpose to myek hissel 
leuk clivvor." 

APPETIZE, to provoke an appetite for food.—Halliweirs Diet. 

APPLE-CAIRT. " That's upset his applc-cairt for him, aa 
think " — that has completely stopped his project. 

APPLE DUMPLINS, the great hairy willow herb, Epilohium 
hirsututn. Called also Corran dumplin. 

APPLE SHEELY, the chaffinch. Fringilla caelehs. Commonly 
called Shecly. 

APRIL, APERHIL, and APRILE. '' Aperhil borrows three 
days of March, and they are ill.** See Borrowed Days. 

APRIL-GOWK, an April fool. The cuckoo has become 
synonymous with jest and joke ; gowk is cuckoo. Boy : " Hi, 
canny man, see what ye've dropt.** The canny man turns 
round to see, and is hailed with a yell, *' O, ye k^nl-gowk ! " 
as the boy runs off. 

ARAN-WEB, is a cobweb in Northumberland. — HalliwelVs 

ARDERS, fallowings or ploughings of ground. Ray's Collection^ 
1 65 1, prefaee. This word is included by Brockett in his 
glossary, and there defined as ** Order, by course. In 
husbandry, the arders are the divisions of tillage land set 
apart for regular courses of crops in successive years ; 
or for courses of cropping in rotation." See Ather. 


ARF, ARFISH, ARTH, unwilling, sorry, pitiful. Brockett, 
under the first and second form, defines it as ** timid, fearful, 
apprehensive, afraid — as * I am rather arfish about that.' " 
The word is used, however, to mean a condition in which it 
is necessary to proceed with great caution. It is a dialect 
form of the word argh. In HaUiweU*s Diet., awvish is evidently 
the same word, and there defined as " Queer ; neither sick 
nor well. Query, elfish ? " See Airth, Airf. 

ARGY, to argue. 

ARK, a large chest to put com or fruit in, like the bing of a 
buttery. But the modern signification is a coffin. — Ray's 
Collection^ 1691. Meal-ark, an oatmeal chest. See Airc. 

ARLE, YEARL, to bind by payment of money — or arles — that 
is, earnest-money. "What did the missus arle ye wi'?" 
"She ga' me two shillin*." The arlin is sometimes called 
" the bond-money." 

" In hiring servants, any bargain made between master and servant 
was accounted void, before entry into servitude, if arles had not been 
offered and accepted." — Hodgson MS. 

•• Paid to Wm. Sever, for his arles ^ for quartering the priest, i2d." — 
NewcastU Municipal Accounts , 1593. 

The arles here are the executioner's hire for quartering the 
body of an executed priest. Arle means, also, any kind of 
engaging — as, for instance, 

" She arled him there for her groom, bridegroom. 
She arled him there for her groom." 

Song, Broom, Green Broom. 

ARL, earl ; also YEARL, or JARL. " Th' arl o' Dorham,'* 
" Yarl Parcy,'' &c. 

ARLUME, an heirloom. — Halliwell, Arelutnes. 

ARLY, early. ^*Arly bord, sor ?" — Newspaper street cry in New- 
castle. A special edition with the article written under the 
nom-de-plume of " Early Bird." 

ARN, the pronunciation of earn, 

ARND, ARRAND, an errand. " He's gaan an arnd:' In 
S. Northumberland, eerand. 

ARNEST, earnest. " He's iv arnest" Also earnest-money, 


ARXUT. the eanL-z^zs-^Frf-iii?. Tie oBrfe roac of Bi 


ARrX)ND. aroc=>i : ofce: wtM cclv. 

ARR. *' 2 skar,'" - Pock-arrs.' tbe ziiarks made by the small- 
pox. This Is a zcr.€Til word oyr-^on to both north and 
scc:r.. — itJT. i6ci. Aut scar free: a healed womid is called 
Sin -nr. '• He hes an *nr oc his fTr-ger." 

ARRAGE. a sharp pcint cr ccmer. — Ifta. GiL-sf.« SnrcasiU 
Tcrwti. iij2. 

AR5E-LOOP. a seat or wide loop in a rope or chain in which 
a rr^n is slucg when repairing or wx^rking in a pit-shaft. 

ARTH. earth, the earth. In S. Northumberland it isrt-^rtk or 

AR-\VO-HAY, a cartman's term to his horse to steady. 
ASIDE, beside. ** Sit doon asiii us, hinnev." 
ASIDEN, beside. *' She wis sittin* asU^n him.* 


ASK, a water newt, a lizard. The newt is usually called a 
waiter ask,'* as distinguished from *' a dry ask," 

" Snakes ar.d nederes thar he £uid. 
And gret blac fades gasgasd. 
And arskds and other vormes feUe." 

• TjU c/m CsMrtf.^—Mitvu'^ HcmilUs (dr. 1310). 

«* In the darksome depths of the pool is the water newt. LsitwUi mqumiUm, 
while the nimble little form of his mach prettier companimi. the lizard, 
LMurta ai^ilis, is seen amocgst the heather and shrubs 00 tbe hill. A 
popalar belief once pre%-ailol that these harmless little reptiln were 
vcmomoiis ; both are known under the local name of the 'Ask.*" — D. D. 
Dixon. Valt cf Whitiinghjm, 1SS7. p. 39. 

ASKLENT, aslant. 

ASPER, rough, fierce. In Old English Asptrannt is used. In 
the Life of Wallace it is : ** In Aspar speech the Persye then 
gan spear." — Book v., p. 67. (Obs.) 

ASS, ashes from a fire. 

ASSAY I (/ say), a common exclamation. ** Assay I what are 
ye dcin there ? " 

ASS-HWOLE, an ash-hole, a receptacle for ashes. 


ASS-MIDDEN, ASS-PIT, an ash heap. 

ASSIL-TREE, an axle. See Aixel. 

ASSIL-TYEUTH, a grinder or molar tooth. 

AST, asked. 

ASTARN, astern. — Riverside temi. 

ASTITE, just as soon, as lief. " Aa wad astite stop where aa is," 
" Ye*d astite gan wiv us." See Stite, Tite. 

ASTON lED, astonished. 

ASTRIDDLE, astride. 

AT, that. The a is pronounced very short, and the word sounds 
almost like it. "Them afs gan up." ** He's se Strang at he 
can lift a seek o* floor." 

" At, 'at. A worn down form of that, perhaps from old Norse at (used 
in precisely the same senses), perhaps independently developed in the 
Northern dialect, in which it was very common in 14- 15th centuries ; 
rare, even in Scottish writers, after 1500 ; but still in regular use in 
Northern dialect speech." — Dr. Murray, New Eng, Diet. 

AT, sometimes used Sisfor. " What are ye stannin* there at ? *' 
It is used in this sense in Sir Gawayne. See HalliwelCs Did. 

AT ANES, AT YENCE, at once. Yen — one. Yence — once. 

'*At ans alle thre he tok." 

Cursor Mundi. 

ATELIN, a yetling, or yetlin. This word occurs in one of the 
old parish books of Hexham, date 1702. In a list of plate 
and other property belonging to the church occurs ''a coffin 
to bury poor people. Itm. an atelin in the Abbey great 

ATHER, an adder. Athery-like, like an adder. See Ether. 

" The eel, when crawling among the grass, has a very ' atthery-like* 
look." — Richard Howse, Nat, His. Transac.y vol. x., 1890, p. 331. 

ATHER, a fleld. Before the commons enclosures, the tillage 
land was divided into '* flelds." Each field consisted of a 
great number of scattered strips or ** yard lands." The 
"East field," «• West field," " North field," or other names 
given, represented groups of different freeholds — each owner 
having yard lands in all the ^'AtJurs,'* or "fields." The 
object ot this distinction in the grouping of the freeholds into 


"fields'* was to arrange for a rotation of crops. Thus, the 
East field being fallow, the West field would be under oats, 
the North field under wheat, and so on in annual rotation. 

"In the county of Northumberland, speaking of their system of 
husbandry, they say they have their tillage land in three or four Athert — 
oats, fallow, wheat, or oats.** — Hodgson MS, 

A-THIS-SIDE, on this side of. 

ATOMY, NOTOMY, an excessively thin person. ** He's just 
a bit atomy,** or ** He just like an atomy.** 

Queen Mab : " Drawn with a team of little atomies." — Romeo and Juliet ^ 
act i., sc. 4. 

ATOPA, ATOPON, on the top of. «• Yor fethor's atopa the 
hay-stack." *• What he' ye atopa yor heed?" ^^ Atopon 2La 
aad hoose." 

ATTACKTED, attacked. It is very commonly used in New- 

" Attack'd-ed ; attacked, a common participle here, but more extensively 
used, I am told, in America." — Halliwell, 

ATTERCOP, OTTERCOP. This word, says the Rev. John 
Hodgson, means a spider's web. A.S. Attercoppa, a spider. 
Mr. Morris {Specimens of Early English, p. 403) says that " it 
signifies literally poison cup, from attor, atter, poison, and 
cuppa, a cup. Cob-v/eb ^Old English copweft) retains the last 
syllable only of the original word. In some of the Teutonic 
dialects, the spider is called a koppe, on account of its carrying 
a bag." A township in Redesdale is called Aitercops, and Mr. 
Brockett thinks it derives its name '* perhaps because in warm, 
hazy weather, in September, the grass and sparty ground is 
silvered over with gossamer, or cobwebs." The name is now 
written Ottercaps, but in old documents Aliertopps or Altircops. 
The word, according to Dr. Murray, Old English, Attorcoppa 
from a* tor, aitor, poison, and coppa, derivative of cop, top, 
summit, round head, or copp, cup, vessel ; in reference to the 
supposed venomous properties of spiders. Compare also 
Dutch spinne-cop, ** spider," and Cob-web, formerly cop-webbe ; 
whence it appears probable that the simple coppa was itself 
** spider." ist, a spider ; 2nd, figuratively, applied to a 
venomous, malignant person ; 3rd, misapplied to a spider's 
web. — New Eng. Diet. It is considered very unlucky to 
kill spiders." 


ATWEE, in two, asunder. 

" Enough to rive atwee the heart." — Thomas Wilson, The Pitman's Pay, 
1826 p. ii., V. 17. 

AT WEEN, between. ** Aa've many a time seen her haddin 
her heed atween her hands." 

•' It was atween Hebburn and Jarrow, thor came on a varry Strang 
gale.*' — Song, Little Pee Dee. 

ATWIX, betwixt. ** He was atwix an atween the twee." 
AT-YENCE, AT-YANCE, at once. 
AUD, old. See Aad. 
AUKERT [N.] , awkward. 
AUMBLING, walking. 

" Teach him aumbling by the hand 
Till he his paces understand." 

JocO'Serious Discourse, i685, p. 67. 

AUWERT, awkward, athwart, as a sheep on its back unable 
to rise. This is probably the same as over-thwart. Compare 


'* On tham gang 
To and fra, over-thewrt and endlang " 

Hampole, d. 1349. '* The Pricke of Conscience ," Morris, line 8582. 

AVELINGES, in an oblong, or oval shape; but possibly 
applied also to a piece tapering at each end. Major Moor 
says, " Workmen — reapers or mowers — approaching the side 
of a field not perpendicular or parallel to their line of work, 
will have an unequal portion to do ; the excess or deficiency, 
is called avellong work." — HalliwelVs Did, under Avelony, 
The avelong here would appear to be the gore or triangular- 
shaped piece left after working square in the field, and it 
suggests that a piece of cloth cut ** avelinges *' may possibly 
be a square piece cut diagonally from corner to corner, so as 
to make two triangular-shaped pieces. '* I will that on my 
day of burial be given thirteen grev gowns to thirteen poor 
women, and each to have half a yard, of linen cloth cut avelinges, 
instead of hoods, which I have ready made.** — Durham Wills — 
Barbara Thomlinson^ ^577' — Quoted, R. Welford, Hist. ofNewc, 
XVI. Cent,, p. 507. The apparent use of the half yard of 
linen cloth is for the white scarf or shawl, worn at funerals 
by poor women to the present day. 


AVER, a beast of burden, a draught ox, or horse ; hence, 
specially a horse used for heavy work, a cart horse : and in 
later usage in Northumberland dialect an old or worthless 
horse; 1691 Blount : Law Dictionary ^ under word Ajffiri {trans!, 
Spelman), In Northumberland, to this day, they call a dull 
or slow horse a false aver or afer, — Dr. Murray, Netv Eng. Did. 
A ver acres and Overacres occur as field names in several parts 
of Northumberland. 

" They have pasture there for 100 sheep ; and 30 avers or horned 
cattle, and four horses." — Hexham Chartulary, folio 14 b. and 15. 

" Carrying services are familiar in manorial records under the name of 
' averagium.* '* — Seebohm. Early Village Communities, p. 247. 

"From old French aveir^ aver; modem French avoir, possession, 
property, stufif. ' stock,* cattle, domestic animals, beasts of burden ; literally 
' having,' substantive use of aveir, avoir. Latin, habire, to have." — New 
Eng. Diet. 

AVER, peevish, Northumberland, — HalliweWs Diet. 
AVERISH, average. " It's oney an averish crop." 

AVERISH, AVERAGE, the breaking of corn fields ; eddish, 
roughings. — Rafs Collection of North-Country Words ^ 1691. 
The stubble and grass left in corn after harvest — the portion 
of the avers, — Brockett. 

*' In these monthes after the cornne bee inned, it is meete to putt 
draughte horsses and oxen into the averish." — Archatologia, xiij., 379. — 
Quoted, HalliweWs Diet. 

"To have, occupy, and enjoy all such averyshe and stowbles." — Richard 
Welford, Hist. o/Newc, XVI. Cent., p. 368. 

AW. See A a and following words. 

AWAR, aware. Shortened often to war. ** He'd getten in 
afore aa wis awar.'* 

AWAY, constantly used for go, or go away. ** Aa mun away " — 
I must go. " Let's away " — let us go. 

AWAY-GANNIN, going away. '^ Away-gannin crop,** the 
cereals belonging to the outgoing tenant of a farm. 

AWELT, A WELD, AWERT, laid on the back; said of a 
sheep when cast upon its back and unable to move. See 
Cassen and Auwert. 

•* Some cauld momin they'll fin' ye, I ween 
Lyin awelt and frozen by Wa' bittle Dene." 

James Armstrong, Anither Sang, 1872. 


AWNS, the beards of barley or wheat. 

AX, to ask. In the royal style of assenting to bills in 
Parliament, the phrase "Be as it is axed '' was used. 
Wickliffe's Gospel has : ** What schal I axe ? And she seide, 
the heed of John Baptist." Chaucer also uses the same word, 
but we do not find it used by Spenser. Hence we may conclude 
that by the time of Elizabeth it had been superseded in the 
literary dialect by the present form " ask." A sk is originally the 
northern form, but ax is constantly used in Northumberland. 

•• I moved you first, my Lord of Canterbury, axing your license to put 
this matter in question." — Cavendish, Life of Wolsey. 

AX AT CHURCH, to publish the banns of matrimony. 

AY-DI-MI ! a common exclamation expressive of regret or pity. 
Probably shortened from Ah^ dear me! Familiarised by 
Thomas Carlyle*s letters, but often heard as a sigh expressed 
by old people in Northumberland. 

A.YOU-A-HINNY,A-U-HINNYBORD, a Newcastle lullaby. 

*' It s O but aw ken well — A-U, hinny bord, 
The bonny lass o* Benwell — A-Ut hinny bord, 
She's lang legg*d an mother hke, A-U. hinny bord. 
See, she's raking up the dyke, A-U-A.'* 

Old song. 

•• A'U-At maw bonny bairn, 
A-U-A^ upon my airm, 
A'U-A^ thou suen may laim 
Te say dada se canny." 

Robt. Nunn, Sandgate Wifcs Nurse Song. 


AYONT, beyond. 

" Toil and pain ayont conceivin." 

Pitman's Pay, part ij., v. 71. 

AYLE, always, all along. (Obs.) 

*' And ayle I whistled as I came." 

G. Stuart, Joco-Serious Discourse ^ 1686. 

AY-THE-MAIR, all the more. 

BAA ! an exclamation of wonderment. ** Aa wis gan ower the 
moor an' a great coo wis runnin' mad-like. She chased fower 
or five folk, yen efter the other, an* thor wis a greet crood 
stannin* aboot. A sailor chep comes up ; tyeks the beast bi 
the horns ; an' torns hor reet ontiv hor back. An' aall the 
people ses * Baa /* ** — Local anecdote. 

BAADY, bawdy, lewd. 


B AAK, BALK [S. and T.] , B AWK, BAULK, BO AK [W.-T.] . 

1. A piece of unploughed turf left between the ploughed 
lands as a boundary in the open town fields. The freeholds, 
in the system of cultivation before the Commons Enclosure 
Acts, were thus divided. 

" The whole arable area of an uninclosed township was usually divided 
up by turf balks into as many thousand of these strips as its limits would 
contain — the balks which divide into strips beiuR, as the word implies, 
simply two or three furrows left unploughed between.'* — Seebohm, 
English Village Community^ 1884, p. 3-4. 

2. Applied sometimes to the ploughed strip itself. 

'* A little bauk near the dene, containing by estimation 3) acres." — R. 
Welford, Hist, of Newc. and Gateshead^ XVI. Cent., p. 168. See Rban. 

3. ** A ridge or piece left unploughed by accident or 
carelessness ; a piece missed in ploughing." — Dr. Murray, 
New Eng, Diet. 

4. A square piece of timber. The roof timber in a coal-pit. 

" We must have either oaken spars or firr bawks.'* — ^J C, The Compleat 
Collier, 1708, p. 15. 

5. A rafter or tie beam. In old one-storey houses they were 
often exposed and used for hanging or placing articles on. — 
Dr. Murray, New Eng, Diet. 

6. A roost for a bird. " The burd sits moping o' the balkf 
like somethin' iv a flay." — T. Wilson, The Washing Day, 1843, 
The " hen baaks " are the hen roosts. 

7. Where the roof of a mine is not level, but comes down 
into the coal without any corresponding depression of the 
thill, thus causing a nip (called also a roily or horseback), or, 
where the coal seam is cut off with a wash. 

8. To " lay to the balks " is used metaphorically to denote a 
disuse of any implement or instrument. 

BAAKS, or "BALKS AND BREDS," beam and scales for 

BAAKY, a piece of wood with rope attached put round a cow's 
neck to tie her up to the stake. The wood is also called a 
**baikie-stick'* and the rope a " baikie-tow." 

BAAL, to bawl. 

BAAL, BAA [S. and T.] , BO [W.-T.] , a ball. «« Buy the 
bairn a stottin'-6aa/." 

BAAL-PYET, bald pate. 


BAA-WAA-BODY, a silly or insignificant person. ** Hadaway ! 
he*s oney a haa-waa-hody'* 

BAB, Barbara. 

BABBLEMENT, a confused noise of talk. '^Thor myekin' 
sic a habhUment 'at ye canna hear yorsel speak." 

BABBY-BOODIES, broken crockery, used as playthings by 
children. See Boody. 

BABBY-HOOSE, a figure representing a "hoose" made by 
children with stones, or preferably with pieces of china (hoodies) 
or shells (chucks). 

BAB-NET, a net used on the Northumberland coast. 

At Holy Island, "in fishing for sea trout off rock ends they use a 
bob-net of five inch mesh, in which the fish are caught by the gills. A 
net of this kind, thirty-two meshes deep, will sound eleven feet in slack 
tide.*' — S. Oliver, RambVs in Northumberland^ 1835, p. 221. 

BACCY, nonsense. " It's aall baccy." 

BACK, behind. ** He wis back o' the engine-hoose at the time." 
See Aback. 

BACK, a fishing line used for haddocks, &c., at sea. The back 
is the principal line to which snoods are spliced, each snood 
being attached to a hook by a hair line. 

BACK, a parting in the seam of coal. 

" A slippery division in the coal seam, extending from the thill to the 
roof." — Min. Gloss., Newc. Terms, 1852. 

*' A fissnre in the coal, having an angle with the position of the seam." — 

" A diagonal parting in coal ; a description of hitch where the strata are 
not dislocated. At a back there is frequently a glossy parting, and 
sometimes a little sooty dirty coal. When, on approaching a back, it is 
observed to form an acute angle with the thill of the seam, it is called an 
east back ; when it forms an obtuse angle, it is called a west back. Thus 
the same back will be an east or west back, according to the direction from 
which it is aimed through. As there is rarely anything to indicate a back, 
and as there is little or no cohesion between its faces, the coal often 
unexpectedly falls away and causes accident.*' — GreenwelL 

<* A back or knowe sometimes, *tis true. 
Set down ma top wi' ease eneuf ; 
But oftener far we had te tue 
On wi' a nast^ scabby roof." 

Thos. Wilson, The Pitman s Pay, 1827, pt. ii., v. 77. 


BACK, to fill in the space behind the rings of cribbing In a 
pit-shaft. See Backing-deals. 

Thle sinking "was cribbed and baclttd^ and then walled."— B«r«nyi «•* 
Sinkings, A.B., p. lo. 

BACKBOARD, or BAKEBOARD, a paste or baking board. 

BACK-BY, just behind. Away from the face of the cdal 
nearer the shaft is said to be ** back-by.'* 

BACKCAST, a relapse, or any kind of throwing back. "Aa 
wis gettin* nicely better, but aa*s hed a sair backcast,'* 

BACK-END, the annexe at the back of a house. 

BACK-END, "the part of a judd left in the working place of 
a pit after the sump is brought down.'* — Min. Gloss., Newc. 
Terms f 1852. 

BACK-END, autumn. ** Last back-end,'' last autumn. 

BACKERLY, backward, late in season. ** The tormits is 
varry backerly thae *ear." 

BACK-GANNIN, a retrograding in circumstances or health. 

BACKING-DEALS, deals placed behind cribs to keep back 
loose strata. — Gloss, of Newc. Min. Terms, 1852. See Back, 4. 

BACK-0-BEYONT, of an unknown distance. See Aback-a- 


BACK-OVERMAN, an overman who has the immediate 
inspection of the workings and workmen during the back- 
shift. — Coal Trade Gloss., 1849. 

•« The back-overman superintends the management of the pit from the 
time the overman leaves until 5 o'clock in the evening, when the pit is 
said to • loose* or stop work."— Dr. R. Wilson. Coal Miners, Durham and 

BACK-OWER, a return back. " He cam back-ower tiv us." A 
fall backwards. ** He went back-ower.** 

BACK-SHIFT. The fore-shift and back-shift are the first and 
second shifts of hewers that go down the pit. See Fore-shift. 


BACK-SIDE, the back premises of a house or building. Billy 
Purvis used to invite the crowd from his front stage to enter 
his show, adding : '' Them 'at dissent like to waak ower the 
stage can come in bi Billy's backside,*' The backside of a 
church is the north side. Burials formerly were only made 
on the south side. 

" Nicholas Ward, unfortunately smoord to death in sinking for a draw- 
well in his father's backside^ loth February, 1716." — Sharp. Chronicon 

In the books of the Folly Water Works Company, Newcastle, is the 
following entry : " Robt. Attkinson cutt himselle off. hauving sunck a 
well in his back-side, at Michas, 17x7. wch. supply's hime." — Mackenzie, 
Hist, of Newc,, p. 725, note. 

*' While she were drunken — she left her left foot shoe upon Mr. Anderson's 
baC'Syd when she climbed over the wall." — R. Welford, Hist, of 
Newc., XV L Cent., p. 389. 

*' As up Jenny's backside we were bangin. 
Ki G«ordy, How ! where are ye gannin ? " 

Song, •• Bob Cranky s 'Size Sunday.'* 

Allan's Collection^ 1863, p. 317. 

BACK-SKIN, a strong hide or covering worn on the back by 
sinkers and men in pumping pits or wet places. A back-skin 
was also worn by a putter's "foal" as a protection when he 
had to thrust back against a loaded corf in its descent of an 
incline in a pit. 


BACKSTONE. See Bakstone. 

BACK-UP, to subscribe. "We've caaled to see if ye'U 
back-up the list." To support. " If ye*ll just gan on, noo, 
we'll back-ye up.'* 

BACKUS, the back-house, or wash-house, or more generally 
bake-house. — HalliwelVs Diet, as Backas. 

BACKWATTER, the still or dead water that rises in a field 
or back place during a river flood ; the overflow from a mill race. 

BAD, ill. 

" He lucks, poor body, verra bad.*^ 

T. Wilson, The Pitman's Pay, 1826. p. 15. 

" Sometime since a pitman wis tyen varry bad." 

W. Armstrong. The Glister, 1833-4. 

" The time that me fether wis bad," 

Joe Wilson, d, 1875. 


BAD, past tense of bid = bade. *< He bad us bide where we 

BADGER, a black coaly band approaching towards an inferior 
coarse coal ; a term similar to ** Macket,** — S. C. Crone, 
Borings and Sinkings^ F.K. p. iii, note. 

BADGER, "one who buys com and other commodities and 
carries them elsewhere to sell ; an itinerant dealer, who acts as 
middleman between producer (farmer, fisherman, &c.) and 
consumer ; a cadger, hawker, or huckster. Still common in 
the dialects." — Dr. Murray, New Eng, Diet. This word is 
given by Brockett, but is now probably altogether obsolete in 

BADLY, ill, somewhat unwell. " She's nobbut badly^ poor 

BADLY-OFF, poor, in want. 

BAD-MAN, the devil. " If ye gan on se the bad-man"\\ get ye." 
See Aad'un. 

BAD-MAN'S OATMEAL, the flower and seed of the hemlock, 
Conium maculatum. See Deed-man*s Oatmeal. 

BAD-WEATHER-GEORDY, a name by which the cockle 
seller is known. 

•• As the season at which cockles are in greatest demand is generally the 
most stormy in the year— September to March— the sailors* wives at the 
seaport towns of Northumberland and Durham consider the cry of the 
cockle man as the harbinger of bad weather, and the sailor, when he 
hears the cry of ' cockles alive,' in a dark wintry night, concludes that 
a storm is at hand, and breathes a prayer, backwards, for the soul of 
'Bad-Weather-Geordy: "- S. Oliver, Rambles in Northumberland, 1835, p. 207. 

BAER, BEAR, a blacksmith's tool for punching holes in iron. 
•* To Robert Thickpenny, his servant, a pair of bellows, a fore hammer, 
a nail hammer, and a baer.'*— Will 0/ RJ. Hogg, of NewcaitU, blacksmith. 
Proved yd January, 1502.— R. VVelford, Hist. o/Newc., XVI. Cent., p. 2. 

BAFF, blank. A pitman, if paid fortnightly, speaks of the 
alternate weeks as ** the 6a/ week,*' and " the pay week." 
" The Baff week is o'er— no repining— 
Pay Saturday's swift on the wing." 

Henry Robson, " The Collier's Pay IVeek.v 

Allan's Collection, 1863, P- 237. 
•• A card not a trump is a baf one. The partly decayed, split, or root 
end of a log or tree of timber is also called the 6<f/end : and from the 
baff ends, or otherwise useless pieces or ends of timber, are cut baffs 
which are used to keep the wooden cribs in position, when sinkins cits in 
our Hovih'Country. "^Newcastle Weekly ChrhnicU, May 15 iSTe 


BAFF-ENDED, blunted. Picks are said to be so when the 
points are oflf. — Brockett, 

BAFFLET, a wooden mallet for killing salmon. It is esteemed 
very unlucky to produce the bafflet until the Hsh are drawn 

BAG, dismissal. **He's gettin* the hag'' means "He's been 
dismissed." This is just as frequently expressed ** gettin' 
the sech.^' The explanation of this curious phrase seems to 
be in a reference to the payment received on dismissal, 
which would be carried in a sack^ or hag. The man dismissed 
would thus go oflf with ** bag and baggage.'* 

" An' we maun shortly follow them, 
An' tyek the bag, maw worthy gentles. 
Then what*ll poor Newcastle dee, 
Deprived o' aa her ornamentals ? " 

R. Gilchrist, " Bold Archyr 

Allan* s Collection^ p. 77. 

BAG, the paunch, the udder of a cow. 

" Next to the tents- we hied, te get 
Some stuffin' for wor bags, man." 

W. Mitford.AT.F.Z. 

BAG, a cavity found occasionally in fiery seams of coal, 
containing highly condensed gas. Usually called '* a bag of 
gas.** Also, a cavity in a pit, filled with water, as, **a bag 
of water.** 

BAGGIE, the belly. 

BAGGIE, the stickleback, or prickleback fish. Gasterosteus 
aculeatus, Linn. 

*' Which the North of England boys call the baggie." — Newcastle Daily 
Chronicht Jan. 4, 1888. 

BAGGISH, baggage. 

BAGGIT-FISH, a salmon on the eve of depositing its ova. — 
James Armstrong, The Curing of Salmon Roe. 

BAGGOT, BAGGISH, useless, contemptible. It is applied 
to a little, vixenish child, or to a worthless man, •* a drunken 
haggot.** " Come oot ! ye haggish.** 

BAGGY, corpulent. 

BAGGY-MENIM, the three-spined stickleback. See Bain- 


BAG IE (the a sounded as in bay, the g hard), a Swede turnip. 
The term is never applied to white or yellow turnips. 

" From Ruta Baga, the Swedish turnip:*— Note by Mr. Richard Welford. 

BAIDE ; endured— N(v^/k/. HalliweWs Diet., from Bide. 

BAIKIE-STICK, a piece of wood attached to a cow*s neck. 

BAIKIE-TOW, a rope for tying up a cow. 

BAIL, BALE, a signal of alarm, a bon-fire. — Brocheit. 

BAILIWICK, the limits within which a bailiflF of the duke 
exercises jurisdiction. — Newbum Bailiwick, &c. 

BAINSTICKLE, the three-spined stickleback. Gasterosteus 
aatUatus, Linn. 

BAIRN, a child. The power of a homely word is in no case 
more exemplified than in the use of the word baim. It is full 
of aftectionate tenderness, and whether used in old ballad or 
in the folk<speech of the present day it equally breathes a spirit 
of veaniing love for the little folk. A bit baim or a baimie is 
a little child. The pronunciation is sometimes lengthened, 
and a mother is heard to call *'Gan up to the barin!** or 
** Mind the bji*>rin ! ** 

** Where h«st te been, maw csumy hinny ? 
Wherx? he$t te been, maw bonny Sasm ? ** 

Song. " If js- Csmmy //cnrr." 

A*ltm's GMsstiom^ p. 284. 

RXIKNISH. childi^u 

BAIKN S -FLAW chiUs pUty. 

I^AIKNTKAM. brvxxis of children, as ther expound it to 
r\e. — /Cji»'* \.^V4S;i*t, under l^fisrnunwts^ 

l^MKSK. RAISK. the i^paci? tor pro\nKKier in a cow stall. 
RMKSE, I\AKK:>b\ i:u{vrt:nect^ impcdeat. 

I^AISKL ^N/ . ;o iK::rt> aNxx:. to e\«t ooeselt here and there. 
** A^K M-.'^rt r,^A :»v u ^^t dyua i^ hr:>r :e cicch the traun." 

H* v^xl ^w* Ko^cjt NkSl JL3V* 3s*ir^ 
\ifci A*i^' i.-\''5 'j^ jt',Ni >v^rj 


BAIT, to feed. " Hadaway bait the horses." 

BAIT, food ; BAIT-POKE, food bag. 

*' With a tin bottle, full of cold water or tea, a piece of bread, which is 
called his bait, the hewer says good-bye to his wife, and speeds ofif to 
work." — Dr. R. Wilson. Coal Miners of Northumberland and Durham. 

" Aw put the bait 'Poke on at eight, 
Wi' sark and hoggers, like ma brothers." 

T. Wilson, Pitman's Pay, pt. ii.. v. 11. 

BAIT, the longitudinal direction of wood, the grain^ as it is 
called. After wood has pined it is said, '* You can see the 
bait** — that is, the grain has become visible. 

BAITIES, fisher girls who gather bait. 

BAKE-STICKS. See Beak-sticks. 

BAKIN, the number of loaves baked for a household at one 
time. "A hdkin o* breed.'* 

BAKSTONE, a flat stone used for baking oat-cakes, &c. 

" The bakstone was often three or four feet in diameter, capable of 
holding two cakes, and fixed upon three or four low pillars : the girdle 
was less and lighter, and upon an iron tripod, called a brandreth." — 
Hodgson, Northumberland, pt. ij., vol. ij., p. 306, note. 

BALD-COOT, BAL-POOT, or BELL- FOOT, the coot. 
Fulica aira, Linn. 

BALK, a beam. See Baak. 

BALL, the charge from a puddling furnace, also the fused 
materials from an alkali maker's balling furnace. 

BALL, a nodule. " Ironstone balls,'* 

** Brown thill mixed with post balls." — Borings and Sinkings, A.B., p. 146. 

BALL-FURNACE, the furnace used for fusing a mixture of 
limestone, coal, and sulphate of soda, in alkali works. 

BALLANT, a ballad. 

•• Aw liked a ballant or a buik."— T. Wilson, Pitman's Pay, 1829, pt. iii., 

V. lOI. 

BALLINGER, the ancient name for a vessel carrying about 
forty men, acting in a fleet, apparently, as a frigate. (Obs.) 

" Every great ship must have attending upon him a barge and a 
ballinger."- R. Welford, Newc,, XV. Cent., p. 305. 


BALL-MONEY, money demanded of a marriag^e company and 
given to prevent their being maltreated. In the North, it is 
customary for a party to attend at the church gates, after a 
wedding, to enforce this claim. The gift has received this 
denomination, as being originally designed for the purchase 
of a football. — Brockett, 3rd. ed., p. 23. 

BALN-STONE, roof stone in a pit. See Barn-stybn. 

BAND, the string by which the old spinning wheel was driven. 
<*To keep the band in the nick" is an expression used to 
denote ability to continue in any given way. 

BAND, a thin layer of stone or shale interstratified with coal. 
Sometimes applied to a thin stratum of any kind from half 
an inch to six inches in thickness. Compare Girdle. 

BAND, a broad flat hinge. 

BAND-GANNER, the sheldrake, Tadoma belonii, Ray. This 
bird has a band of rusty red colour, and flies with great 
speed — hence its name. 

BANDISH, a bandage. 

BANDOLEERS, cartouche boxes with leather sling bands. 

" Pd. one paire of bandelears, 2S." — Gateshead Church Books^ 1654. 

" Pd. for fower pair of new bandaleers with bellts strings and baggs. 
7s. 6." — The same, 1669. 

Also variously in same, bandaleryes, bandeUraws. 

BANDSTER, a sheaf binder in the harvest field. 

BAND-STONE, the stone immediately overlaying the coal 
at the shaft and projecting into it. — Brockett. See Barn- 


BANDWIN, BANDSWIN, a band of six reapers occupying 
a man to bind after them. Six are usually as many as a 
bandster can conveniently bind after. 

BANDY, traversed by hands. See Band, 2. 

" Hard scare bandy coal." — Borings and Sinkings, A.B., p. 163. 
••Coal, foul, scared, bandy.*'^The same, p. 66. 

BANE [N.], a bone. 


BANE- WORT, the daisy. 

*'Thd northern men call the herb a banwurt, because it helpeth bones 
to knit again." — Turner's Herbal, i, 78. in Hodgson MS. 

BANG, a strong fir pole, used in the game of "pitching the 
bang*' ; a long pole used for guiding or propelling a boat, or 
as a lever, or the poles used in carrying hay when two people 
take the bangs between them. A <*cow bang'* is a pole in a 
byre to which a cow is fastened. 

The following challenge appeared in the Newcastle Journal of June 29, 
1754 (see Sykes's Local Records) :— " I take the liberty, after this publick 
manner, to acquaint the country, that Peter Ditch burn, of Mainsforth, 
in the County of Durham, will throw the long bowles, a pound-and-a- 
half weight, leap, and pitch the bang with any man in England, for ten or 
twenty pounds, and meet them at any place within twenty miles of 
Mainsforth aforesaid." 

BANG, to strike violently with a resounding blow ; to thrust 
off violently ; to rush violently ; to surpass, to excel, to outdo. 

'* The blacksmith's hammer, yark for yark, 
We hear ne langer bangin*." 

T. Wilson, Oiling of Dicky's Wig, 1826. 

" And, ay, as the ship came to the land, she banged it off again." — The 
Laidley Worm of Spindleston Heugh. 

"Then helter-skelter in we bang'' — T. Wilson, Pitman's Pay ^ 1829, pt. 3, 
iii., 84. 

" For X Y Z, that bonny steed, he bangs them a* for pith and speed." — 
W. Mitford, d. 1841, song: X Y Z at Newcastle Races.—Allan's Collection, 
p. 117. 

*'East Heddon, West Heddon. Heddon on the Waall, 
Harlow Hill, an* Horsley, an* Wylam bangs them aall." 

Old saying. 

" Bradford breedless. Hamham heedless, 
Shaftee pick at the craa ; 
Capheaton's a wee bonny place, 
But Wallin'ton bangs them aa." 

Old verse. 

" The Reenes, an' the Riding, Langhaugh and The Shaw, 
Bellingham Bogglehole bangs them a'." 

These rude rhymes were frequently repeated at the hirings in 
allusion to the relative merits of the various "places." 
Some of them conveyed a warning of ** bad meat houses " — 
that is, where scant rations prevailed. 

BANGER, anything very large in proportion to its kind. — 
Hodgson MS. 


BANGIN, large and jolly, as •* a bangin' lass." 

" Wor busioess duin, wor pitcher tuim, 
Jack out his private bottle drew, 
And wi* a bangin* glass o* rum, 
We finished ofif as it struck two." 

T. Wilson, Pitman's Pay^ 1829, pt. iii., v. 74. 

BANISTY, or BENISTY, anything done secretly. What is 
forbidden, or ** banned,'* is termed ** done under banistyJ* 

BANK, an incline, a steep road or street. Butcher Bank, Byker 
Bank, Lang Bank, Saltwell Bank, Sodhouse Bank, Forth 
Bank, &c. 

BANK, the surface, or top, of the pit. " At bank.'* 

** You are to buy in a stock of horses to draw your coals to bank 
(or day) out of the pit." — CompUat Collier ^ 1708, p. 32. 

BANK-OUT, to teem the coals into a heap as they are drawn, 
instead of into the waggons. — Coal Trade Gloss., 1849. 

BANKSIDE, the side of a slope. "The Bankside*' in New- 

BANKSMAN, the man who has control of the shaft top. He 
regulates the descent of the pitmen, lands the coals at the top 
of the pit, draws the full tubs from the cages, and replaces 
them with empty ones. He also puts the full tubs to the 
screens, and teems the coals. 

*' The Banck's-man, or he that guides the sledge horse, has an empty 
sledge to set the loaden corfe on." — Compleat Collier ^ 1708, p. 36. 

BANKY, having many banks. ** A banky road " is a road with 
many hills, or ups and downs. 

BANNIELS, baggage. ** He's off wi* aa his banniels.'* 

BANNOCK, a thick cake of oaten or barley meal kneaded with 

" The word is adopted from Gaelic bannach, query an adaption of Latin 
pdnicium^ formed on pdnis, bread." — Dr. Murray, New Eng, Diet. 

•• A thick cake bak't before the fire." — G. Stuart, Joeo-Serious Discourse, 
Newcastle, 1686, p. 62. 

BANTY, BANTLIN, a bantam. 

BAP, a baker's roll. ** A penny bap " is a penny roll. 

BAR, p.t. of bear. ** He bar up like a man." 


BAR, naked. " He wis iv his bar skin." 

BARBER-EEL, the viviparous hlenny, Zoarces viviparusj Cnvier. 

BAREBACKS, turnips with the tops cut off. 

BARFIT, bare-footed, shoeless and stockingless. 

BARGAIN, a piece of work to be done at a certain price. 
Newc. Min, Gloss., 1852. Special work let by proposal, 
amongst the workmen at a colliery, to the lowest offer. 

In lead minmg, "Miners generally take a certain length of ground, 
extending either twelve, fifteen, or twenty fathoms, in which they propose 
to raise ore, for a fixed time, at so much per bing, according to the 
richness, quality, or hardness of the mine. These bargains are taken in 
partnerships, consisting of from two to eight men." — Mackenzie, Hist, of 
Northumberland, 1825, vol. i., p. 100. 

BARGAIN-MEN, men who work by the bargain at special 
work, such as stone or coal drifting, rolleyway making, &o. 

on which the Mayor and Corporation of Newcastle, with the 
Master and Elder Brethren of the Trinity House, in their 
respective State barges, rowed over the tidal limits of the 
river Tyne from the Spar Hawk to Hedwin Streams, within 
which the Corporation of Newcastle claimed right to the soil 
of the river. As an annual custom this has been abandoned, 
but is now carried out at longer intervals with little of the 
ancient pomp and pageantry which formerly characterised it. 
Compare Gang-week. 

"O would the Tyne but cease to flow, 
Or, like a small burn, bubble 
There would not be a barge-day now ; 

Nor we have all this trouble ; 
But here, alas, we sailing roam 

About its conservation, 
Instead of sleeping safe at home — 
O what a Corporation ! " 

R. Gilchrist, 1835. •• A New Song for the Barge-Day/' 

Bards of the Tyne, p. 398. 

BAR-GUEST. The Brag and the Bar-ghaist are both of them 
local "boggles." See Guest, Geyest, and Brag. 

"Barghest. Also harghaist, guest, ghost, gest, gaist [perhaps adapted from 
German berg-geist, mountain demon, gnome; but by Scott referred to 
German bahre, bier, hearse, and by others to German bar, bear, with 
reference to its alleged form] . A goblin, fabled to appear in the shape of 
a large dog, with various horrible characteristics, and to portend 
imminent death or misfortune."— Dr. Murray, New Eng. Diet, 


BARING, in a quarry, the superficial deposits or other beds 
that have to be bared or removed. — Hugh Miller, Geology of 
Otter burn and Elsdon. — Geological Survey Memoir , 1887. 

BARISH, scanty, rather bare. "The cupboard wis barisk.*' 
" Thor wis a barish market the day." He's barish o* brass the 

BARK, a cylindrical receptacle for candles; a candle-box. At 
first it was only a piece of bark nailed up against the wall.— 
HdliweWs Diet. 

BARK, to abrade the skin. 

BARK, a bad cough. 

BARKEN, BARCLE, to clot, to harden. "Let the blood 
barken on the sare; it saves plaisters.'* Generally used in 
connection with the coagulation of blood. 

BARKER, a tanner. "The Incorporated Company of Barkers 
or Tanners in Newcastle.'* (Obs.) 

BARKHAAM, a draught-horse's collar. See Bra'am and 

BARLEY, to claim. The word is used in a curious sense, 
almost always by children in play. The expressions, "He 
barleyed that seat," "Aa barleyed the shul," mean that at 
sight of the articles one has been first to cry out, ** Barley 
me that seat, or that shovel." The first to do so has a right 
to the use of the article named, and it is a point of honour 
among lads to acknowledge and give place to the one so doing. 

KING'S SPEECH, a parley or truce; a temporary suspen- 
sion of a game. The words always mean that the speaker 
wishes the game to stop until some point of order is settled. 
In the New Eng. Dict.^ barley is said to be " perhaps a corruption 
of French parlez^ English parley:' This definition exactly 
corresponds to the local use of the word. To barley a thing 
is to speak first for it. Compare Barley above. 

BARLEY-DUGGAR, a cake made of barley meal. Called 
also Barley-dick. 

BARMEKIN, or BARNEKIN. a fortified wall about a peel- 
tower or castle. — Hodgson MS, 

•• The outermost ward of a castle, within which the barns, stables, 
cowhouses, &c., were placed.'*— //tf//if«f//'5 Diet. 


BARN-STYEN, the roof of the pit at the entrance of the 

" Wor nose within the bam-styen set/* — T. Wilson, Pitman's Pay, pt. ii. 
1827, V. 31. 

B ARRAS, obsolete form of harraccy from the Old French hatras, 
f. harte bar, a barrier or outwork in front of a fortress, the bar 
of a tribunal, a hindrance or obstruction, the enclosure within 
which knightly encounters took place ; the lists. The word 
in Barras Bridge in Newcastle is apparently derived from the 
lists, or barraSf where knightly encounters took place outside 
the town in open field. Both ancient spelling and that surer 
guide, the folk-speech, preserve to us the word barras, not the 
barrows (or graves of the lepers), as a last century antiquary 
ingeniously surmised. 

BARRA-STYEN, the stones of the fireplace to which the bars 
are fixed ; the stone seat in an " ingle neuk." This was 
frequently a disused and inverted " creein trou" or "bear- 

BARRATER, a brawler. (Obs.) 

•' For barratters or disorderly persons.** — Presentments of offences 
committed in the parish of Gateshead. — Rd. Welford, Hist, of N ewe. and 
Gateshead, XVI. Cent., p. 458. 

BARRIED, buried. 

*' Here a' wor bairns may christend be, 
Wor lads and lasses married — 
^ And when at last we droop and dee, 

Here we may a' be barried." 

T. Wilson, Oiling of Dicky's Wig, 1826, v. 52. 

BARRIER, a strong pillar of coal left between two royalties, 
or between two districts of workings, for security against 
casualty arising from water or foul air. 

BARRIES, berries. 

BARRIN-OOT. See Nicholas Day. 

BARROW, in a pit, the sledge, or tram, on which corves were 
" haUed." 

BARROW-COAT, BARRICOAT, an infant's first underdress. 


BARROW-MAN, a putter; one who puts the tubs of coals 
from the working places to the cranes, flats, or stations, 
whence they are taken by horses along the main or rolley- 
ways to the shaft. — Glcss, of Coal Trade, 1849. The term 
harrow-man is very old, for m a lease of five mines in the 
Manor of Whickham, by Bishop Hatfield, in 1356, "cynq 
barrowemen" — five hartow-men — are mentioned. 

" Trams in a pit were formerly worked by putters and barrow-men, the 
latter pulling before, and the former putting or thrusting behind : boys 
about fifteen or sixteen years old are employed in this department of the 
colliery." — A Description cf Felling Colliery frevious to May 25, i8ia, by 
the Rev. John Hodgson. 

'* There is another sort of labourers which are called Barrow-nun, or 
Coal-Putters, these persons take the hewed coal from the hewers as they 
work them, or as fast as they can, and filling the corves with these 
wrought coals, put or pull awav the full corves of coals, which are set, 
when empty, upon a sledge of wood, and so *' hailed *' all along the 
barrow-way to the pit shaft by two or three persons, one before and 
another behind the corfe." — J.C., CompUat Collier, 1708, p. 36. 

BARROW-PIG, a castrated boar. 

BARROW-WAY, "an old term for tramway, originally from 
the time when the coals were brought out from the workings 
in barrows." — Min, Gloss. Newc. Terms, 1852. 

" Corves are set upon a sledge of wood, and so "hailed** all along the 
barrow-way to the pit shaft." — J.C., Compleat Collier, 1708, p. 36. 

BARRY, to bury. 

•'A corp they're gaun to banyj" — T. Wilson, Captains and the Quayside, 


BARRY, to thrash corn. 

BARTLE-KNOT, the knot nearest the ground in straw. 

BA-SANG ! MA-SANG! a common exclamation. ^'Ba-sang! 
but he'll get it het noo." 

BASEL, to run in a hurried and laborious manner. See 

BASELER, a person who takes care of neat cattle. — Brockett. 
See Baisel. 

BASH, to drive or dint with violence. '^Aa bashed me heed 
again the top." " Hi, canny man, ye've hashed yor hat." 
•* She bashed the door i' me fyece.'* 


BASH, a heavy blow that beats or smashes in a surface. — Dr. 
Murray, New Eng, Diet, 

BASLARD, a long dagger, generally worn suspended from tlie 
girdle. Hall, Henry VI., folio loi, mentions "asoutherne 
byl to contervayle a northern baslard,'* so that perhaps in his 
time the weapon was more generally used in the North of 
England. — HalliwelVs Diet, (Obs.) 

BASON-CROP, hair of the head cut straight round. 

Three apprentices, " showing themselves disobedient and very obstinate, 
were first in open court (where a dish is said to have been kept, by the 
edge of which their hair was cut round) made exemplary by shortninge 
their hair."— B00A5 of Merchant Adventurers, Newcastle, December 7, 1649. 

BASS, the soft reeds from which bass-mats, &c., are made ; also 
the mat made from bass, or fibre, and the foot-stool covered 
with bass, 

BASSET, to crop out as a seam of coal does. Used as a noun 
it means an outcrop. 

The great limestone ** bassets out on the north bank of the Tees and 
near Frosterley.*' — George Tate, Geol. of Northum. and Durham. — Trans, 
of the Nat. Hist. Soc. of Northum. and Durham, vol. ii., new series, p. 12. 

*'The High Main bassets out in the cliffs between Cullercoats and 
Tynemouth." — Mackenzie, Hist, of Northum. ^ 1825, vol. i., p. 79. 

*'Its basset forms, in many instances, the limit of cultivated land." — 
T. Sopwith, On the Mining District, p. 4. Quoted by George Tate above. 

BASTARD, or BASTEY, applied to stone or minerals, means 
impure or nondescript. Bastard limestone, impure limestone. 
A •* bastard sole " (or lemon sole) is the fish lemon dab, 
Platcssa microcepimla, Flem, 

'• Bastard, thready whin."— Bonnes and Sinkings, A.B., p. 81. 'Bastard 
whin * is hard post or sandstone, but not so flinty as to be called ' whin.' 

***Bastey, grey stone.' ** — The same^ A.B., p. 62. 

BASTARD EAGLE, the osprey. 

BASTE, to thrash soundly. Beyest [N. and S.] , Byest [T.] . 
** Aa*ll gie ye sic a byestin' as ye nivver gat i' yor life." To 
brand sheep or cattle. See Beyst. 

BASTEL-HOUSE, BASSEL-HOUSE, a fortified house, such 
as is yet common on the Border. A typical example may be 
seen at Thropton, near Rothbury. The ground floor is a 
large apartment with vaulted roof. Over this are the living 


rooms of the owner* The walls are of great thickness, |^ 
affording its inmates protection against a marauding party. 
The Peel (or Pele) towers are castles on a small scale. 

"Towns, towers, bamekynes, paryshe churches, bastill hooaes burned 
and destroyed 192. Exploits done upon the Scots.** — R. Welford, Hist, of 
Newc , XVI. Cent., p. 219. 

"Whalton was probably composed* of bastle-houses, similar in tb^ 
construction to the Pele towers, though not so strong or well built ; as^ 
inhabited by the vassals employed in cultivating the outlying forms. ''-^ 
Rev. J. £. Elliot, Trans, Bks. Naturalists* Club, vol. vi., p. 235. 

BASTILE, the workhouse. 

BAT, a blow. " A hat o' the jaa." 

" It ne'er could be brought to behaviour, 
Though it has got many a hat** 

The Midford Galloways Ramhk. 

BAT, manner, state, condition. ** At ony hat " — ^under aw^y 
circumstances. " If aa divvent gan this week aa'll gan M^^ 
next, at ony hat'' 

" Aa*s just th' aad-6a/ : aa's just th' zaA-hat; 
Thor's nowt aboot me ye may fear, lads ; 
But elwis aa*s glad, whether good time or bad, 
Just to say—aa's aboot th' aad-^a/.'* 

Song, Th* Aad-hat. 

BAT, a margin of land within the tide mark of floods or of t — -^^ 
spring tides. 

*• Various fisheries on the south side of the Tweed between Bciw g^^y | 
bridge and the sea are called Bats, such as ' Bailiffs bat^* * Davie's bat^* ^■■^ 
Upon these fisheries (and also upon others not thus denominated) ^^^ 
heaps of stones called bats, upon which the nets are drawn when there ^ 
no means of landing them in the usual way (from the bank of the riv^ ^ 
being steep)." — R. Weddell, Salmon Fishing in the River Tweed.-^ 
Archaologia JEliana, vol. iv., quarto series, p. 307. 

BATCH, a small lot of meal for family use. The hinds, wh^^ 
paid in kind by corn, &c., took these small quantities t^ 
the miller, who made them into hatches. A bakmg of breads 
or as much as the oven will hold at one baking is called B 

BATE, to abate in price, to lower in amount. "Aa winna 
hate a penny.'* 

BATE- WORK, in a pit, short work. 

BATTABLE, debateable. ** A hattahle ground lying between 
two countries." — Hodgson's ^Northumberland, iii., 2, p. 342. See 
Debateable-lands. Compare Threap-lands. 


BATTEN, to feed, to bring up. **To batten on yon moor." 
After a confinement, all the "cronies'* who had come to assist, 
or to congratulate, were regaled with tea or spirits, according 
to taste. As they began, the cup or glass was solemnly lifted 
to the health of the father and mother, and a wish was 
expressed in the formula of '<a good battening to the bairn." 

" ' A good battening to your bairn/ is a health drunk at christenings." — 
Hodgson MS. 

BATTEN, the straw of two sheaves folded together. — Brochett. 

"A bundle of straw consisting of two or more sheaves." — Dr. Murray, 
New Eng. Diet, 

BATTER, a drinking bout. ''He's on the batter agyen." 

BATTERED, tired. •* Aa's fair battered an* deun." 

BATTERY, an embankment. — Gloss, of Min. Terms, Newcastle, 

BATTLE, BITTLE, to beat cloth. See Beetle. 

** A very large whinstone in the Hart is called the da///m^-stone, from its 
being used to beat or battle the lie out of the webs upon it m the bleaching 
season." — Hodgson's Northumberland, pt. 2, vol. ii., p. 12. note col. i. 

BATTLE-DOOR, a kind of barley, known also as sprat-barley. 

** Said to be so-called from the flatness of the ear.'* — HalliwelVs Diet, 

BATTLEDORE, the name for the old "horn book." It was 
simply a flat board with a handle like a battledore. On the 
wide face of this a card was fastened, having ABC and other 
elementary characters upon it. To protect the card from 
the constant contact of the wooden skewer used as a pointer 
in teaching, a sheet of horn was nailed over the face. Hence 
the name "horn book." Battledore is transferred to the 
folding child's alphabet card, still for sale (1891) in book- 
sellers' shops* 

BATTOCKS, flat grounds, or " haughs," by a riverside. 

BATTY, a small cake. •• Thoo shall hev a spice batty on tha 

BAUGH [N.], tired out, exhausted. Compare Baff, Baff- 



BAUGHLIN, reproaching, taunting. The inhabitants of 
Tynedale and Redesdale were in former days given to 
baughlingf or reproaching, an adversary — daring him to fight. 

" Bavghling at the meetings of the Scotch and English wardens, as it 
frequently led to blows, was prohibited under the penalty of a month's 
imprisonment." — S. Oliver, Rambles in Northumberland^ 1835, p. 138 — nott. 

" Any band, or promise, or bauchling, that might be made.'* — Lawso 
the Marches. 

BAULK. See Baak. 

BAWBER, a salmon poacher. — Berwick. 

BAXTER, a baker. 

BAY, the imaginary enclosure or place of safety in outdoor 
games. ** Thoo canna catch me, noo aa's i' the bay" 

BAZE, to alarm, to puzzle. — Brockett. See Bumbazed, 

BEADSMAN, one who offers up prayers for the welfare o^ 
another.— jF/rt//iM/^//'s Diet, The Hospital of St. Mar3C 
Magdalene at Newcastle provides for ** three poor beadsmen^ * 
A petitioner : — 

*• Your poor orators and bedemen, the burgesses within the commonal^>^ 
of Gateshead."— R. Welford, Hist, of Newc, XVI. Cent,, 1526, p. 94. 

BEAGLE, a beadle. 

" It. p^- for the belmans Cote and the beagle's and the piper's cots* 
£1, 13s. lod." — Gateshead Church Books, 1633. 

•• Pd. to the belman for burieing the'old beagell, 4d." — The same, 1634. 

" Blind Willy slawly led the band, 
As beagle o' the way, man ; 
A staff he carried in his hand, 
An' shook his heed se grey, man." 

Thomas Marshall, d. 1869, Lnckefs Dream. 

BEAK, the nose, the face. 

" To the beak o* the second aw held up me fist." — Dob Cranky s Account 
of the Balloon, 18 15. 

•• We'll get penny loaves, an' drink tiv wor ^raA.'*— Old song, Collier i 

BEAK, to warm at the fire. 

BEAKIN-FULL, full to repletion.— Bror^^//. See Boukin. 

BEAKS, a punishment inflicted upon the loser in a game of 
marbles, by ** firing" a marble at the knuckles. 


BEAK-STICKS, BAKE-STICKS, a triangular frame of wood 
or iron, resembling a small easel, with a prop at the back, for 
holding girdle cakes in front of the fire to finish the baking, 
or sometimes to warm an old cake. 

BEAKY, having a prominent nose. 

BEAL, to roar, to bellow. — Brockett. 

BEAL, to suppurate, to gather. See Beeld. 

BEAM-BIRD, or BEE-BIRD, the spotted flycatcher— 
Musicapa grisola^ Linn. 

BEANGER, anything larger than ordinary of its kind. — 
Brockdi, See Banger. 

BEANS, small coals, so-called from their size. Duff is the 
smallest coal left after screening ; peas are next in size ; beans 
next grade higher ; then nuts, — roondy coal being the largest 
in size. 

BE- AR, the pronunciation of hear. 

BEAR, barley; the original English name, in later times 
retained only in the North — hence specially applied to the 
coarse variety {Hordeum hexastichon or tetrasiichon), — with six 
(or four) rows of grain in its ear, till lately chiefly cultivated 
in the North ; also distinguished as bear -barley and bigg. — 
Dr. Murray, New Eng. Diet. See Bigg. 

BEARDY-LOACH, the loach fish, Cobitis barbatula, Linn. 
Called also the ** Tommy Lodger." 

BEARING-DOOR, a main door in a pit which forces the air 
through an entire district. — Greenwell. 

BEAR-STONE, a husking trough for bear or barley ; called 
also "creein trou." 

BEAR-THE-BELL, to be pre-eminent. 

•' Still Piper Tony bears the bell," — Joco-Serious Discourse, 1686, p. 20. 

BEAS, BEESS, BEACE, BEES, beasts. ** Torn thor heess, 

BEASTIE, diminutive of beast. 


BEASTLINS, BEASTINS, the first milk of a newly-calycd 
cow. From this is sometimes made a ^^beastlinpuddin" which 
is considered a delicacy. Compare Heft, 2. 

BEAT, to feed a fire with fuel. See Beet. 

BEAT, /. Bett p.b. Betten, to excel, to surpass, to overcome m 
contest. '* Aall gie ye the start an* beat ye.*' ** Renforth M 
ivvorybody." "Aa wis fair betten and deun for." To go 
l>eyond our comprehension, to puzzle. ** It beats me what 
he's gan te de wid." 

'* Of a' the plagues a poor man meets, 
Alang life's weary way. 
There's nyen amang them a' that beats 
A rainy weshin' day.** 

T. Wilson, Tki IVMshim' Day, 1843* 

*' lloo aa got up aloft, it \s*ad b^at me to tell." — James Horsley, GiohS^ 




BEAT, to bruise the feet with excessive walking. ^^Ahet fool 

is a f^x>t bruised by walking. 

** Constant hard \h-orking horses are subject to huat or founder to tl 
foet or le^:j5S,**— rA/ cVw/^j/ CctUir, 1708. p. 34. . 

A ^^r-hanv). *' a hand which, from being \-esicated or blistered wi^' ' 
haivl wvvk. Kas frfstewd." — CufnurtU. 

lUCATlCK, a t^Ktl for beating down stemming on a charge 
|x>wvler for a blast in a coal pit : also a stone used for &rajrti 

l^KATMKNT, a mcjtsurv* holding a quarter-peck. It was^ 

Knmerly in general use in the district, especially in the 

sale ot xcgeiaMes and coals. The measure was commonl 

uude ot wovxt staves hv>>ped. with a division so placed tha 

At one end up a beatnieut cv>uld be meted and at the o 

halta K^atmeut. Another tk^r:n ot the word occurs 

^uiwci;. At Hexham the measure was double the sze of th 

Nofccastlc ihia:m^: ; hes^cx* the proverb — •' Hexham measure^ 

hea^W tuIU au iimiu» v^wei." 

" W!» siiU ^jijur Sfwt. 
C<MkU t* t>w^v«s>f JL -suTwi^:. Aa»i ayett ier le jet." 

l^FAl' MON r, the uanv o: a sea:t^ of coa!. See Encixc Seaii. 
I; obtabs these ujiuies tiotti the eaten^nsa 
:*a:re\i lWdiu:tv:^t. 

>«',Ni^f>; vfcit>Y "^rin »fxt> :^v ^»|ii h.1^ km ItJC*!* l^)<it in litasilie 


BEAUMONTAGUE, BOMONTAGU, a mixture of tar and 
china clay, beaten up hard and used in stemming acid 
condensers and stone acid tanks and cisterns in chemical 

BEB, to act as croupier m the gambling game of " pitch and 
toss." The bebber is one who gathers in the pennies ; generally 
the one who has lost and does this to earn something to start 
the "school" again, should his employer win. 

BECAM, became, ^.f. 

BECK, a small stream. This term, which is found in Danish and 
Norwegian settlements in England, occurs about sixty-three 
times in the county of Durham. Thirty-eight of these are 
within the Tees district. In Northumberland it is represented 
in the solitary case of the " River Wansbeck," and in this it 
is questionable whether the second syllable is btck. In a.d. 
1139 it is called Wentspk and Winispic; in time Henry III. 
Wanspic \ in Henry VI. it is Wanspike and Wanspyke ; in 
1568, Wanspck ; and in 1604 it occurs as Wampickt ; in Speed's 
map of 1610 it is Wanipek; and in 163a, Wayuspecke. 

BECK, to nod the head and cluck as a strutting cock does — 
"The muircock he becki in his wild mossy hame"; or a jerk 
of the head like the action of a horse with weak legs, 
"/( becks.'- 

" The muircock's btch cduM i but bear." 

Jas. Armstrong, Aid Crag, 1879. 

BECKER, a wooden dish— Northumberland.— liM\ws\.l. See 

BECK-NAILS, thin, flat nails, 2 to 5} inches 
nailing spouting for water wheels, &c. 

BECRIKE, by Christ! a profane exclamation 
heard as becrikey '. or crihy ! 

" Od's rriarcy 1 wey, marrow, 6/aiA(, ii'a Lord 'Size 
Lnrd 'Sill. — Allan's Coltrction, p. 158. 

BED. Such a one has " yetten her bed" is the universal term 
used in speaking of a woman's being confined. 

BED, the foundation of a wall or cribbing. — Gloss. ofNewc. Min. 
Terms, 1852. 

BEUDY, in soft layers, applied to stone. '^Beddy freestone" 
is thus distinguished from a compact, granular deposit. 

long, used for 

which is often 
!"— J. Shield. Mf 


^''^^^^^F^'^I-K. the inhjilurants of religious houses or alms- 
bousae^ whv^ o-ferec up pvnyeis for the repose of the founders. 

; • TNr >.>sfc:jt: c« c^r La:t called West Gate Spital, within the town 
vv Ne\\CA*^V. wji* i>cT;i<c. as:: is reported, by the inhabitants of the 
tv^M^i-! OS Nr^r.-jfcsc'j*/ ix :be rcx^ose. amoDf other objects, of keeping 
• M\ ,v^i V l< :* 5be i:n»hx»e tbere '— Richard Wdford, Hist. ofNm. 

h<'« ^ To :he Vjf'\-k t a: c«tiia times, 5s. lod.; for twenty chaldcr 
ot cvvaI* u^ t^s<^ Ai. V t :-5. *i '— 7i/ itwu'p. 202. 

lUHM- AS r, NNuiJoen, 

lU^llPriOON, l>\i §Ofrn, a shv.'^rt loose-fitting jacket, worn by 
wvMiu^u in the hAv-r.elvi cu: harvest-tield. 

in: PKITTKN. vter.Iev: w:th orJure.— Bwfc//. 

lUn^S» a ohilJitfn'^ §.\:r.c\ generally called ** hitchey-dabber/ 

lU^l'^STlCK, a stick x:sev! 10 straighten the bed-clothes in the 
Km-^j^. which usevl to be cc:vaion in the country. 

BKHSTOCK, the ••stvvk/* or strong side timber of a bedstead. 

•• An' :* :be t\vir.k>a of aa e e. 
Was tAir'y v^w^r the ^tijc^vi bangin*.** 

T W/.son. J\."Kj«*i Pjrv. 1827, pt. ii., v. 14. 

BEPSTOCKS, a lM>ys' game. In this game sides are formed, 
aiui the kuls on one si^ie give chase to those on the other. 
W'lien a capture is made the pursuer spits over the head of 
his prey, the captive is put into a marked-off place, and the 
capturcr places bis f^vt on a spot about two yards off. Here 
xhv captive shouts hisiily to his sivie. '* relieve a marrow!" 
As each is brought in, his capiurer takes the place of the 
hid on guard, and one can h.old several captives. But if one 
of the sitie tliat is l>eing chased can manage to run through 
lu'iween the guard and his captives, the whole of his side are 
** relieved," and they run off. The game becomes increasingly 
difficult to the side that is **out *' as further captures are made, 
because the capturers leave only one of their number on guard, 
and have thus a constant strength to pursue the diminishing 
numbers of the ••out'* side. This is the game known else- 
where as ** Prisoner's Base." 

BKK r.AA, to lull asleep. 

♦'The wind bee-baued, aw whish'd me s^jueels. 
An yence mair aw was murry." 

T. Thompson, d. 1816, Jemmy Joneson's IVkurry. 


BEE-BIKE, a wild bee's nest. 

BEE-BIRD, the spotted flycatcher, Butalis grisola, Linn. 

BEEL, or BEELD, to build. 


He btels his aan boat.'* — ^J. P. Robson, Harry Clasper, 1849. 

BEELD, to gather, to suppurate. When a swelling or 
gathering occurs, the part is said to heeld. A built or beeli 
hand is a swollen hand, and it is said to be hove — that is, 

BEELD, the shelter for cattle. "The beeld side" of a house 
or fence, is that opposite to the wind or storm. Beelds for 
sheep, &c., are common on the high moors in Northumberland. 
They are circular or cross walls of earth or stone. — Hodgson 
MS. Compare Stell, Sheep-stell, Sheal. 

BEELD Y, sheltered from cold. ** Aa*ve gettin a beeldy place.'* 

BEELEY, the christian name Isabella. 

BEER, BE-AR, the pronunciation of bear. 

BEERTH, birth. 


" It is never considered lucky to be the sole owner of bees. A man 
and a woman, not man and wife, should be partners. If either should 
die, some one should go at midnight, tap each hive three times, and 
desire the bees to work for their new master or mistress, as the case may 
be.*' — Rev. J. F. Bigge, Superstitions at Stamfordham. — Trans. 0/ Tyneside 
Naturalists' Field Club, 1860-62, vol. v., p. 91. 

BEES, the second and third persons singular of the present 
tense of the verb to be, sometimes heard in Northumberland. 
" What bees thoo deein ? * The sound is sometimes shortened 
to bis — " He bis ne use at aall." 

BEESEN, BEEZEN» hlind.—Brochett. 

BEE-SKEP, a beehive — made of straw. 


fiEET, the bit of a bridle. " Tyek the bcets^' said to a horse 
unwilling to admit the bits into his mouth. 


. .1 ::ic with fuel. This word if ziiisr igciicabic 

. . ' Ltath, fern, furze, and especially ic -le just :i :its 

< «! tui Iicaiing the girdles on whicb rizn»^ ixiss ire 

!hhi^>^';i MS. 

' . ; I !'rt:. The development of this zitt zuis szim. scse. 

:-..;i\ >r ^^hich is shown, not merelv bv li* ; i. ■'■r ••■;r :n::v 

-.1 iwv ill ihf oiher Teutonic laingnages icczbc; Tmci -au- tvi. 

■ ' '-f .Vm, etc.), is somewhat obsc=r^ ! ■ jii :ie st: zii aire 

Msi.r'.vos ;c appears to mean, tlqz zz m.*iu 4 zrr. ro: is ~ 

. : "ii :.''.. * 10 ■iJrtV, k:MM£. p%: c* a fr* r'smais ais s :;: » 

.. ^.! i'\ :V.f primitive conditions i*A'h^:!i rm:if : cltt* :r eail^ 

.v-, .M •.«h..'>phorus macchesi. acccriinc ^ v-nin rre fss 3cc 

,.vv'. ;-•. .V it was ret^uired. cc: via xsiail" irrirsKSita: -7 

«u:'*. ■»:: i.*\;>i:ag rre. oEie:: carT*j£ii isii «2:r ui'Ts cr 371 

..,■.■.».>.> \\.: ? A-hich *is KiTT-inaoiii v:t:: i-.^suicins- 

■\k .v\-. '^w' ^ .'i.i-e *-:en 1 in* *-*s rs: iiTTa:. * — Zr, 

'». v.-^ : recur,: nxsr.ri^ 

t : TUT lii "i :- 

\ « « « 

\ \ 

*^ « « B « " 

\ \ 

•fc^r*« S ^if 

•-.>. -.'^ 

. ■ d . 

:> -err ■-.- c« is^f^ :; IIB 

.:vi. .-^ - 


V *-• i ftff^ 


BEGUED, began. 

"But suddenly begued a feast. 
And after that Ikgued a £ray.*' 

Jos. Ramney, •* Ecky's Mare.** 

BelTs Rhymes, 1812. 

BEHINT, behind, but oftener A hint 

*' Wi* Sir Tommy before and the sailors behint.** 

Song. " When Sir Tommy made an Oddfellow:* 

Marshall's Collection, 1823, p. 12. 

BELAA, BELAW, below, or in the pit. 

" Wor skipper was tyekin his pipe doon belaw" — E. Corvan, d. 1865. 
Keel on Fire. 

'* When they're daen wi' roads belaw. 
May they find that to heaven.*' 

T. Wilson. Oiling of Dicky* s Wig, 1826. v. 67. 

BELCH, a rapid discharge of gas in a pit. — Brockett, 

BELDE, to build ; p.t. heldtei. 

*'God presarve Wmfroira Erengton helldete this brege of lyme and 
stone, 1581." — Inscription on Linnet's Bridge, Dilston, 

BELIKE, perhaps. ** Ye'll be gannin* hyem noo belike.^'* 

" Things that I know not of belike to thee are dear." 

Wordsworth, Pet Lamb. 

BELIKELY, likely. An emphatic use of the word, " Are ye 
gannin'?" ''Not belikefyr 

BELIVE, presently. "Aa'll be there fo/iw." The* is long. 
See Belyve. 

BELK, to belch. 

••To beaUte or breake wynde oute of the stomake." Elyot, word 
Emcto.—HalliwelVs Diet. 

BELLASES, bellows. 

BELL-DUCK, the coot. Holy Island. 

BELL-PIT, a pit sunk where the mine lies very near the 
surface. It is worked away in every direction round the 
bottom of the shaft like a bell. — Gtecnwell. 

BELL-POOT, the coot, Fulica atra, Linn. Also called Bell- 
duck and Bald-coot. 

BELLUM, a blast. '^Turning the corner, I met a great bcUum 
of wind.*' [Long Framlington.] 



BELLY, to bulge outward. 

BELL YB AND, a girth to secure a cart saddle. 

BELLYFLAPPER, a blow on the stomach given by falling 
flat on the water in diving. 

BELLY-FLAUTS, the fashion of mounting a bare-backed 
horse. " He gat on helly-flauts'* 

BELLYFULL, a common term for a repletion of anything. 
"Ye'll get a belly full on him afore he's deun taakin', noo." 

" Here an awd wife on a stuil, 

And there an awd man on a chair. 
Enjoy in' all a belly full 
Of laughin', at ma stories rare.*' 

T. Wilson, Pitman's Pay, 1829, pt. iii., v. 102. 

BELLY-RIM, the lower part of the abdomen, where the basin 
of the pelvis is surrounded at its "riw," with the sack 
containing the bowels. " He's brust his belly-rim.** 

" The rim of the belly is said to be broken when its muscles are 
lacerated or violently sprained. Rim means the circumference of any 
round thing." — Hodgson MS, 

BELLY-STEND, a stick used by butchers to keep open the 
belly when they are taking the inside out of an animal. 


*• Scott puts this word into the mouth of a distinguished euphuist.**"" 
HalliwelVs Diet. 

•• This was the kind o' belly-timmer, 
For myekin pitmen Strang and tuifif." 

T. Wilson, Pitman's Pay, pt. iii., v. 3. 

BELLY-WARK, the belly-ache, the cholic. 
BELT, built,/./. See Belde. 

BELYVE, speedily, soon, in a short time.— Hodgson MS. 

•* To make them all merry belyve/' 

Song, The Hare Skin. 

•• Aboot the bush, Willy, aboot the beehive 
Aboot the bush. Willy, I'll meet thee belyve.'* 

Song, Aboot the Bush, Willy. 

BEN, in, into. **Come ben the hoose.'* See But-an-ben. 

• When doors stand open dogs comeben/'—JocO'Serious Discourse, i68^- 


END-AWAY or BEND-UP, a signal in a pit, given to raise 
up, or set away. ^^ Bend-off f' — lift gently. 

" Bend, to strain, brace, tighten, wind up, bring into tension (like a 
strung bow or wound up harquebus)." — Dr. Murray, Bend, v. 3, N$w 
Eng. Diet. 

*' ' Bend-yp,* or * Bend-up a bit!* an order given by the person in charge 
to raise the cage slowly, so that it may be instantly stopped on the order 
• Hold ! ' being given." — Greenwell. 

JEND-LEATHER, the leather of a "bend," that is, the 
thickest and stoutest kind of leather (from the back and 
flanks), used for soles of boots and shoes ; sole leather. — 
Dr. Murray, New Eng, Did, Bendy-leather applied to ice in a 
half-thawed condition. In that state it is elastic and will bear 
a considerable weight without breaking-in. Children run or 
slide over it repeating the following doggerel couplet : — 

" Bendy -leather's good to beer, 
Tyek a heart an' nivver fear." 

FENNEL [N.], a long reedy grass {Artindo phragmitis, L.) 
growing in stagnant rivers or burns. "Green as a hennel,'' 
Bennels were layers of this reed woven together and stretched 
below the rafters of cottages to serve as a ceiling. 

E:NSE, a cow stall. 

2>JSEL, to bang or beat. — Ray's Gloss, 

^ ^T, a coarse kind of grass, usually growing on wet land, or 
>rx sand hills upon the sea shore ; hence "the Bents,'* a name for 
r«"assy sand dunes. Under the generic name of Bent we have 
^«^ji/-grass, Ayrostis vulgaris^ the Bent, Ammophila arundinacea, 
^lie Carex arenaria of the coast is called Sedi-hent. Juncus 
^Mdarrosus is called Kose-hent and Stool-^^;i/, and the large 
^^ugh patches formed by it are called Benty-\iTiois, The 
^^€)linia cctrulea is called Broad-i^«/ and ¥\y\ug-hent. Nardus 
^^icta is called Wire-ft^w/ and Black-i^«/. 

•• Lay the bent to the bonny broom." — Old song, 

** * The Bent ' is used for ' a place covered with grass, as opposed to 
9^ wood ; a bare field, a grassy plain, unenclosed pasture-land, a heath.'" — 
^^>r. Murray, New Eng. Diet. 

** Bomen bickarte uppone the bent 
With ther browd arars cleare." 

** Yet bydys the Yerle Doglas uppon the bent." 

Chevy Chase, 1500. 

'*Half the island — Lindisfame — is now under cultivation; the rest is 
Covered vhb sand — through which the long, thick, wiry bent shoots up 
Hunriantly."— Rev. Provost Consitt, Life 0/ St. Cuthbert, 1887, p. 50. 


BI?0, a not uncommon pronunciation of be or bee in 
Northumberland. "Aa'U hio there the mom." 

HERRY, to thresh by flail. "He's been berryin' aa the day.** 
Tlio e lias tlie old sound of a — and the word is spoken Bofry. 
Sec IUkrv, 

** Hence htnin, or thresher, and the benymgstead, the threshing 

KERRYBROWN. nut-bro^-n ale. 

** Had I but kenQ*d aw. when I was in the town. 
Tad ^«nt toother groat on the brisk hirry-lmnpm. 

Jc€ShS*rwu Disamm, 1686. p. 3- 

The' town here referred to is Newcastle, which was at erne 
time $0 famous for its nut>brown beer as to inspire the poet 
Cunnin(:ham to write verses in its praise. 

l^ERTHY, rich, fruitful : applied to Und- 

m KWIOK SArCE. the water in which a salmon has been 
Iviloi^ serv^ up with the fish as sauce. Sec Dover. 

l^V'^Y. a cKAracter takes by ooe in a company of swwd 
sVA:vxr«: a: v"hris;n^.Jis.. OV^e cf the =«n is ahsmdiy dressed 
v,:^ xr. x^v<i^e«*s clv^h^^ azKi carries rcoad the bat whilst the 

' \\ x^t VaU exit Vt^ rW s^ xi «g neec 
l\rttit i;\* A :<ssir -«c A awe" 

V^VS rV*\ n'^x^tcww x::t a $cr.;^\f . We 05 arc say Aat a im^ 

y.^ ftvcsV.-m *; ;St xSS." - ^j»ck k^ati Tcot^"" *Tia waste**' 

>yv ^s^fc^^^^ $5«*i\fc$:«c^ 

^^"^ *'v. tiivf >viim.*Hr :MiAiv«t *«. * 


K>- 1 <■♦ VVV 

^vv ^Kx x*iv%>*?v ^ii ^»Kr v^ts: u/i^" !rn$ ^ ^ -lafae at the 


3ETTERMER, superior, better. " Aa seed him last neet, an 
thowt he leuk'd iv a bettermer way." 

•* The shape an air o' yen 
O' raither bettermer condition.'* 

T. Wilson, Pitman's Pay, 1829, pt. iii., v. 4. 

BETTERMOST, superlative form of the above. ** Aa think 
ye've getten the bettermost yen." 

BETTERNESS, superior, eminent. 
•• A bettermss kind of body:'— Brockett. 

BETWATTLED, confounded, overpowered, stupefied, 
infatuated. — Brockctt. 

BEVEL, aslant, aslope, not straight ; as ** a ft*w/-eye," an eye 
with a cast or slanting look. 

BEYEN [S.] , BYEN [T.j , a bone. 

•• Aw toil maw hyens.** — T. Wilson, Pitman's Pay, 1826, ed. 1872, p. 10. 

BEYETH [S.] , BYETH [T.] , both. 

BEYST, BE-UST, a branding iron. See Byest. 

BEYST, to mark cattle or sheep. 

BEYUK [S.], BYUK [T.], a book. This is generally spelt 

BEYUL, BYUL, BOOL, a bowl, a smooth spherical stone 
used in bowling. 

BEYUN [S.] , BYUN [T.] , above, beyond. Abbreviated form 
of abeyun or aboon. " It's bynn ten 'ear sin he left." 

BEYUT, to boot ; anything given in addition to make up the 
value in a case of barter. For instance, in bartering horses, 
the man with the inferior one will say, ** Aa'll gie ye five pund 
te beyut.'' That is, he gets the horse he wishes to purchase 
by giving his own in exchange, and five pounds added {te beyut). 
The word is sounded as beyut in S. Northumberland, and as 
byut in Tyneside. In tenancy, the added right to take hay, 
firing, etc., from the waste. 

•• 1530, August 4, Warkworth Castle. — Letters patent of Henry, Earl 
of Northumberland, to Carmelite Friars at Hulne, giving manse there 
with 20 marks annually, with the fishery, *and housebote, haybote, fire- 
bote/ &c." — Proceedings of Newcastle Society 0/ Antiquaries, vol. iii., p. 184. 


IJKYIJT {be-yui) [S.], BYUT [T.], a boot. 

" Luik'd amang the buiis and shoes." 

Song, The Pitman's Ramble, 

ni» by. The i is pronounced very short, as in bit. Bi is used 
brforr n consonant, as, '^ Bi this and hi that." When a 
vowel follows, Biv is used, as, "It wis deun Inv a chepi 
( lyclside.*' Or occasionally the euphonious Bin occurs before 
w vowel, as in the sentence, " To be bet bin a bit tape-worm 
IV a chcp.'* 

lU HIS Sb:L, distracted, lunatic. "The man's fairly « A« 
.v/,** ** Tast his sel " is the commoner form. 

H1H1U%K» to tremble to shake. See Bivver. 

nU'KI\K. **a small Wixxlon dish, or vessel, made of staves and 
hvH>ps like a x\\\\—li<HhmH MS. A tumbler glass. This 
worvi stHMus tv> l>o the Northern name for beaker. Compare 

'* Owr friewvl Kn\rie is stiH able to bend a bLkir. Long may he live to 
t<vm A o\>5: , " .*'•.!' >.s* ;;,■ « . N ort h Tynedale. 

'' Sc\H\ h KMrm o; beaWer Forroerly. a drinking cup of any materi^ 
iw «Kx*.<cv. Scv^ch ai^pMivl aIso to x^esseis ciade of «\xxlen staves w 
h\*i\t\v^ \x^*:v^if. xlv " -Pr. MurrjLv. .V.r £«^. r-u-r. 

UIOKFK. lo ^ c\ohArs:c blows: to r.ght. 

^ Stx*, tfs^wvotVv xV jtrvr><^>^ jtrd sl:z*xr5 t*?5co? the battle was 
V; ^x^-tx xx'> ♦..* ■ 1;^: ^^^^f o^* t>^cr scvTTt tbesT Iitcs. vet by soch 

•„ '» -I I. \ x\Nt'.x^*5^Nv^ tvsv N^'ft.-1 — "- i'ti!!^ frsc r=: icfm, and 

vNsV' Vsf ^•c. .t,i...i o^vc jL^v. ' ;^ 

^^ .^vx N '> s» N xVxv 'V V -I : r .: ; :oT *^ -v^vrir ibf re is 
'^ ^^ * ^ ' ' ^ ' V >»^ V , , • % s. • *,j > ;jif rrr lid 

'• ^ \ • ^ y** 

I « 


BID, BliDE. to pray. Hence a baUs-man, one that prays for 
others; and those little globules with which they number 
their prayers are called bedes. — Ray. 

BIDDABLE, obedient. It is alike applied in describing an 
obedient child, or horse, or dog. " It's that biddable, leuk ye, 
ye can de owt wi'd." 

BIDDERS, the friends who went round to invite their neigh- 
bours to a funeral. The custom is now nearly disused. 

" The friends of the deceased, .is well »s Ihe neighbours, are generally 
invited 10 the funeral by biddtn dressed in black silk scarfs," — Mackenzie, 
Hisl- of Norlhvmb . 1815. vol. i,, p. 206. 

BIDDY, a louse. 

BIDDY, Bridget ; hence an Irishwoman, from the common 
Irish Christian name of Bridget. 

BIDE, to endure, to stand, to abide, lo wait. " Aa canna bide 
yon chep." "It'll not liidt handlin," "It'll bide wor time, 
onyway." "Bide a bit." In past tense, bid. "WetiWai 
hyeni.' Past part., bidden. " He's ftirfrf^H lang." Bidden is 
sometimes heard. "Ye should ha' btdden till aa cam." 

" Subsiantials that wad bidi some cultin."—T. Wilson, A'dNiiN'j Pay, 
i5j.j, pt. ill,, V, 108, 

BIELD, a shelter, that is, a place builded. See Bislld, 2. 

BIG, BYG, to build. See Biggi.n. 

BIG, important, swollen with pride, elated ; as big hug, a 
consequential person. In the Priche of Comeience occurs the 
passage : — 

BIGG, barley. See Bear. 

"More panicuUrly that variely which haa four rows of grain on each 
ear."~HodgiOH MS 

"The four-rowed barley, an inferior but hardier variety of the six- 
rawed or winter liarley {Hordeum htxastickon). of rapid growth, and auitf d 
10 inferior soils and more northern latitudes. [Batlty is generic ; btar 
includes the six-rowed and four-roA'cd kinds ; higg, the four-rowed ooly, 
Bui biar interchanges in local use, now with barliy, now with bigg)," — 
Dr. Murray, Ntw En/;. Diet. 

"Good Big-ma\t is lo be Sold, at zs Cd., per Bushell. by Robeit 
SorBbie, Newc, &c." — Advt. in NeacasSlt Coutanl. Aug. agth, 1713. 

" The word survives in the street name of Bigg Market, jd Newcastle, 
which ia anciently called 'the fltre i*tfAe(,"'~R, Weltord, Hia(. n/AVuf., 


lUOOEN, to recover after lying in. 

I \\:sh you a i^ovxl ^r^vii/ii^,*' that is, a good getting up again after 

:^\"i01N. a building. Sewbiggin is a common place-name in 
Nv'*r::'.u:ul>erlAnd. Biggin in a pit is a built-up pillar of stone, 
AC. :Vr supjx^rt to a roof. *' Biggin the gob" means building 
a V. c :r. A \\v"rked-oul place in a pit. 

: JL\ >.:r?. JL>.:=: ihe : j^ft-i* " — Surtees, Balhd of FeathtrstoMehaugh. 

: . xr , 1 roi* < ncs:. bee bvKE. 

;-'. M^'f K. JL "ir^e wcvviea mallet, with a long handle, used in 

. . . IT ■ - Am -^~« . . '_-« 

. ;» '.*>;:r: r :^f eir.t «d:iJD&s of Shakspeare. and in most earlj 
. . . i j.rci b;rii.?s? i;*:! used for boot heels. Compare 

•. V? 

Trwi rj^ntft- ih? car* 

.,-..-.': r^: i Tj,rr.inp^ r^rt -prz irtc coe r-s^ as :bey call i: "- 
"-.:.. rr \ r.?r.: :hf : .u"&y^ exini^es the colheiy 

V rjch a kecL is Dsocjed when 

if. =ate. "Ail, 

-. ;•?,■ \*::r i:a..",- «Xi£ C>«Clia2 AA^. &Bt W u^lfe 

■ a Barg*'" 

• •v-'fc r-- •-.".:. oar al ;: 

- O . ."h S*JC 


BILL-KNIFE, a cleaver. An indispensable instrument in a 
farm-house. It has probably retained its name from being 
similar in shape to the ancient bill-knife, 

BIN, by. Bi, biv, bin, are used interchangeably in the dialect, 
as euphony suggests. See Bi. 

BIN, used for are in tlie sentence "Hoo bin ye the day?"' 
and in an imperative sense in "Shyem bin ye," that is, shame 
be to you. It is used also in anger, as "Ah, i»i ye ! " a mild 
form of curse, like "Sink ye!" or "Sink yor impittence!" but 
in this we have probably an obscure abbreviation. 

BIN, BIND (pronounced with short »', as in wind), to bind, to 
apprentice; to engage by agreement; past, hitnd. "He wis 
nowther to had nor to bin," you could neither hold nor bind 

IBINDIN. the pitman's hiring or engagement. Previous to 1884, 
the biniiin was for a year, but after that time the engagement 
was on the basis of monthly notice of the termination of the 
agreement. Keelmen also made an annual bindin with the 
coal fitters. 

BINDIN-MONEY, earnest money given to a collier on being 
bound, formerly a considerable bonus, but now reduced to 
as. 6d. or 3s. — Btockett, 3rd ed., 1846. 

BING, a heap of grain, a wooden receptacle, a bin. "The com 
bing," "The hay bittg," &c. 

BING, a measure of lead ore — 8 cwts. 

" To Mr. Fenwick, of Morpeih, for every 7[h bing in Salt ling— stones 
groove. £106 19s. 11 jd."— Hodgson's iVoMAuMtiei-iuiii/, iii., 2, p. 363. 

BING-HOLE, a hole through which lead ore is thrown. 

BING-STEED, the place where lead ore is laid ready for 

BINK, BENK, a shelf, particularly a long flat slab of stone 
fixed to a wall, used either as a seat or as a shelf.— Dr. Murray, 
[Bink,^), New Eng. Diet. On shipboard, a /^un'.- is the equivalent 
of the word. 

"According to Kennett. ihe biak al a coal pit is 'Ibe subletraneous 
vault in 3 mine.' "—Halliuilfs Diet. 

BINOO, by this time. " Aa thowt he'd been here binoo." Not 

to be confounded withj'Minj^enough. 


BIRD'S-EYES, the germander speedwell, Veronica chamaedrys^ 
Bird's-eye is also one of the names of the Geranium Robertianuwmr 
the Herb Robert, or ** Fox," or ** Wild-geranium," as it m 
sometimes called. 

BIRK, BRICK, the birch tree ; BIRKEN, birch. Birk-huz^jo 
is a birch besom. 

"They made a bier of the birken boughs." — R. Surtees, Bartkra 

" The birk tree grows aboon his grave.*' — The same, 

•• They hunted high, they hunted low, 
By heathery hill and birken shaw." 

The Death of Parcy Reed. 

BIRKIE, a brisk, active, energetic person: not a term of 


BIRL, BIR-REL, to make a noise, like the rapid turning of 
wheel. Probably from the sound. — Brockett, Hurl has t 
same meaning, and the two words probably give t 
representative sound of hurly-burly, or in Northumberla 


BIRR, to emit a whirring noise; to move rapidly with such ^ 

noise. — Dr. Murray, New Eng. Diet. 

BIRSE, a bristle or strong hair twisted on to the wax threa-^*" 
used in sewing leather. A three-cornered chisel for squarin^^S 
out mortice holes. **To set up their btrses'* is to assume ^ 

hostile attitude. 

BIRSEL, to crackle in cooking. See Brizzle. ** Well birselled,' 
well dried by the sun or scorched by fire. 

BISHEL, a bushel. 

BISHOP, to burn food in cooking by allowing it to adhere t 
the pan. 

*' When a dumpling, hasty -pudding, potatoes, &c., have sitten on to the? 
bottom of the pan in which they are boiled, they are said to be bishopped, 
a punning translation of the word confirmatus. A person who is now said 
to be confirmed, in the ecclesiastical meaning of the word, was in former 
times said to be bishopped : in Latin, confirmatus, which is also expressive 
of a dumpling's adhermg to the bottom of a pan."(!) — S. Oliver, Rambles 
in Northumberland. 1835, p. 131 — note. 

" Bishop, sth, To let milk, &c., burn while cooking. In allusion to the 
proverb, 'The bishop has put his foot into it.' [" 1536, 'Tindale Works,* 
16C (T). If the porage be burned to, or the meate over rosted, we say 
the bishop hath put his foote in the potte, or the bishop hath played the 
cooke, because the bishops burn who they lust and whosoever displeaseth 
them."]"— Dr. Murray, New Eng. Diet. 


BISHOP. In making glue it is poured into trays to cool, then 
laid on a table, where it is cut with an inslniment, not unlike 
a bow, having a brass wire as its string, into three pieces. 
When the women by mistake cut only two. that which is 
double the size is called a bishop, and doomed to be melted 
over again. — Impartial fJist. of N ewe, 1801. 


BIT. 1. Small; lovingly used for diminutive or homely things. 
" An innocent bit lass." " Aa did what ('(( thing aa could for 
him." " Aa waddent he' minded, but, ye see, aa had me bit 
better things on." 

'■She dooti Ibe bih o' bairns aboot."— T. Wilson. Tki Wtshin Day. 

" Aa gat the bits o' bairns to bed." — T, Wilson, Market Day, 1854. 
'■ She leils me all her liiis o' news"— Pitman' 1 Pay. 1826, p. 14. 

Short. "A bit twine." 

" Yea neet he gat a bil waak tiv bissel."— Gfonfy'i Latt, 1S78, p. 9, 
"Set ihinehand to this bit writing," — Jiico-Scriims Diicoiitii,'Heviia.'il\e 
^666. p. 62. 

A short time. 
•■ Ses aa, had on a bit:'— His Olhrr Eye. 1B80, p. x. 

BIT AN" BRAT, food and clothing. 

'• Maw canny bairns luik pale and wan, 
Their hits and Irah are varty scant." 

T. Wilson. PUman's Pay, iSlC, ed. 1872, p, 11. 

BITCH, to spoil a piece of work. Ye've bitckid the hye! job." 
Or, as a substantive, " Ye've myed a bitch on't." 

BITCH, BECHE. an instrument made of iron, and having 
some resemblance to the extinguisher of a candle, used for 
extracting bore-rods when they break. 

BITCH-AND-PUPS. a mason's hammer used for "scabbling" 
stones, having one chisel inserted at each end of its face. 

BITCH-NAIL, a holding-down nail for tram-plates, &c., 
having the point faced in the same line as the head, as 
distinguished from a dog-nail, or dog. which has a chisel 
point faced at right angles to the hook-shaped head. 

BITTERSWEET, the woody nightshade, Solanum dulcamara; 
called also Ptizzcn Barry. 


BITTLE, to maul, to beetle. " Aa feel as if aa'd been hittl^ 
aa ower." Said on feeling stiflf and sore all over, as if tl^e 
sensation were that of having been beaten with a stic^^- 
Singles, or handfuls of corn gathered by gleaners, are carri^<l 
home and afterwards bittUd. See Battle. 

BITTLE, a beetle, or wooden beater for beating flax or lic*^^ 
clothes. " As blind as a bittle" a very common expression* 
See Beetle. 

BITTOCK, a little bit. 

" This end was jast twa inches o're, 
And that was sax and bittock more." 

G. Stuart, Joco-Serious Discourse, Newcastle, 1686, p. 

BIV, by. It is used before a vowel only, or before a sil< 
aspirate, as ** Bet hiv a mile." ** He ken'd him hiv his(Wv ^^"^ 
hat.'* ** He steud hi the horse and held him H the heed, aL^^^ 
he saa his fyece hiv a lamp.'* See Bi and Bin. 

BIVVER, to tremble, to vibrate, to quake with fear. •* It*s ^^ 
iv a bivver" Dother has the same meaning. **He wis aal ^^ 
a dother:' " Gannin dothetin aboot.** " A dotherin feyul.** S^^ 

•• BivE, verb, obsolete — to shake, tremble." — Dr. Murray, NewEng. 17*^*" 

BIZEN, bison, BYSEN, a show, a spectacle of disgrace- 
** A holy bizen, A very conspicuous thing, or an overdress^^ 
person. ** She's that dressed, she's a fair bizen:' 

•• And was I not a very wise one 
To gang and make my-sel' a by-zon ?*' 

G. Stuart, Joco-Serious Discourse, Newcastle, i686- 

The writer appends a note, ' • Query ? By song — a thing to be wondered at. ' 

A common menace they (the Sandgate women) use to each other is:— 
" ni makeaAo/y byson of you." — Brand, Pop. Antiquities, 1777, p. 185, iw/^ 

•* The reck'ning, my soul ! was a bizon I " — T. Thompson, d. 1816, Canny 


•• • But that's not a, for Mr. Smith 
Teird me the candles a' were risin ! ' 

• Dear me,' ses aw, • Sir, what's that with ? 
It's by ma truly quite a byson.* 

• It is the plaguey war, I fear.* 

• Bliss me," ses aw, * that's varry queer, 
De they fight now wi' candle-leet ?' " 

T. Wilson, Pitman's Pay^ 1829, pt. iii., v. 31. 

"A bison sight, on Monday night, 
The worst that ere you saw." 

*'Totvn Clerk's Safety Valve.'* 

Bards the Tyne, 1849, p. 503. 

rr "•T'tr^Sw 

^IZZj to hazz : to fcss abnxn. zr co -vie: a c isc^i ^ez^ XKsse. 
**Gaimm Uzzm abocc* - Wbac's ibs Sst::^ Hzrsm jibocc liiere 


B IZZER^ a tfjrrjjlay poece of iDetaJ ficci tvo to t^iree iiKbes 
diameter, Tiorchrifl rocmd ibe edcc viih two bcdes aear die 
centre. A dool]fe ccxid is passed throqgh tbezn, aad the 
alternate tvisdnf: aad nnrsisdsg viaea palled causes a 
buzzing noise. Tlik icnr is jsaaHj made of a pkce of 

^LAA, Iveatfa. *^Get tot ih-MMS" to take vonr rest ior an interval 
during hard 

B L AA, to blow. " It's esseof to \^aa ve off vot feet." ** He Ksma 
the leet oot.** " The wind's Mam'i off."* 

SLAA-MAA-LUG, a fleechin, noisy fellow. 
BLAAX-MEAT, meat in which a "blow-fly" has deposited its 

SLAAN-MILK, skimmed milk, that is, milk from which the 
cream has been taken, or blown off. 

liLAA-OOT, a drinking bout. A man drank two quarts of 
beer at a public-house, and, on retiring, observed to the 
landlord, "Thafs good beer, mistor; when aa come back, 
aa'll hev a reg'lar hiaa-oot" 

" The opshoC was a gandy-day, 
A grand bUs^oot wi' Grundy's yell." 

Thomas Wilson, Pitman s Pay, iS29» pi. iii., v. 96, 

BLAB, to talk loosely, to blaze abroad. 

" Hoot, hinny. hand th' blabbing jaw.'* 

Pitimans Pay, 1826. pt, i., v. 70. 

BLABBER, same as Blab ; not to be confounded with 
" blubber," but often used as Blether, which see. ** HeMl 
blabber an taak aall neet, if ye*ll oney lissen tiv him.*' 

BLABBER, to cry, to blubber. 

BLACK ; in mining, any dark coloured stratum — not 
necessarily black, as ^^ Block Bandstone.*' 

BLACK- A-VIS*D, dark in complexion, black visaged.— • 


BLACK-BERRIES, brambleberries— the fruit of the Rubm^ 
fructicosus. See Bu mm el- kite. 

BLACK BUNTING, the reed bunting, Cinchramus schcmiclm^^ 

BLACK-CAPS, the field woodrush, Luzula campestris; calK 
also Peescwecp Grass and Cuckoo Grass. 

BLACK COCK, the black grouse. See Brown Hen 
Black Game. 

BLACK COLE HEAD, the cole titmouse, Parusater; call 
also Cole Head and Cole Tit. 

BLACK-DAMP, stythe, carbonic acid gas. 

** The bonny black-diamonds gaun down i' the keels, 
To warm a* the starved bodies i* Lunnen." 

T. Wilson, Stanzas on a Line of Intended Road, 1825. 

BLACK DIVER, BLACK DUCK, the scoter, Oidemia nigra. 

BLACKEY, a blackamoor. 

" An' to show them we deal wi* Newcassel, 
Twee Blacheys sal mense the dor cheek." 

W. Midford's Collection, Pitman's Courtship, 1818. 

BLACKEY, the blackbird, Turdus merula. 
BLACK-FASTING, rigid, severe {sLSting.—Brockeit. 
BLACK-GOB, a term of contempt. 

In the books of the Bricklayers' Company of Newcastle, an entry of 
July 29, 1812, reads: — "Thomas Hewson complains against Joseph 
Galloway for calling him Black Gob" 

The reference may be to one wearing a moustache. Beards 
and moustaches were, before the year 1851, looked upon with 
great contempt. 

BLACK GOOSE, the brent goose, Bernicla brenta ; called 
also Ware Goose. 

BLACK-HEADED LADDIES, the bulrush, Typiia latifolia. 

BLACK-JACK, the colesay ; often called Rock Salmon by 


-JACK, blende, or sulphuret of zinc. 

-MAIL, a tribute formerly exacted from farmers and 
owners in the Border Counties of England and 

iid, and along the Highland border, by freebooting 
in return for protection or immunity from plunder. 
fnail, rent, tribute.] — Dr. Murray, New Eng. Did. 

mail, it is said, was levied in Rothbury and Redesdale, 

rthumberland, as late as 1720. Compare Saufey- 

•MARTIN, the swift, Cypselus apus ; called also the 

MONDAY, the first day of going to school after the 
m ; so denominated, no doubt, from the Black Monday 
id in our history ; for which see Stowe. The day 
ng is called Bloody Tuesday. — Brockett. 

•NEB, the carrion crow, Corvus corone, Linn. 

•POW-HEED, the blackcap, Sylvia atricapilla. 

SMITH. Blacksmiths will not light their fires on 
Friday. If necessity compels them to do anything in 
Dp, they will not bring fire in, but will make it by 
I a piece of iron until it becomes red hot. — Rev. J. 
:ge. Superstitions of Stamfordliam, — Transactions Tyneside 
'ists' Field Club, 1860-62, vol. v., p. 92. 

SMITH-OF-KIND is a blacksmith the seventh in 
t of a family of smiths. The Rev. John Hodgson 
es a curious superstition : — 

a child be ill, seven men, ^'hose fathers, grandfathers, and great- 
ithers have been blacksmiths, collect in a circle, at the centre of 
the indisposed child is laid upon an anvil, and the circle wave 
ammers over its head, and utter with great force the stroke-groan 
If the child be terrified, the symptom is favourable ; if it be 
ess of their menaces, life is supposed to be in its socket. To 
the charm each smith has 6d., ale, and bread and cheese." — 
It MS. 

larm has been worked with one smith only, who is a 
th-of-kind. See Heart-grown. 

ERY, having air bubbles enclosed. Slag from a 
, full of little air cells, is said to be bladdery. 


BLADE, a keen, shaq>, or soiart nzas. ^He's a 
hlatUr " A boany e^icir ye are.'' 

" What stroOisc ^Scms sweee ^»*^«^ 
A ziaa-o'-«ar's ifaidir I rhanrwf eo 

" That :fa&£r far oit siller, be's £uc ca the heft.* 


BLAEy of a dark colour between black and blue ; blacBf^^ 
blue; ofthe colour of the ^^-'^tfrn'. Applied to the cample^c=s>^>D 
or colour of the human body, as affected by cold or cootnsS^ 
livid. Hence black ami hLuj now altered to iUikk mai bit 
Dr. Murra}', Sew Ens. Diet, See Blee. 

BLAE-BERRY, the bilberry or whortleberry, Vacdi 
myrtUlus. See Blea- berry. 

BLAEWING, BLEEWIXG, a fa\xxirite artificial fly, 
by anglers on North-country streams. 

BLAGAIRD, to blackg^uard ; a blackguard. 

BLAKE, yellow, of a golden colour ; spoken of butter, 

&c. Hence the yellow bunting — emheriza citrimeUa — ^is, in 

places, called a blakelimg. A wound is said to be hlakew^^ *^ 
when it puts on an appearance of healing. — Brockeii. 

BLAKE, cold, exposed, bleak. 

" BUkeUwr^Sortkmmberlamd.-'Broekitt. 

BLARE, to cry, to lament ; to shout loudly. 

*' A blairin coo seon forgets hor calf.*" — Proverb. 

'* At what he said aw coald hae bUired.^—T. Wflson, The PUwmm's 
1829, pt. iii.. V. 43. 

" Frae the Point round the Girt, a' the time sailing slow. 
Each bollie kept bawlin. ' The Empty Kite, ho ! * 
Bot their blairin was vain, for ne Empty Kite thefe. 
Though they Uair'i till their kites were byeth empty and sair.** 

Robert GUchrist. Skipfefs Eruditwm, 18 

BLARE, a weeping cry, a loud shout. 

•• It answered wiv a groanin blair.'* — ^J. P. Robson, d. 1870, Hamle^^ 
Prince o' Denton. 

BLARE, a paste made of tar mixed with hair, used to^ 
caulking the seams of keels and boats. 

BLARIN, roaring loud, applied to peevish children and vulgar 
drunken noise. — Hodgson MS. 



^ASH, to scatter water or puddle. " He was hlashed fre heed 
:o toe." 

^ASH, a downpour of rain. 

^ASHCANTER, BLASHMENT, any weak and diluting 
i quor . — Brockett. 

-ASHY, watery, clarty ; hence thin, poor stuflf. 

" Their streets are like wors — brave and blashy ! " — T. Thompson, Canny 
Newcastle. — MarshaWs Collection, 1823. 

'• To get blawn out wi' bkuky tea."— T. Wilson, The Pitman's Pay, 1829, 
pt. iii., V. 107. 

" Poor blashy yell."— T. Wilson, Stanzas on New Line of Road. 

-^AST, an explosion in a pit. 

" There were about 30 persons, young and old, slain by a blast" — J. C, 
Comfkat Collier, 1708, p. 45. 

" The fiery blast cuts short wor lives, 

And steeps wor hyems in deep distress ; 
Myeks widows o' wor canny wives, 
And a' wor bairns leave faitherless." 

T. Wilson, The Pitman's Pay, p. 32. 

—AST, is applied to smoking. 

" They trudged along, got home at last, 
And found old Goody at her blast." 

Edward Chicken, d. 1746, The Collier's Wedding. 

" A cup, and blast o' baccy, suin 
Blaws a' bad temper by.** 

T. Wilson, The Washing Day, 1843. 

—ATE, backward, shy. " He's nyen blate^ noo." 

'* I'm but young and blate, I trow. 
And kenna what to say or do.'* 

The Mode of Wooin\ 

'* Deeth o' late, he*s no been blate. 

But sent some jovial souls a-joggin*." 

W. Oliver, d. 1848, Newcastle Props. 

wATENESS, backwardness, shyness. 

" It wasent, mind, because aw*d rued. 
But blateness at a knotty case." 

T. Wilson, The Pitman's Pay, 1829, pt. iii., v. 16. 

LATHER, to talk loosely. See Blabber. 

Latter, to clatter, to make a noise as with the feet. — 



BLAVER, BLAWORT, the corn bluebottle, Centaurea cyant^^ 
L. ; formerly known as Bluehlaw (Turner). It is an occasioxx3.1 
weed in cultivated fields, but was formerly abundant. 

BLEA-BERRY, BLEE-BERRY, blue berry. It is oth^firi«« 

known as the Bilberry or Black Whortle-berry, See 


The frait of Vaccinium myrtUlus, " everywhere common in denes and 
befttfas, ascending to all the peaks, 850 yards on Cheviot." — Flor^ ^f 
Northumberland and Durham. — Natural History Transactions, vol. ii. 

BLEACH, a black shale of the nature of carbon, found ^^ 
contact with or near a coal seam. Bleach is probably bl^^^^ 

BLEACH, the act of rain falling in a strong wind. Q. * * ?^ 
your roof tight ?** A. " It's aall tight, except when the r^*° 
bleaches,'* That is, when the wind is driven violently aslan:* ^» 
so finding its way between the lapped edges of the til^^' 
*' Aa wis oot iv aal the wet, and what a bleachin aa gat !" 

BLEACHIN, wandering. ** He's aye gan bleachin aboot." 

BLEB, a bubble, a blister. See Blob. 

BLECK, pitch or tar upon ropes. 

BLEDDER, a bladder ; but see Blether, which is the comvao^ 

BLEE, BLAE, livid, blue, or purple, the colour of a sloe, f^ 
is applied in the sense as when a man is said to *' look blue,' 
or to an ashen blue colour. See Blae and Blea-berry. 

*' A miller chep aw chanced to see, 
Fre oot amang the crood se blae. 
Wis running up a yard se slee." 

" Theatre in an Uproar." 

Bards of the Tyne, 1849, p. 184. 

BLEED, to yield; applied to com, which is said to ^^bleei 
well,'' when on thrashing it happens to be very productive.— 
Brockett, quoting from Ray's Gloss. 

" Coal is said to bleed when water oozes in drops from its pores. '*^ 

BLEEZE, to blaze. ** The hoose is bleezin." ** The paanshop 


BLEEZER, a hood to blow up a fire. " Put the bleezer up, 
and let's hev a lowe." 


beans mixed. 

BLENKARD, a fighting cock that has lost one eye. The 
word is also applied to a one-eyed person. 

** To be fought at Messrs. Stata and Stephenson's pit, High Bridge, 
Newcastle, by cocks, on Monday, April 7th, 1817, &c. Stags to be 
allowed i oz., Blenkards 20Z., and the usual allowance for feathers.'* — 
Advt. in Newcastle Courant of the date. 

BLETHER, to talk loosely, to blab, to boast. 

" Daft John Bull, that bletherin* cull." 

J. P. Robson, •' Lizzie Liberty,** 

Bards of the Tynet 1849. 

BLETHER, loose, blabbing talk. 

" Jaw'd a heap o' blether:' 

J. P. Robson, d. 1870, Hamlick, pt. ii. 

BLETHER, a bladder, a purse, the bagpipe. 

" Rattlin* like empty blethers." 

T. Wilson, Oiling 0/ Dicky's Wig, 1826. 

" Lay by some cotterils i* the blether.*' 

T. Wilson, The Pitman's Pay, 1829, pt. iii., v. 59. 

" When this master of minstrelsy oxtered his blether." 

Northern Minstrels' Budget. 

BLETHER-BREEKS, a boasting, bragging fellow talking, 
not doing. 


•• From Blether and Skate^ in Scotch used contemptuously." — Dr. Murray, 
New Eng. Diet. 

BLIG, a blackguard. ** He's a reglor hlig.'* 

BLIN, blind. " B/m Willy." 

" Aw ve oft been sae blin' as te nut knaw me mother." 

T. W.lson, Stanzas on New Line of Road, 1824. 

BLIN, to darken, as thorns put into the gap of a hedge. 

BLIN, to stop, or cause to stop, to cease, to desist. — Brockett. 

BLINDERS, blinkers on a horse. 

BLIND-WORM, or slow- worm, the Anguis fragilis. See Hag- 


BLINK, BLENK, to glance with pleasure. 

" O, the transports of gladness that over me reign 
To blink upon canny Newcastle again." 

T. Oliver. '• Canny Newcastle Again,** 

Bards of ike Tyne, i&4> 

*• Madam, indeed, it's your good nature — 
That blenks sae blythly on your creature.' * 

JocO'Serious Discourset Newcastle, 1686, p. 

BLINK, a glance, a gleam of light. 

BLINKER, the eye. 

" Iv a' the greet wonders that dazzles wor hlinhers. 
The tallygrip's sartin the king o' them a*." 

J. P. Robson, d. 1870, **The Wonderful Tallygrip.^ 

BLIRT. ''In the hlitt,'' exposed to the fury of the elemeri^s. 
It is to be remarked that cattle and sheep always fly befc>^® 
the storm into the hlirt ; horses never. 

BLISS, to bless. 

" The bonny oil lamps, too, wi* which we were hlistt 
That twinkled so gaily, like stars in a mist." 

R. Gilchrist, 1835, ** Sont; of Improvement." 

Bards of the Tym, p. 418. 

** And how the ground he kist 
Wherein it written was, and how himself he blisty 

Spenser, iv., vii., 46, Nare*s Gloss. 

BLISS ME! an exclamation. ''Bliss mc! bairn, where he* y^ 
been aall day ?*' 

BLOACHER, any large animal. See Blutcher. 

BLOB, BLEIB, BLIBE, a bubble, a blister. Air blobs are 
the floating bubbles on the water, or soap bubbles. "His 
feet was aal blibes before he gat hyem." See Bleb. 

•• Like honey blobs me heart '11 brust." 

J. P. Robson, CalUrfomey, 1849. 

BLOBBERS, bubbles, soap bubbles. " He's blaain blobbers" 
** They're blawin blobbcrs wi' pipe-stopples." 

BLONK, to disappoint. 

*' Aw £and mawsel blimk^d when te Lunnin aw gat.*' 

T. Thompson, d. 1S16, Canny NewxastU. 

BLOOD-ROOT, the tormentil, Potentilla tormentilla ; called also 
FUsh-and 'bloody Ewe-daisy^ and Shtphcrd's-knot. 


BLORT, to Splutter out, to speak in an abrupt manner. "A 
blorlin Canute," a sputtering candle. 

BLOUSY. BLOWZY, disordered, frousy. Blowse, a fat, red- 
faced, bloated wench, or one whose head is dressed like a 
slattern. — Bailey's Did., 1731. 

BLOW DOWN, to bring down coal or stone with gunpowder. 

BLOWER, an excessive discharge of gas (in a pit), generally 
from a fissure. 

It is defined in Ihe Glcss. oj Coal Trade Ttrms. 1848, as " a fissure in the 
roof, floor, or aide of a mine, from which a feeder of inflammable air 
discharges."— Buddie, Fiat Riport, Society for Frtvcaling Auiicats in Coal 

BLOWEY, an iron bloomer ; probably the owner of a bloomery, 
not a forge. (Obs.) 

- To Bloweys, of Newcastle, for a ton of Spanish iron, {; 5s. 8d.,*' 
under date 1516.— Richard Welford. Wisl. o/Nciw, XVI. Cml., p.^g. 

BLOWN-OUT-SHOT ; in blasting, a charge that only blows 
out the stemming, and is otherwise ineffective. See Fast 
Shot or Standin Bobby, 

BLUE-BILLY, iron residue left as a waste product in copper 

BLUE-BLAWS. See Blaver. 

BLUE-BOTTLE, the blue titmouse, Pams cariihits; called 
also Blut-cap. 

BLUE METAL, indurated argillaceous shale, of a bluish 
purple colour, resembling that of blue slates. 

BLUE-NEB, the name at Belford, Eeal, and Fenham Flats 
district for the widgeon, Marcca Penelope, L. ; called also the 

BLUE STONE, a long stone of granite placed on the eastern 
footpath of the Old Tyne Bridge, to mark the division 
between the Durham and Northumberland portions of the 
structure. Durham claimed only one-third of the bridge. 
In a deposition of 25lh March, 1412, the franchise and 
temporal jurisdiction of St. Cuthbert, of Durham, and of the 
bishop, extends him, it is said, "out of the town of Gateshead 
towards the town of Newcastle, in the highway that lies over 
the bridge to a place that is called Jargonhole." (R. Welford. 
Hist. ofbSen'C. XV. Ctiit. p. 2+7.) The "mete" or "bounder" 


Stones at this point are elsewhere called Cuthbert Stones. (Th^ 

same, p. 258.) In the structure which preceded the present 

Swing Bridge, the Cuthbert Stones were represented by the 

single stone which extended across the entire width of the 
eastern footway. On the demolition of the bridge this ston 
was preserved by the care of Richard Cail, Esq., and no 
reposes in the Old Castle at Newcastle. The blue stone i^ .As 
mentioned in Tune, 1598, when the Scotti^ pledges wer^— are 
delivered by the Northumberland authorities to those of th^ .^ne 
county of Durham **at the Blue Stone upon Tyne bridge:^^ :e. 
(R. Welford, Hist, of Newc^ vol. iij., p. 127.) 

BLUEY, one of many names for the hedge sparrow, which ii is 
variously called Hedgy, Fieldy^ Spowey, Smokey, Smoity^ an» ^cmd 
Bluey — the latter from the colour of its eggs. Bluey is als-^=sso 
one of the names of the blue titmouse. See Blue-bottle. 

BLUM, bloom. " The whins are in blunt." 

BLURY [N.], cold, sharp; applied to the weather on a duU -^i 
windy day. 

BLUSH, a blister. " AaVe a blush on me foot wi* waakin. '^^' 
To blister. ** He blushed his hand wi pullin the boat." 

BLUSH, an appearance. **Aa didn't ken him at the fors ^ 

" In all countries we say he or she hath a 6/1*5/1 of, that is, resemble^ 
such another." — Ray's Gloss. 

BLUTCHER, BLOACHER, a heavy, unwieldy instrument, 
or thing. It is also applied to describe a huge animal. 

BLYTH, glad. 

•• How blyth were we." — Joco-Snious Discourses, 1686, p. 8. 

BLYTH NESS, gladness. 

*' Sorrow to blythness was instantly turned." — Joco-Sericus Discourses, 
1686, p. 8. 

Blyth and blythness ar^ interpreted in the margin of these 
Newcastle discourses as words otherwise unintelligible to the 
Southern Englishman. 

BO, a name terrific to children, and a test of manhood when 
addressed to a goose. — S. Oliver , Rambles in Northumberland, 
1835, p. 98. Bo-man, an apparition, a ghost. See Bad-man. 

BO [W.-T.], ball. 


BOAK, W.-T. form of halk. See Baak. 

BOARD. See Bord. 

BOB, a crank attached to a pumping rod, and called a T bob, 
or a V bob, or an L bob, according to its form. 

BOB, chorus. 

" All you navigation well wishers, 
Tars, sailors, marines, come along, 
You ferrymen, boatmen and fishers, 
Come help to bear hob in my song." 

Genuine Tom IVhittell, 1815. 

BOB, a bunch, or cluster, as a *^ Bob o' ribbons." 

" They saw also thare vynes growe with wondere grete bobbis of 
grapes.** — M. S. Lincoln, A. i, 17/., 42. — HalliwelVs Diet. 

And ]\gg\ng-bohs are laid aside, 
Their I^ce, their Ribbons, and their Pride." 

G. Stuart, Joco-Serious Discourses, 1686, p. 45. 

•' I pu'd her a posie o* go wans, 

An' laid them in bobs at her feet." 

Song by Robert Beiget, Richardson's Table Book. 
Legendary Div., vol. i., p. 317. 

BOBBEROUS, BOBBERSOME, hearty, elated, in high 
spirits. — Brockett. 

BOBBERY, BUBBERY, a noisy disturbance. " What s aa 
this bobbery aboot ? " 

BOBBY, the ** pink of perfection." 

•• An' Willy thou, wi* the jacket blue, 
Thou Vr-as the varra Bobby, O 1 " 

J. Selkirk, d. 1843, Swalwell Hofpin, 

BOB-NET, called also " ring-net," a long salmon net without 
any bosom (which the other nets have). It is fixed by a 
stone or anchor at the one extremity in the river to a post or 
ring on the shore. Compare Stell-net and Wear Shot-net. 

BOBS, casters, or trimmers of coal on ship board. 

" May he live to cheer the bob» 
That skew the coals to shivers, 
Whe like their drink to grip their gobs, 
An' burn their varry livers." 

Song, *' Blind Willie Singing.'* 

Bards oj the Tyne, p. 304. 


BOB*S-A.DYING. A great row or racket is called a Bob's-a- 
dying. "What a BoVs-a-dying they made T' means "V/hat 
a row they kicked up." 

BODY, a booby. 

" In sense they likened us to culls — 
In manners to a hoby^ 
Yet oft we*ve had wor dancen skuels. 
And sometimes Punch and Toby.** 

T. Wilson. Of/ill^ of Dicky's Wig, 1826. v. 44- 

BOCK [N.] , back. 
BOD [N.], to command. 

BODDLE, a small iron instrument which woodmen use for 
l^eeling oaks and other trees. — Haliitrclfs Did. 

BODDLE. a small coin, a half-farthing. It is used in the 
sense of a common or comparatively valueless thing. 

*' Attv! aw the wit in Todt's noddle 
Will Qe>^ make them 'wtsrth a MbU." 

G. Stuart. » A^vSmw-mj Ihissrvsr, Newcastle, 16S6, p- 45- 

BODIX^M. bottom- 

1^0DV\ a bid- ** Will an\voe gi\^ aoe a Ji^^rfr ? " asks an 
Attc tkvaeer* ** An unlucky >o£/ "^ is a bad which happens to 
Nf r^^-Avk' to^ ar.y:h:ryc rsx fc* jyu-e. A bccse-dealer in P*^^ 
A tATn*. tvv^ A tirvy ^^ a Kvrs>f wrich be saw and made a hodi 
v>5 • cv^ v« ^:. Vhc u^^,^f^^ :«;i>i :: wx> rsoc for sale, and that 
r^v" r,vc<Y x^vxi^c iixhsoe h:r.^ to rvtr: with h. Next day the 
K^^sr >^J^:s i^^ciNi >>w^^ ir. a SfCo. wbere :t h»d impaled itsd* 
^>«!t A $iwt*.;^ $tx^ rh^ WAS $axL ui tbe year rNSx to ha^ 

^V:^V\. l^Vl^;^VN /sf. .^^ >« . t.- j:>:ce. tc cccEaiand. I** 

: V;^ VX s t.- Nf ^^* J^ -"^ ^-^ sx V - :^ s >JLri jimm "•—that is, he 

^^^'^X VK 4^ V<^ Vii^> 4:$5t>i ?,- 5Js$i^cii A ^»tw: ^ riiiaai 

:^xT\^'OKX\ *^ . .Ki.4vw ;fr-^>.\ Vt .nic wcri Sar an 
^M,.:.\,\+cv t>v^^^^v» >0*x>&.f, \\^N " 


^ODY, a person, oneself. 

*' Times ha'e been when a bodjf's been axt oat te tea.'* — T. Cbarlton, 
Newc. Improviminti,— Bards of the Tywi, 1S49, p. 23S. 

• CDDY. The parts of the body are enumerated in the Pricke of 
Conscience^ which was written in the Northumbrian dialect, 
dr. A.D. 1340. They may be compared with the present 
names in the Northumberland folk-speech for these members : 
JFIeved (head) ; nek ; brest ; hely ; armes ; kandcs ; legges ; foU^ 

jfete ; tas and iaes ; fyngers. At the present time the local 
pronunciation of these words only differs from the modem 
literary English dialect in hud^ iaes, and fing-er. There are 
£ilso hert (heart), neu (nose), mynde, gast (spirit), bax (back), 
^g^j eghen (eyes), hare, eres, tung, mouthe, teihe, hrowes, frount 
(forehead), chyn, pouu (pulse). Of these, ghaist and gyest (ghost), 
^e (eye), u-en (eyes), tung (tongue), mooth (mouth), and hroo 
(brow) are still the spoken forms. 

TOGGLE, to start at, to blunder, or bother about. " The 
mear boggled at a haystack.*' *' Boggle about the stacks" says 
^r. Brockett, '* a favourite pastime among young people in 
the country villages, in which one hunts several others 
between the stacks in a farm yard.'* He adds : " The 
diversion was formerly called barley break, or barley brake" 
** Playing at boggle" is to startle by sudden and unexpected 
appearance as in this game round the stacks in a **stagarth" 

" Nor am I so skittish as to boggle at an affront." — G. Stuart, Joco- 
Serious Discourse, 1686. 

Boggle, bo-boggle, boggle-bo [w.-t.], bo-lo 

[N.] , BO-MAN [T.] , BO-GHEST, BO-GUEST. By such 
diverse variety of names is the being called that even yet 
strikes ghostly terror to the heart of childhood, or lone 
country folk. The boggle is always a personality, having a 
proper name, and haunting a certain spot ; and there is small 
doubt that his existence is the relic of an older faith. '* This 
old Northland mythology, I find,** says Carlyle, ** to be the 
impersonation of the visible workings of nature. The dark 
hostile powers of nature they figure to themselves as * ydtnns,' 
giants, huge shaggy beings of a demoniac character. The 
empire of this Universe is divided between these two ; they 
dwell apart, in perennial internecine feud. The Gods dwell 
above in Asgard, the garden of the Asen or Divinities; 
Yotunheim, a distant dark chaotic land, is the home of 
the Jotuns.** (Carlyle's Heroes and Hero Worship.) To the 
country mind is presented a ruined castle, the name of whose 


builder or tenant has never been known ; or there are walls 
anci mounds of Roman origin whose history is a blank, or 
nulos of paved road made in some far-off time. To all of 
these, however, the neighbouring hind has a legend, giving 
the name and history of a boggle^ who supernaturally lived, 
moved, and had his being in this world, and still returns to 
haunt the spot in marvellous " manifestations." These take 
tho form of apparition, transformation, rapidity of movement 
on earth or in air, and they are accompanied by feats of 
sirrngth. or demoniacal performances to fright the beholder. 
Tho gigantic form of Lang Lonkin thus hung round his 
ruined castle in Whittle Dene, terrified the lone traveller by 
sliaking his luigo keys, or scared the passer who saw his 
dark form lurking over his sunken treasure in the "\Vh<ffl 
dub." So. toi^, the north-east branch of the Watling Street, 
which goes oiV from tho great road at Bewclay, and passes 
athwait NorthumK-'rLind, is ascrit>ed to the work of a hog^U- 
In m.\ps, it is tho •* IVviKs Causeway," but in local legend it 
is •• Cobb s Causey.'* Cobb was the builder of this Cyclopean 
WAV. .;:ui. like his r.eijihlv^ur Ccr. he was ayWa*. Leland, in 
Iv.s liv.'or.u V. vioscriXvs :he sire of Roman Corstopitum, and 
s.\\s. •• l':r.o:*i: the v^f the clde tcun, is a place caullid 
^.\>Uvcstcr, w::er h,\:h Ivne a tVneres or casteile. The 
{vp'.c s,\y :hA: viwel'.od yr. :: ose Y:iun^ whom they 
tjil\c :o h,;\c Ixw. ,; *:\;*' This is "giaii* Cor," who was 
Ax'.iNO ::* r.iv.cs :o w::oh :::e>" of men yei reaches, 

«%.\«.;^ > ..«kv • .«. .^. >«•«.. V ......,;/*«. «0 >~w.. ^....wkC LtUlUga ***' 

• -^ ..>*.•• »^»x» > ' • • x«» •••<. *v ; \* • '* •"!» c— •'T^T' CTiaTr'n tlie 

\x«. ««• ««.«x>'> X X «x ••. X «...%.«.. Ik. «..^ — C^ ^ • ^^f ^ * >-*S ixuaj***7 

.■vi -X ».-...««xw» •" '♦«.»• t •*•• "•.■* «.%•• '"J^ ••»%«^ *^A«^ T dflQ 

:\\:s;5\?. \vis >\v.* X*: :v.;rv .is :: l.iy c^r :r.e siv: where the 
j;-.;*-: ':*jtxl .*A>; ■; . 5C ;>.;; -.: :'^i":v >e r^rc "dve -usiices* hands 

Ax .« X. X . X ■> » X X ,.x . «^ >■«,..■« . • •« , ■ . . Z>>.CV »Jk«. «5 f^TVJ/lC »* 

;,' :>;* :■,::* x^'. ; i' x ix . -s:i7x"^'. Ccc hii twc' brothers, 
/ ; *',\'. "iNL .• ; :,• v\\*. .;-,*. ;",> ,'j. "* :>.■? r^r-:es CorbridgCt 

•» *■ * **■ *• • ^ ■•! 

->. ,»N,x ^.. Vx->«««« . ,* Xo. Jh .. •««,.? ^ f. . . ..Kl »•• 

V* • .Vx- xN.v.t^ ,' " >" ', : v'xV" '».'-"' 'ii >ercc:^' rllri. ihrew 

, . ^ X ; X V ,1, i -. ...•: r-l^vitjr^ Tthtch. S5 the 

» , , ■ ■,•»". - *«^_ x" '•*■ *■• .•• ...V » "Ox.- '— ' ■ "■ r^ • f *EJ 

> * - ■ » ■ ■■ '■ v> -. jf .a:er crigio 

Northumberland words. 75 

Rambles i« Northumberland, 1835, p. 99.) Mr. Lonystaffe gives 
ihe location at this same place, but Mr. Brockie makes the 
scene of his exploits at Hedley, near Ravensworth (about 4J 
to 5 miles S.S.W. of Newcastle), and details his many 
versatile performances as he transfoinied himself into the 
appearance of man, or beast, or fad of straw, and then 
suddenly vanished with a demoniac yell of laughter. Nor 
were these portentious beings found only in the lone lonnings 
of the county. The Bo-gkest, or Bo-ghaisf, was a veritable 
personality in the streets of Newcastle before lamp and 
watch Acts were obtained. In all cases, it is to be remem- 
bered that a local habitation and a name, as well as an accurate 
account of the life and adventures of the boggle, were given. 

EOGIE, a small, low, four-wheeled barrow. The word is 
applied to any low truck for the carriage of casks or other 
meithandise; to the small truck of the platelayer so familiar 
on our railways ; and to the flat board, with four small 
wheels, used by boys in play for running down a hill. 

»" In Deaa S(reet, when carts or when bogies came down, 
Tbe nuise made one's heart glad, one's lugs lil to Btaon." 
R. Gilchrist, 1835, •■ Song of Improvemiitls." 
Bards of Ihi Tyiu, p, 4 ifi. 
Keid then improved wor trip te Shiels 
And 'i'ynemouth i' the season. 
A kind o' hearse on bogit wheels — 
A patea' press for squeezin', 

T. Wilson, Caplaim and Ihi Quayiidi, 1840. 

BOG-SPIN K, the lady's smock, or meadow bitterness, Cardamint 
pratensii ; called also Pinks, or Spinks, Mayflower, and Cuckoo 

BOG-STACKER, a gobhn, a gliost ; one in a dilemma who 
does not know which way to turn. " He wis stannin just 
like a bog-stacker." 

BOG-THRISSEL, the Carduus pulustm, L. 

BOILEY. boiled milk and bread. 

BOKY. soil.— Northumberland. — Halliwell's Diet. Probably 
" boagy," the spoken form of boggy. 


Uv.)Ll!)-HILLS {boal'hiUs), heaps of metallic scoria, which are 
often met with in the lead mine districts. They are the 
remains of an ancient and very simple mode of smelting lead 
by wood fires, on hills, in the open air. — Brockett. 

liOLL, BOAL, BOU, or BOW. At Alnwick, a boU of barley 
or oats was six bushels; of wheat two bushels. At 
Hexham, a Ml of barley or of oats, five bushels ; of peas, 
rye, or wheat, four bushels; at Newcastle, two bushels; at 
VVooler, six bushels; there called the "oai 6<?w" (or Scotch 

'' The Coal BoU has been raised upon a measure equal, probably, to 
that of com. It was as much as a man could conveniently carry. . . - 
When ' barrows * were brought into use. the quantity conveyed increased* 
and along with it the boll also increased. In some old grants thi^ 
measure is specified as the ' bowle or barrowe.' By statute 30 Car. II -• 
c. 8, the bowl tub of Newcastle is declared to contain 22 g^lons and 3- 
pottle (22^ gallons), Winchester measure; it was 27 inches in diameter* 
and there were 21 oolls heaped measure to each chaldron. By the saoi^ 
Act, the content of each wain is to be seven bolls, and each cart thre^ 
bcUls and one bushel heaped measure, and three wains or six carts are tc? 
be a chaldron." — T. John Taylor, Archaology Coal Trade, 1852. 

The coal boll contains "9.676-8 cubic inches, or 34.899 imperial 
gallons." — Glossary to Law 0/ Mines, W. Bainbridge, 1856, p. 653. 

" Item p^' for ten bonles of coles for the infected people's use, 5s."" 
GaUshnud Church Books, 1646. 

liO'LC>, a term used by nurses to frighten children. "The 
Bolo will get you ! " See Boggle. 

liOLT, to fine tlour through a sieve. White flour and white 
biiad were formerly called ^* bolted'' or ^* booted,*' An 
iivlvt'itisicinent of 1828 reads, ** Hay and Maclain, Bolted 
In cad bakcr.s. No. 14, Side, Newcastle." Boult is the 
liir^tiaital spelling of the word — not bolt. See Booted-loaf. 

liv> VlANl, a ghostly being, or boggle. See Boggle. 

i.vv\ , IhuuI, i^urcty. ** He wis bon' for him"— he was surety 
i\u Uhu. 'Vbv /vW is the agreement between coalowners and 
k\k^ u luuii. Now an obsolete term. See Bindin. 

■ \V\ tUiii wsMvl oa'urs in the common exclamations "Go 
'. I iuxl ■• l^ in^i,'* Bon in these connections looks very 
'/.\ s .. sk^ vv*i^v. If this is the word, then Go bon ! would be 
X kl\ ui i^k •' Us^V^ curse," and Di bon ! to " DeePs curse." 



BONDAGER, a female field-worker whom the hind covenants 
to supply on his engagement to a farmer. The term bsndager 
is general in North iimberland. An account of the bondage 
service will be found in M^Lckenzie's Hist, of Norlkuiiiberland, 
vol. ii., p. 52. See Hind. 

" Bordirim. baitdariHt, boniui, husbandiis. These words are idenlical in 
meantog. and imply a class of men who formed one grade under (be 
geoeral term sillaHi. . . Id Norih Norihumberland at ihe present day 
each hired cottager, or hind, as he is called, is bound by his engagement 
10 find a person, called a boHdafir. la work for a certain sum whenever 
his master requires it. This seems lo be a relic of the old bond 
service."— The Rev. Canon Gteeowell, Glastaiy to Baldon BhIu, 1851. 

" He must not be confounded with the bond-slave, or serf. He was 
the batnJ. or husbandman —the bucHd with a kus — the equivalent of the 
Scandinavian bonder, but not of the Odal-bonder ; and a relic of ibe 
olden time still lingers in Ihe North Country under Ihe name of the 

BbonJagt system,' entailing, not serfdom, hut the necessity of finding 
■p labour in field work."— E. W. Robertson. Hislorieal Essayi, 1872. 

■' The boHitagirs puU'd turnips for fower-pence a day, 
Wuv siree ropes round their legs la keep ihe snaw away." 
Geo, Chatl, •' Old Parmtr" Poms. 186G, 

SOND-D.\RG, a day's labour rendered to the lord of the 
oianot or to the landlord. See Boon-dav and Darg. 

" A. remarkable custom, derived from the feudal system, is still 
□bserved at Great Wbitiington. The freeholders are obliged to send 
seven mowers and fourteen reapers to Halfon Castle for one day every 
year, when called upon. It is called the bond darg. The labourers 
receive no wages, but are plentifully supplied with vicluals and drink," — 
Mackenzie and Dent, Hist, of Northumbtrlaud, iSii, vol. ii., p. Bio. 

BOND-MONEY, earnest money, or arlts, given on engaging 
a servant. 

BOND-RYDING, the name of some piece of ground which 
had been ridded or cleared of wood, and for which its owner 
was thirled or bound to do certain services to his lord.— 
Hodgson's Northumberland, iii, 2, p. 326, note i. 

Bone, see Beyen and Even. 

BONE-PINS, pins made of mutton bones, formerly used for 
bstening rooBng slates. (Obs.) 

BONETICKLE. the stickleback. 

Bonfire (pronounced bycn-fin), originally bom-^te. The 
lonfirci on Midsummer Eve have been regularly kept up to 
within late times at Whalton, at Elsdon, and in many villages 
in Northumberland. See Midsummer Eve. 


" For the annual midsummer * banefirt,* or ' bofifire,* in the bnrgh of 
Hawick, old bones were regularly collected and stored up. down to about 
1800." — In Ord. Cooks, Newc, 1575. — Brand's Popular AntiquiiUs, 1870,1^ 
1 78. ** The said Fellowship of Cookes shall yearelie maiuteigne and keep 
the bom-fires — that is to say, one bone-fire on the even of the Feast of the 
Nativitie of St. John Baptist, and the other on the even of the Feast of St. 
Peter the Apostle ! " — Dr. Murray, New Eng. Diet. 

*' The Mayor's muckle bane-fire set on flame." — G. Stuart, Joco-Serms 
Discourse, Newcastle, 1686, p. 18. 

BONGRACE, a shade or curtain formerly worn on the front 
of women's bonnets or caps to protect the complexion from 
the sun ; a sunshade. — Dr. Murray, New Eng, Diet. This 
article of costume is yet in regular use among the women 
workers in the Northumberland fields, but the sweetness of 
the old name is now-a-days lost to us, and it is commonly 
called an ** ugly." (Obs.) 

" Her bongrace was of wended straw, 
From the sun's beams her face to free." 

Song, The Northumberland Bagpiper. 

BONKER, BUNKER, a fixed seat, often a box or receptacle 
below and a seat on top. 

'• Wha sat them close upon their bonkers" — G. Stuart, Joco-Serunu 
Discourse, Newcastle, 1686. 

BONNILY, fairly, pretty well. ** Yor gettin' on bonnily wiU 
aa see." 

B()NNY, good looking. This word in the dialect is often 
used, like the word "canny," to describe character as well as 
outward comeliness. **What a bonny bairn !'* It describes 
any good appearance, as *' A bomiy hoosey'* ** A &o««y horse," 
** A bonny place," ''A bonny fyece." '* Bonny at morn, canny at 
neet." My inversion it means the reverse of anything good- 
** Thor's a bonny gam gaan on." *« Ye've made a bonny mtss 
on't, noo." ** Aa'd a bonny time on't.'* ** Yor a bonny chep, 
noo ! " ** Here's a bonny go." 

** My bonny keel laddie, my canny keel laddie, 
My bonny keel laddie for me, O I '* 

Old Song. 

IUMM>V, BOOLY, a piece of broken pot, or earthenware, 

used by children for decorating their play-houses. — Hodgson 


** A whirlwind cam an' myed a' souse. 
Like heaps o* babby hoodies.*' 

J. Thompson, Jimmy Joneson*s Whorry. 

♦• A huap o' bits o' boodies^—His Other Eye, 1880, p. 4. 


BOODY ANKERS ! an exclamation. " Boodyankers ! here's a 
traikle barl brust " (chorus of juveniles at a shop door). 

BOODY-HOOSE, a child's play-house, set out with "hoodies." 

BOOGE (hoojc)^ to bulge, to give ground. ** He never hooged^ 

BOOK, bulk. •« To gan into Httle hookr 

BOOL, the bole, or stem of a tree below the branches. " What 
length is the hool ? " — what is the length of the best timber — 
the tree up to its branches. 

BOOL, an iron plate attached to the oars of keels and wherries. 
The hool has a round eye in its centre, and through this the 
thole pin passes. 

BOOL, a rounded water-worn stone, such as is used for paving 
side walks in country places. A bowl or ball, usually made 
of stone, and thrown in a game of ** boolin.'* ** War the 
hool!'* — the customary caution, shouted as a bowl is thrown. 

*• War the hool there, wor the hool there ! Harry Wardle's myed a 
throw." — E. Corvan, d. 1865, Wor Tyneside Champions. — Allan's Collection, 
p. 88. 

*' Ne lad like him could heave a hool.'* 

J. P. Robson, •• Days and Deeds 0' Shakspearer 
Bards of the Tyne, p. 99. 

** Bob hez thee at loupin' an fiingin*. 
At the hool, football, clubby, and swingin*." 

J. Selkirk, d. 1843, Boh Cranky's 'Size Sunday. 

BOOL, to play at the game of boolitty or bowling. The usual 
play is to go round a course in the fewest number of throws. 
Weights of bowls are specified in a match. 

" Then ower the moor, an' roond the coarse, ye'll fynd them hoolin there." 

E. Corvan, Wor Tyneside Champions. 

Bool, to run very quickly. 

••In aw 6<w/s/*— J. P. Robson, Polly's Nickstick, 1848. 

•* From a long row of gingerbread and orange stalls could be heard 
some dame crying out lustily, • Bool up and buy away.* " — Description of 
Stagskawhank Fair. — R. Forster, History of Corbridge, 188 1, p. 67. 

*' The Dutchman hooVd alang, 
Upon a gimcrack leg." 
T. Wilson, opening of Newcastle and Carlisle Railway, 1838. 

BOOLIES [W.-T.] , potsherds. See Boody. 
BOOLTER, a miller. See Bolt. 

"Aa's boon to be there." "Where are you 




BOOLY. See Boodv. 

BOOLY, BULLY, the bullfinch, Pyrrkula vulgaris. 

BOOMER, smuggled gin. In the third edition of Brockill's 
Gloss, the word is omitted. In the second edition it appears 
with the note, "So called from a place in Northumberland" 
(Boulmer), "where that staggering test of loyalty— the 
payment of imposts — is impenetrable." The connection of 
Boulmer with smuggling was formerly proverbial; and not 
only gin, but all kinds of taxed commodities, were commonly 
supplied "dutyfree" by the adventurous fishermen of that 

BOOME-TREE, the name of a venerable tree which stood in 
the wall of the churchyard at Alnwick. It was blown down 
on 17th February, 1836. It was a noble specimen of the 
common ash [Fraximiis excelsior). — Wm. Dickson, in HisI: tf 
Bks. Naturalists' Club, vol. iv., p. 12. Compare Bor-trek. 

BOON, bound. 
boon Sot?" 

BOON, BEUN, to do service to another as a landlord.— fiii/s 

BOON, a band of reapers. See Bandwin. 

"There is a contest among the maidens in the boon or gang of 
reapers." — W. BToc)iie, Ltgtiids and Sxptrslilioiis, p. iii. 

BOOND, to enclose. The final d often silent. 

BOONDARY, boundary. 

BOON-DAY, "the service of a day's work which tenants 
rendered their lord in agricultural work."— The Rey. Canon 
Greenwell, Glossary to The Boldon Buki. Boon-day is also 
a day's ploughing rendered gratuitously by neighbouring 
farmers to a new tenant. On these occasions the teams 
vie with each other in appearance and in the work of the 
day. Horses are specially groomed and gaily decorated with 
rosettes and coloured ribbons. See Bond-darg and Darc. 

BOONDER, BOUNDER, to control. "Ye mun boondtr 
yorsel " — you must control yourself. " Here, Mary, help me 
wi' this jam ; it canna be boondered." The jam was boiling 
over. [Heard at Thropton.] 

BOONDLESS, boundless. 


30NDS, bounds. 

DON-TREE, the elder. See Bor-tree. 

DOR, BOORY (the pronunciation of bower). The dowager 
lady of a house had her own apartment, or bower, separate 
from the rest of her son's household — a room set specially, 
apart for her private use. 

"The parlour, or inner chamber through the kitchen, in country 
houses, in nchich the head person of a family generally sleeps." — Brockett^ 
from Ray. 

)0R, to bore a hole. 

)ORDLY, burly, strong, vigorous. '* He's a boordly leukin 
:hep " — applied to a stout, well-made man. 

)OREY, BOWERY, BREWERY, a ring ; also a game at 
narbles. A ring is drawn, and on its circumference and in 
ts centre are placed common marbles. The player ** fires" 
rom the '*past," or starting mark, and all the marbles 
mocked outside the ring become his own. The marble rests 
vhere it has stopped till the next player has had his ** shot," 
ind each in turn plays from his place of rest till the ring has 
)een cleared. When all the shots but one have been cleared, 
he player next in order has the option of "a lie"; this is 
lone by laying his **tar" inside the boorey and close to 
he "shot." At his next turn he "fires" so as to knock 
)ut the "shot" and lay his "tar" as near as possible to 
he " tar " of the player who holds the greatest number of 
ihots, at which he now "fires," and if he makes a successful 
lit, or "kill," he wins the game, and takes over all the 
narbles won by the adversary whom he has " killed." 

)ORLY, rough, unpolished, boorish. — Brockett. See Boordly. 

)OSE, an ox or cow's stall. — Ray's Gloss, Where the cattle 
»tand all night in winter. It is now more generally used for 
:he upper part of the stall, where the fodder lies. — Brockett, 
* A cow boose,'' " A hay boose,'' 

)0T, about. 

•' Boot Lnnnun aw*d heard — ay sec wonderful spokes." — T. Thompson, 
d. i8z6. Canny Newcastle, 

)OTCHER, a butcher. 


HOOTED- LOAF, a loaf of fine or hooted {i.e., bolted) flour, and 
. made specially for the ** cryin* oot," the time when an increase 
in the family occurred. In times when brown leavened bread 
only was used, a loaf made of fine white flour was a special 
luxury. It was served up at confinements, with what was 
appropriately called "groaning cheese," to the neighbours 
who had come to condole and help on the occasion. 

BOOT-HALER, a freebooter, robber, or marauder. — Brockett. 

BOOTHER, BOODER, a boulder. 

BOOTHMAN, a corn merchant of former days. The Booth- 
men were incorp>orated with the company of Merchant 
Adventurers in Newcastle. (Obs.) 

BOOTY, unfairly. (Obs.) 

•• Sometimes they'll play fairly, and whiles they'll play booty.*'-- 
C%. Stuart. 7*\v>S/in^iii />ii»viiri^, i6S6. 

r^OO/K, a drinking bout. ** He s on the ftcvr*"— that is, he has 
;i drinking tit. 

*• We'll hex* a Toval \vj/ teniaT.** 

T 'Wilson. Tit Ouim^ cf DLky's Wig, 1826. 

*' We \v:/i awav till ibe break of day." 

Oki Soog. Tu: :kt TUi Coma /■ 

BOO.!\\ druukcn. 

l^^.H'^/YAM-KW an eiaoxfjition used by boys. "Ye iwiy- 

I'v'^K v:he piv^tuivutior, v^f *'a**\ :he airr.e foe the guttural' 

IVKI\ ^\\VKl\ ;;bo >;^\fcvV jLl.cct^^vi cecenZy to <mc man 
to >fcvNi V v/ , \i^ A o\<'. • c •. \ / V ^ ASS. X* rt.npMSi^ Fxy r " A sheth of 
\V''.:^vV ^> :^<' ^^ivv s^; j^ j^vov:^ o: w/iL^. Tbere are •^narrow 
■a^'iss. **::jk\v '.7^ w.-i>. *^>:.^vw \u*ii;. *- rbe 3x?cher*s gate, 
.-i .x^:v:roit ^i.^'-'s ^"^'i^ AC. x 1 cc : Vc:: i:stiacGishing the 
Vv.v. sC Xvtv.i \^.^x> ;.v^ sV5iv.:-..>e. I- ji ijcssmr of coal 

:ijis*e ;vi'".< *.n»n\ i *>fcvv xurj ' ':> Jcscr-.S*vi AS a pillar m 

•vvv .vt' :^v^ xjitVN %'v^t*. t^v ,'icVc wcctr^s;^ however, 
i:v ic:^i:i•.>^i ^ .ic x\.v* ,:><:; jvC;? r\M: a -.aiiic oU book:— 


" A yard and quarter broad or wide for a headways is full sufficient, 
and out of this it is we turn off the boards or other workings, for every 
particular hewer, or miner, and that board or work place for that one 
man is generally about three yards, or better, in breadth, and so from 
the headways, which we will say runs south, we work the boards east and 
west of the headways." — J. C, The Compleat Collier, 1708, p. 42. 

•• A passage driven across the fibres, or grain of the coal." — Min. Gloss., 
Newc. Terms, See Cleat. 

" The hords^ or main excavations, are driven in parallel lines across the 
planes of cleavage of the seam (on account of the coal being worked most 
easily in this direction), and of a width of three, four, or five yards, 
according to the character of the roof of the mine. Between these 
hords, walls or ribs of coal are left, while narrow excavations (about two 
yards in width), termed headways, are driven at intervals to connect the 
bords with each other for purposes of haulage and ventilation." — 
R. L. Galloway, Hist, of Coal Mining, 1882, p. 85. 

'* In bye they bum'd me in a crack, 
An' left me i' ma faither's bord.** 

T. Wilson, Pitman^s Pay, p. ii., v. 35. 

BORD, a bird. **Arly bord*' is the very familiar sound in 
Newcastle for " early bird." 

BORDE-CLOTH, a tablecloth. (Obs.) 

" 3 lyn borde-cloihes, a shotr and a longr, 4s. Sd." — Will, in Richard 
Welford's Hist. 0/ Newc. XVI. Cent., p. 320. 

between England and Scotland ; the district adjoining this 
boundary on both sides; the English and Scottish borderland. 
(The term appears to have been first established in Scotland, 
where the English border, being the only one it has, was 
emphatically the border.). — Dr. Murray, Nert; Ettg, Diet. 

" She's ower the border and awa' 
Wi* Jock o* Hazeldean." 

Hazeldean is in the valley of the Tyne, near Haltwhistle. — 
See Hodgson, iii., 2, p. 383. 

BORDER-WATCH. This was a regular patrol kept to " raise 
the scry " in case of inroad. The line of this by no means 
coincides with the division now known as the march or 
boundary between the two kingdoms. It cuts right through 
the present county of Northumberland, and affords a means of 
explaining the difference between the men of Central and 
Southern Northumberland and those of the franchises of 
Redesdale and Tynedale. " The inhabitants " of the latter, 
says Dr. Charlton, " were evidently little to be trusted by 


tlicir neighbours on the East, as well as by their Scottish 
foos on the West. These two rivers were closely watched 
every night along a line, extending from Haltwhistle in South 
Tync, down to the junction of the T5nie at Warden, and 
from thence up the North Tyne to Chipchace. From 
Chipchace Ford, the line was carried by Throckrington, 
Sweethopc, and Whelpington to the Coquet. Two watchers 
were appointed to each ford. North Tynedale was con- 
sidered as beginning at the Nook on the south side of the 
river, and at Reedsmouth on the north bank, and extending 
from thence up to the Bellyng, beyond which there were 
tluMi (time of Henry VIII.), it is said, no habitations." (Dr. 
(Miarlton, North Tynedale, p. 30.) " The parties there brought 
up are known either by education or nature not to be of 
honost conversation. They commit frequent thefts and other 
felonys. and no apprentice must be taken proceeding from 
such lawless and wicked progenitors." (Richard Welford, 
llisU^ry %\f NetccastU, vol. i., p. 396, extract from Books of 
\hfich.mis" Ow/viitr, 1564. For the last 150 years North 
'ryiu\l;do and Ki\lesviale have been "quiet pastoral vales, 
jH\\pK\l by an iniolligeni, handsome, and strongly-built race, 
»^s hxH^ from crime and vice as any part of the British 
vKMuinious/' v^"*'* Charlton, Sctih Tynedale ^ p. 101.) 

»UM<1^ KvHm, or POAKn ROOM, the width across an old 
K\u\i i^> A pit, 

rvvM<^\\ W S OOVRSr, ihc ^irwnion at right angles to the 
>,;^^ ot c*^u Aj:x^ sM c>Al c^: ooaI. — Cr^.nrsrrii-. 

^.\^KK\. N^^;v; :S^ /,.'^, c\:\va» f^\ /iat ^ : also the i»onunciation 

5\^KV' Kx'^l^S '.^\\?t :\v^ jir^r j^r^rvUr^.-^s ;:s«d iw asccrtaimng 
iV *.n<.x;av xn; x;;*u rvx\r^':^r.l-Tjc a j^i. The rods arc 
xsuxxsN- ,xV>nV^^ " "x^V^^^ ">^ «i ;«ce &ced with a 
. v.; XV , " -vy,N V « w^^K :*Ws ;>^ rxjacse 0: a clusel to bring 
;^ ;; ,. <x,v -^<x\* ^t ,v , .ix :• -5 i cylisdrical box,of 
, Nxv xs.,vxxsv V, i* **;j?^-^ a: :>« Sxiorn, Simi^ews v^ 
v.. nmV,, V- .t, ,^v^N, S;^ f:^t*/ m^:i i ciftck to bold in 

'V .w.^ ,s s x\s ^\ ;\vx .^ • -,v ^cr ji scrwjc caxjss pole or 

Nv s^ ^v ^ ^^v V sN V . v^ • , V ,^4\:r:ra: iivS oc Ac strata, is 
^ * ^^ • V .-v K > . vvv^r 5t ^' Vr i^ efic^ stroke by 


BORN, a burn, the name in Northumberland for a considerable 
stream. A bum is smaller than a river, but larger than a 
syke. Ouse burn, Skinner's bum, Denton bum, &c. 

" Between the foot of Cowon-wood borai and Lanileye— (wo men 
ni);ht[y. The borne foot to be watched nightly." — " Uorder watches" 
oidered in 1552— Hodgson's Nottkumbrrliiui, pt. ij , vol, iii., p. 118, noU. 
" Come o'er the botirn. Bessy, lo me." 

Song in Lear, iii 6. 
This spelling is nearer the pronunciation of the Northumber- 
land ^rn than is the Scottish form of 6»r», See Burn and Beck. 

BORN-DAYS, a frequent expression, as " Iv aa me bom-days," 

for "In all my life," 

" Birait ground is where thick heath has tieeo burnt, leaving the birns 
or uQConsumed stalks, standing up sharp and stubbley." — Glossary lo 
B arm's Works. 

" BiBN. The charred stem of burnt heath, which remains after moor- 
burning. Hence Birny, or abounding in birns." — Dr. Murray, NiwEng. 

•■ By dawn of day Mary and Bett, 
Hies to the birait knows," 

ytru! OH a Viim 0/ Roadtty CaslU. 
BORN-FEUL, an innate fool. 
BORRAL, the elder tree. See Bor-tree. 

BORROWED-DAYS. '■ March borrowed of Aperhill, Three- 
days and they were ill." The three last days of March (old 
style). The popular notion is that they were borrowed by 
March from April with a. view to the destruction of a parcel 
of unoffending young sheep — a purpose, however, in which 
March was not successful. Mr. Erockett says : " The 
superstitious will neither borrow nor lend anythin;^ on any 
of these days, lest the article should be employed for evil 
purposes." The whole affair is conveyed in a rhyme thus 
given at the firesides of the Scottish peasantry ; — 
" March said to Aperill, 
I see three hoggs upun a hill. 
And if you'll lend me dayes three, 
I'll (jnd a way to make them dee. 
The first o' them was wind and weet, 
L The second o' them was snaw and sleet. 
I The third of them was sic a freeze, 
I It froze the birds' nebs to the trees : 
When the three days were past and gane, 
These three silly hoggs came hirpling hame.'' 
|> Most probably the tradition has taken its rise in the obeervation of 
— rtain character of weather prevailing about the close of March, 
iwhat different from what the season justifies ; one of those many 
icaes which belong to the nature of a British spring '— 
Book 0/ Days, i,, p. 4^8. 


BOKROWED-FIRE, a light obtained from a neighbour. 

•* To request a light on the morning of the New Year, is held as a 
most portentous omen. Several, will not for any consideration, wen 
allow a borrowed fire to proceed from their dwellings." — ^J. Hardy, 
Richardson's Table Book. — Legendary Div., vol. ii., p. 288. 

HORSE, BIRSE, a chisel of triangular shape, used for cleaning 
up the corners of mortice-holes. — Hodgson MS. 

BORST, an outburst, a vehement attack. To " bide the horst" 
is to stand the oncome. Brockett has birst. See Brust. 

BOL'N-TREE, or BORRAL, the elder tree, Sambucus ni^ra. 
The pith is easily removed, and a hollow tube formed which 
is usetl as a pop-^un and known as ** a bor-tru gun." There 
is a s;\lve made from the elder called bountry saw. 

*' A branch of the common elder, bur -free, or bore-tree, is supposed to 
possess pnfat virtue in guarding the v^-earer against the malevolence of 
witches, fairies, and other * uncanny * people. Some say the cross was 
made frv^m the \\ wxi of the Kre-Tree : others, equally worthy to be 
lvlie\-t\1. that JuJas hank;ed himself on it. In some districts the tree 
is knv^wn as the IVwr.-tn?^. which means the sacred tree-** — W. Brockie, 
I .'};.'% Js Jit J >)kt-efi:t::,'%s. p 114. 

lU^SOM, BOOSOM. the hag of a fishing net in which the 
nsh aio iicnexAlIy oaugh:." The net is so constructed as 
iv> Ivilv-ou: in iulvl'Waior when l^inir hauled in. 

Ik'^SS, c:i*.pty : hollow ^o;, as an en:pty cask. 

l\n^n V\ A Vo..:di:^<, ,i hou>k?. .-.";/ Bank, WalwW//, Har- 
;a'..'., S:v. \v..,. No\\.v;,\",\ Ac. Oli Eniilish t<tL a house, 

l\^l rir. AS :r;uh "uy o: >::jiv., ::-i cc S?und together with 

,; u.v. A> A -r^ oji- vvrv-r.en::y carry .'i iis back. A 

* ^u:. .-; " :.i ;*->•-. ' ;s a !x>csi*r .:ujLn:::v/ sach as can be 

.v:^\v.u'-:x .Ji',: cvl ,-.\: :-t jl:— or :n :he hand. "To 

,v:v :o: ,; -s\V o .:r ,; ■,.... o: ox\ "-co en§a|:< in a hopeless 

^ ^ ^ . ' •* V "^ ,\ ■ . ..^-^ xr vers — ^v -- . bar ile.— Pr- 

\ .-* v> " *»^ . X • V .^ ' L ' t . .-.- >.! cA>i hav. su«t 

IT : 

» \ 

,\^\. t \\i . j;v ^, . . '. -.'v .*r*«i'n5icc5* bat the 


tOTTOM, the floor of a coal mine. It is generally called the 

" A £athom boring in the thill or bottom under the coal you would 
work." — ^J. C, Compleat Collier^ 1708, p. 14. 

»OU, a boll, which see. 

►OUGHT (pronounced hout)^ a sheep fold. It is specially a 
pen for confining ewes at milking time. — Dr. Murray, New 
Eng, Did. 

•OUGHT-BREED (pronounced bout-breed), bread bought from 
a baker. The custom in Northumberland being to buy flour 
and bake it at home causes the special reference to the buying 
of bread. Mr. Brockett says it is ** the finer quality bolted by 
the baker, in opposition to a coarser kind made at home.** 
This suggests a connection between bought and bolted, but no 
such construction need be put on " bought bread." 

•OUK (pronounced bouk), to eructate, to belch. ** Man alive, 
ov aa things aa like a geuse to eat, *cas it bouks up se fine.'* 
" Aa varry nigh bouk'd me boiley ** is a phrase — I was very 
nearly sick.'* 

;OUK, in mining, a report made by the cracking of the strata 
owing to the extraction of the coal beneath ; also the noise 
made by the escape of gas under pressure. — Greenwell. 

►OUK (pronounced book)^ to steep or soak in lye. The old 
way of '* doing up ** linen. 

*' Then the thred is sod, and bleaked, and bucked, and layed to drieing, 
&c." — Bartholomew, 302-6, book xvii., c. 97. — Hodgson MS. 

Falstaff was carried off in a buck basket, and intercepted. Ford : 
•• Whither bear you this (basket) ? " Serv. : "To the laundress, 
forsooth." Mrs. Ford : " Why, what have you to do whither they 
bear it ? You were best meddle with dwcA-washing." — Merry Wives of 

tOUK, to bellow in play or anger, as an ox. 
JOUK, bulk, or size. 

** As early as the 15th century this word was confounded with bulk sb., 
which afterwards usurped most of its senses and has superseded it in 
literary use. The modern dialect and Scottish bouk seems to be partly 
a survival of the mid-English bouk [trunk of the body!, partly the 
regular descendant of the M.E. bolk, Bulk." — Dr. Murray, New En, 

'* Ned was nowther laith nor lyem, 
An' faith he had baith bouk an' by en." 

Song, Wrekinton Hiring. 


BOUKIN-FULL, full to repletion. 

BOULT, to sift flour through a fine cloth. See Bolt, Booted- 

BOUNDER, a boundary. See Boonder. 

BOUNTRY, the elder tree. See Bor-tree. 

BOUNTRY SAW, a salve, made from the boon or elder Uee. 
See Bor-tree. 

BOURD, to iest.—Brockett. (? Obs.) 

BOUSE, lead ore picked and ready for dressing. A bouse-ieoB 
is a heap of ore teamed ^ or emptied from a cart. 

" The bouse, or impure ore, is usually let to the washers at so macb ptf 
biDg." — Mackenzie. Hist, of Northumberland^ vol. i., p. loo. 

•• Long rows of bouse-teams and bing-steads on each side.'*— W. "• 
Tomlinson, Guide to Northumberland^ p. i6o. 

BOUT, BOOT, a recurring event.— G/(>ss. to Pitman's PV- 

" He hes the pains agyen, an's hed a bad bout on't this time« 

** Hoo are ye thi day, Mally ? " ** O hinny, aa've sic hoots 

i* me heed." 

" Bout, a contest or straggle ; especially when applied to a jovial 
meeting of the legitimate sons of Bacchus." — Brochett. 

BOUT, a bolt. 

BOUT, bought, /»./. of buy. 

BOWDYKITE, a contemptuous term, often used to a forward 
child ; a presumptuous or unskilful person, a young scape- 
grace. Ttie term is always applied to a male. It is a term 
of derision applied to a youth who has shown some precocious 
talent. ** He's just a bowdykite lad.'* 

" De'il smash a good teun could this bowdykite play." 

R. Emery, b. 1794. d. 1S71. Bagfy-nanny. 

BOWEL-HIVE-GRASS. the parsley piert, Alckemilla arvensis. 
It is made into a decoction and given in cases of hives. 

BOWELHOLE, BOO-ELHOLE, the window slit in a byre, 
a small circular perforation in a fortified building, any unglazed 
aperture in a wall. Dr. Murray, Xew En^. Dtct., gives bowel 
as a rare variant of bcU or ^>j/. " an unglazed aperture in the 
wall of a castle, cottage, stable, &c,," for admitting air or 
light ; sometimes closed with a shutter." In Northumber- 
land bottel is pronounced as ^v-r/. 


BOWER, a bow maker. (Obs.) 

" Wm. Wilde, of Newcastle, bawir, aged about sixty years, deposed, 
&c.'-— R- Welford, HUt. of Neivc XVI. ant., p. 378. 

BOWERY, plump, buxom and young. Applied to a young 
woman in great health. — Hodgson MS. 

BOWET, a lantern. 

BOWIE, a wooden dish, made with staves and hoops, for milk 
or porridge. Compare Bickeu. 

BOWLD, bold. 

'■ Bowld Sandy Bowes— Young Cuckoo Jack." — Allan's Tyniside Snugs, 
p. 6. 

BOWLES. (Obs.) 
^H " The knoppes or beads (of 1 
^H ftnd within ibese heads are long 
^B Hitbal.i]..3g6. 

BOWLEY, a small bowl. 

BOWLEY, a peculiar method of locomotion used by cripples. 

BOWOWERS, brambles. 

BOWTHERLY, bothersome. (Obs.) 

'■ He was a bow:herly fallo«e.'*— \V. W. Tomlinson, Guide !o Noilliuiuber- 
la«d. iSStJ. p. 2S1. 

BOW2Y, ID the family way, bouticy ; also bushy, busky, or 
bosky. Bowzy is also a form of " boozey " — drunky. 
" My bourtree busli and bousy tree." — Eltiich Shefhtrd. 

BOX, a benefit or friendly society. So called from the common 
box into which the funds were collected. The annual festival 
of such a society is called the •' Bo.x dinner." 

" The excellent arrangements observed in theit (the keelmen's] boxti, 
or benefit societies." — An Impartial Hist, of Ntii'c, 1801, 

EOX-BED, a bed made like a bunk or berlh ; formerly a 
common arrangement in country houses where room was 

3B0XINGS, the coarse offal from flour after the bran is taken 
off; generally used for feeding pigs, lifcc. The common 
name for this is thisti, which see. 


^ fc^ 



BR A A (same as the Scottish braw), fine, handsome, trim, neat. 

BRAALY, in fine condition. " Hoo is thoo the day ? " ** Aa's 
braalx't lad." 

BRAHBLEMENT, a noisy quarrel, or indecent wrangling.- 

** We hold our time too precioas to be q>ent 
With such a brablerr 

King John, V. 2. qaoted by Nares. 

BRACE-HEAD, in a bore-rod, is the strong oak or ash aoss- 
bar at the top of the rods, by which they are moved round 
at each vertical stroke in boring. 

BRACK, /./. of hrtak. or brick. 

'* He brjck his shin.** 

T. Wilson, PitmMu's Pay^ pt ii.. v. 20. 

BRACKEN, BRECKAN, the brake fern, Pieris aqwUna, L 
It is regularly harvested for the bedding of cattle. It was 
formerly used for the manufacture of soap and glass. 

BRACKEXCLOCK, the small gay-coloured chafer, PAyto^ 

BKAPE OF, BREID OF, to be like in condition.— /?«/* 

o *V,\j. , 1 c\i I . ( : Obs. ^ 

BKAPS, coins, tuoaov-— J. P. Robsoa. GIcss. to Bards of i^ 

BKAE, BREE, a s:eep bank, as* the broken ground by a river 
side. See Bkee. 

BKAIK. or BRAKE, a kind of harrow used by Carmers for 
OiOd breaking. 

BKAUGHAM, ,1 hor>?e collar. I: :s curious ikai this word 
is se^^a ir. such 5:urs<'^ that :he various fc>rms given hardly 
exhaus: :he ways of spt*Il:r^ ::. 

\\ : >ri2i» JLSvi :ri-, turn ^s. tx<^ -j-jlti*. ' 


BRAG, a goblin. The Portobello Brag was well-known and 
feared at the Low Fell. See Bar-guest and Boggle. 

■■ A kind of wicked sprite."— T. Wilson, nole to Thi Oilin' 0' Dithys 
»'ig, 1816. "The descripiion of the Pelton Brag," eonlinues Mr. 
Wilson, " by Sir Culhbert Shnrp. in his Biskofrick Caaland. induces me 
to believe that it must been the same roguisb sprite that played 
SQcb tricks at Portobello. It delighted in mischief, and whoever 
mounted it ffot it always appeared in the shape of an assj were sure 
to be thrown into some bog or whin bush at the last, when the creature, 
as it enjoying the mischief, would run off ■ nickerin' an' laflin'." 

BRAID, broad. Compare Bkede. 

"'Bessie with the braid apron,' was a familiar epilhel applied 10 
Elizabeth, daughter of Lord Dacre. the wife of Lord William Howard 
(Belled Will), whose t/ra^id lands swelled the fortunes of bis younger 
brother, the progenitor of the families of Carlisle and Corby," — Broclall. 

" Leanin on the hud steahyn wi' his biaid shouthers." — T. Bewick, 
Tie Howdy, Sec, ed. iBjO, p. 10. 

13RAID, to braid, "describes the muscular action which 
precedes vomiting, reaching, heaving," — Hodgson MS, "Aa've 
braided sair aall neet, doctor." 

13RAID-BAND. Barley is often laid in broad-band to dry when 

ERAKE, a lever forming part of the apparatus used in coal- 
boring. It is a simple beam having a crook at one end to 
which the bore-rods are attached by a chain and sling rope. 
When the depth attained in boring has become so great that 
the bore-rods cannot be lifted by the men at the brace-head, 
then the brake is brought into requisition. By its powerful 
leverage the rods are lifted and then allowed to drop, the 
rods being turned by the brace^head at each stroke, 

BRAKESMAN, the man in charge of the winding-engine at 
a pit. 

BRAMBLING, the mountain finch, Friiigillu monti/Hngiila. 

BRAN, a boar ; a male pig. 

BRANDED, BRANDIT, brindled. "A braitded quey," "A 
brandil stot," is a beast of a mixed black and red colour. 

BR.^NDERS, the piers or abutting part of the foundations of 
a bridge which become vibible when the water is low. 

BRAND-IRONS, and-itons. The irons for holding up the 
^I logs in a wood fire. 


BRANDLING, a river trout caught in the Tyne. 

BRANDLINGS, large peas of a brownish-yellow spotted 
colour, quite different from the ordinary grey pea, much 
fancied and in request for *' carlins*.*' 

BRANDLING-WORM (pronounced branlin), the worm found 
in manure heaps, which has red stripes round it. It is well 
known to trout fishers, and is also called the Dew warm, 

BRANDRITH, a trivet or other iron on which to set a vessel 
over a fire. — Ray's Gloss, Compare Girdle, 2. 

BRANDY-SNAPS, very thin, brittle cakes, made of ginger- 
bread, and baked hard. 

BRANK, to hold the head up affectedly; to put a bridle or 
restraint on anything. — Brockett. 

BRANKS, a bridle of primitive construction, having a piece 
of wood on each side joined to a halter. These side pieces 
are referred to in Bums' Death and Dr. Hornbook : — 

" And then its shanks. 
They were as thin, as sharp, an sma\ 
As cheeks o* brjuMs.*' 

Sometimes a bit is added ; but more frequently a wooden 
nose resembling a muzzle. — Ogilvie, Imftrial Did. It was 
thus that the expedition of the Laird's Jock, the Laird's 
Wat, and Hobbie Noble were instructed to set out for 
Newcastle : — 

*' Yonr armour good ve manna shaw. 
Nor yet appear like men o* wear ; 
As countr>* lads be a' arra2red 
Wi* bf^mks and bcecham on each mare.** 

Jixk o* tk€ Sjdi. 

In A jvW'SrrsKHts Diss\^rsi. by George Stuart, printed for 
Benjamin Toole. London* and John Story, Newcastle, 1686, 
p. 27, the word in the following passage is explained, ** bridle 
or halter '' ; — 

•' When wanton YAud has cast her rider. 
And taen sike creeks that coze can gnaie her, 
I'niier her fteet she *:ets her J*^vni$« 
And s:ark-l^^ra'Cud she pZys her shanks." 

But it is as a bridle for hun^aniry that the brauks is best 
kr.owrL :n Newcastle and Morpeth ; tor at each of these towns 
an iror. :r.u;jle is kept arv! knc^wn as " :he brxtisS* It is a 
caiie-Iike stmcture* goiixg over the head. la firont is a 
:c:\^;:c of iron which pa$^ into the mouih and effectually 


gagged the wearer. The punishment of the branks was 
inflicted upon incorrigible scolds, who were sentenced to be 
led in this guise through the public streets by the **hougher" ; 
and the municipal accounts show that the custom was 
regularly enforced : — 

" Paide for caring a woman throughe the towne for skoulding, with 
branks, 4d.*' — Newcastle Municipal Accounts, April, 1595. 

Thomas Wilson, describing the Polytechnic Exhibition in 
Newcastle of 1840, says : — 

** The branks, a kind o' brake, is here, 
Wor faithers, when a' else was vain, 
Compell'd the noisy jades to weer, 
Whene'er their clappers ran amain." 

Mr. G. 6. Richardson states that this punishment was in use 
at least so late as 1761, and probably much later. At 
Morpeth, it occurs in use in 1741, on December 3rd. — Notes 
to Reprint of Municipal Accounts. The branks is now in the 
custody of the Society of Antiquaries of Newcastle, and is 
exhibited in the Old Castle. 

3RAN-NEW, quite new. 

3RANT, steep, difficult of ascent, as ** a brant hill." It also 
means consequential, pompous in one's walk ; ** you seem 
very brant this morning." A game cock is brant. Loftiness 
enters into all the meanings of this word. — Hodgson MS. 
See Brent. 

•• As brant as the side of a house." — Ray*s Gloss.t 1691, E.D.S., B. 15. 

•• The excellent Prince Thomas Howarde, D. of Norfolke. with 
bowemen of Englande, slewe King Tamye with many a noble Scotte, 
even brant against Flodden Hill." — Ascham Toxopkylite, p. 104, quoted in 
N are's Gloss., p. 56. " There it seems to mean • up the steep side.* *' — 

JRANT, burned. Imperfect tense of the verb to burn. 

•• He brant the bed bottom o\it:*^Jack Fairlamb's Exploit in the Kitty. 

^RASH, acidity of the stomach, causing a flow of water to the 
mouth — ^known as " the watter brash.*' 

3RASH, melted snow. "Snaw brash,** ^'Brashy weather." 
" Brashy wettor." See also Slush. 

3RASH, hasty, impetuous. — Brockett. 

BRASH, a rash or eruption on the skin. " He's aal come oot 
iv a brashj like mizzles.*' 


liKASH, a vigorous push or pull; a strong spurt in violent 
exertion is called a brash. In churning, for instance, the 
proffer of help is often given — ** Noo, maa lass, aa'U gieyea 

HUASIIY, small, delicate in constitution, subject to frequent 
bodily indisposition or weakness. Soft stone is also said to 
\n\ brushy. — Brockett. Compare Brash, 2. 

MNASS, money. Impudence is called brass. See Brazen. 

•■ rh« chcps that fand the brass:*— T. Wilson, Opening of Railway, 1838- 

HKASS, iron pyrites found in the coal measures; also called 

*• l\ul mi\t\l with hjss:* — Borini^s and Sinkings, A.B., p. 233. 

UK ASS U.\Nn, a layer of iron pyrites. 

UK ASSY, ooniaininj: iron pyrites. 

" Vh«» ^^VA! hA» the nfputation of being in parts hrassy:* — Hogh Mfflff. 
i.*vs\V^» ." i^r;/f .'ii»^ A%J h^i<J.-x,^Or.^l Smmy Memcir, 1SS7, p. 33. 

IU\ \SS\\ jvru H\cK\ forwArd in manner. Principally applied 
Ix^ N\^v,«j: i^^Y*'^ ^''' -^^ Active but presumptive turn. **A 
>'.*vx^ v,^lUr,t/' *• .\ >»J,<:?i !iii'.e fellow." 

U K \S r *.',.t>: /,Vo ,vr. o: >.-vc . TrAY*::« : - Bella, did onybody 
A \ s \ <^; x'.:„r,V xv.-: \v; >:.vajlII h«r. hirnv? " Hostess: *'Na; 
\\ \ On \v xx.;> :\\\v ;>a: van*/ 

V*K \ V .^ ,^ vv^v ^\: :>vr ;,::ro: cc :>:* Xcrthtzscberland coast. 

^.''V ,-»>»>« ufc,* ,^j.tnrj £t *:.ij^ ^^ uif htcx. 

7 "AJisca. Tu Jf/waii/. x539 

' \ V* » V s ,» .Va t,,^\^^ ;s^xJ*« rr*5* cc A s5se<;Kkin. Of 
*- X ^^ ' ;v Own t ,r^ ar?sr r.Ke x » calitfl * 

'" ■ ■^^. ... !:^^ f ^ j]5ed 

V rvx , t .V -ii-mc XX r2je 


^ • *■ ■ «-v '. -X -.-; ^r- \Ji» 

• ' vs.- -. 'vrur.. ' 

>vv. "n..-^ 'ST. -^^^ai. Tt 1. T fT- 


AT, a scum on the surface of liquid; the curdled soap 
bating on the top of water after washing ; a hard and broken 
rust on the surface of soil. Compare Brat, in coal mining, 
nd Brat, to curdle or solidify, below. 

lAT, in coal mining, a thin stratum of coarse coal or black 
tone, sometimes mixed with carbonate of lime and pyrites, 
requently found lying at the roof of a seam of coal. 

** Limestone brat 2 feet 6 inches.*' — Borings and Sinkings, L.R., p. 113. 

lAT, to curdle. Thunder brats the cream. Earth is said to 
)e bratted when baked and cracked with the sun, and plants, 
vhen similarly dried and cracked, are said to be bratted, 

lATCHET, an ill-behaved child; but often applied familiarly 
md aflfectionately to a lively child. ** Ye cunnin' little 
ratchet ; aa see ye there." 

lATCHET, a thin liquor made from the last squeezing of 
he honeycomb. — Brockett. See Bragget. (Obs.) 

The high wood back acting as screen to a long-settle is 
:alled a brattish. A Northumberland man was asked to come 
Further into the room. He replied : ** No, thank ye ; aa'Jl 
just sit ahint the brattish.** He had modestly taken a seat 
lear the screen at the door. In a room, a portion is said to 
be **brattishedoff** when a wooden partition has been run up 
to form a division or second apartment. In mining, where 
one shaft is used for a double purpose, it is divided by a 
brattish, or brattice ; this is called the shaft brattish. '* A wood 
partition used for ventilation when there is only one opening 
or passage." {Gloss. Newc. Mining Terms, 1852.) ^^The brattice 
that divided the back shaft, or pumping side, from the fore 
shaft, where the coals as well as the men and boys were 
drawn up to and from their work." (Robt. Scott, Ventilation 
7/ Coal Mines, 1868, p. 34.) When in other parts of the pit, 
it is called the •* drift," " headways," " board," &c., brattish, 
according to the situation in which it is placed. " The 
coUerens which formerly supported the bratticing were all 
gone to decay." (R. Scott, Above, p. 31.) Brattice-cloth is 
strong canvas steeped in Archangel tar, and used in making 
temporary air courses. In architecture, carved work on the 
top of a shrine. *• Before we descend let us glance between 
the brattishing which surrounds the sides." (Rev. Provost 
Con^itt, Life of St. Cuthbert, 1887, p. 247.) To fortify with 


timber. "At Clennel is a little tower of the inheritance of 
one Percival Clennel, gent., newly reperelled and bratiyskd" 
(Survey of Northumberland y in 1541, Sir Robert Bowes.— 
Hodgson MS.) See Bates, Border Holds, p. 54. 

BRATTLE, a fray, a loud noise, a peal of thunder. 

" Says he, I have got quite enough, 
Sae thus we gave ower the brattle." 

Song, •• Valentine's Day.** 

Bards of the Tyne, p. 167. 

BRAUTINS, girdle cakes with cheese sandwiched between. 
Mr. Brockett says the dish was formerly prepared for 
mowers in the hay harvest, and carried to them in the field. 
On the authority of a woman, aged 99, he adds that this was 
a repast on Midsummer Eve, and also on St. Thomas's 

l^RAVE, an emphatic prefix, adding intensity; for instance, 
•* Brave an* dry *' means very dry ; " Brave an' seun," in very 
}::OiHl time : ** Brat^e an' near," very near indeed. " He's a 
hrxue Strang un/* he*s a very strong one. «* A brave lad," is a 
nioo comely fellow. Brare must always be joined with some- 
thing agreeable. 

1>R A\'l\L\\ in excellent health — however deficient in courage.— 
Bnvkitt. Sec I^raalkv. 

1>KAXY MrTT(.^N\ mutton of a sheep that has died of a 
d\$eA$e lenwevl •* the frjaw/' Sec Traik. 

l^RAW to jVHmvl* to hjimmcr at, to assault. Brayed sand is 
|vutuU\l ;?A«vlstone. ** Aall hjn the sowl cot o' ye." 

*^ ll^' )»jtt^4 x^tcfix b^c^h bpg and sair. 
I VK>w tii^ «$A&aia corf mas bev'd ; 
\Va* %'.t\>y«^t:i $«^Mt trjw iv*nr hjir. 

r^KAWK. vxr VvKAVlNO STV>NE.jtl«tcruscdinpoundiflg 


VKER, a large crack formed in the roof of a pit next to 
goaf, or a crack caused by cleavage in stratification, 
also Bricker. 

VK THE GRUND, to dig a grave. The term is more 
licable to the place where families consider they have a 
m to be interred. 

VST» the projecting mantel of a chimney. Breast -summer, 
mantel-piece or beam thrown across it. 

:K, break, a short story. 

' Od ; I could tell ye ower as monie o' Jamie's breeks as ^^'ad fill a hale 
lik.'* — James Armstrong, Dandie Dinmont. 

3K, a portion of a field cultivated by itself. — ^James Britten, 
Country and Farming Words, E.D.S. See Brick, 2. 


KAN, the brake fern. See Bracken. 

'KANY, abounding in, or covered with brake fern. 

)E, to make broad, to spread. — Ray's Gloss. Hence brede, 
idth or extent. Bred, a board. ** Baaks and hreds'* are 
n and scale-boards familiar in the farm dairy for weighing 
er. See note under Baaks and Breds. 

)S, scale boards. 

)- VENOM, a gathering or suppuration which originates 
ad blood or from some cause within a person's body, as a 
:low. It distinguishes from an income, which is a gathering 
.sioned by an outside cause. See Income. 

I, BREAY, the breast of a hill, the brink or bank of a 


Bellingham Church stands near the edge of a steep brae which slopes 
mward to the Tyne." — S. Oliver, Rambles in Northumberland, 1835, 

The little valley of the Nent was once a fairyland, and had its flowery 
idows, and wild shaws, and bosky breaysV — Hodgson's Hist, of 
'thumberlandf iii., 2., p. 39. 

•* Aw smacked thir yell, aw climb'd thir bree 
Theseet was wondrous, vurry." 

T. Thompson, d. 1816, Jimmy Jfoneson's IVhurry, 

iCHES, the roe of a fish when unbroken or uncut. 


BREED, to make, to extend. " Here, lads! let*s&r^ a sHdey," 
that is, ''Let us work on till a slide is made on the ice." 
See Brede. 

BREED, bread. 

" Think of a heap o' hungry bairns 
About an empty cubboard cryin', 
Wi mebby he that hardly earns 
Their daily breed, in sickness lyin*." 

T. Wilson, Pitman's Pay, pt. iii., v. 51. 

BREED- AN-CHEESE, the opening bud of the hawthorn tree. 
It is often eaten by children, and thus called. 

BREEK, to put into trousers. A memorable time in the life 
of youth. 

•• Frae beein* hruh*d till fit to marry." 

T. Wilson, Pitman^s Pay, 1827, pt. ii., v. 78. 

BREEKS, trousers. 

" Ma bran new coat an breiks wis gyen.'* 

Song, Wot Mally Tomed Bloomtr, 

" Then fierce as fire she seized the breeks," 

T. Wilson, Pitman's Pay, 1826, pt. i. v. 45- 

BREER, the eglantine or sweet-briar. Wild sweet breret the 
wild rose, Rosa tomentosa. 

BREEST, breast. " His bare breestr " The chimley hrusH' 
To give an infant ** the breest " is to suckle it. 

BREEST, the iron in a smith's fire next the snout, or nozzle» 
of the bellows. 

BREET, bright. 

** Her high-heeled shoon. wi' buckles breet.** 

T. Wilson, Pitman's Pay, 1829, pt. iii., v. «• 

BREETH, breath. " Aa's run till aa*s oot o' breeth:* 

BREETH, breadth. " A ban's breeth "—a handsbreadth. 

BREEZE, BRAYS, small coke, or the dust of coke. 

BREMEL or BRIMMEL, the bramble. 

BREMEL-BARRIES, bramble-berries. CaUed also Butrnd- 
kites, Black Bow-wowers^ &c. 

BRENCH, a branch. 



BRENT, steep. B«M/-brow, a steep hill; me/a/A. The brow of 
a hill, the edge or side of a hill, or precipice. — Ray'i Gloss., 
1691, E.D.S., B. 15. Something set up or standing up; 
hence applied to a "stuck-up" or consequential person. See 

»" JuBt then aw saw war lads ganniil' by, 
As strcigbt as rashers, and sae brent." 
■■ ShiiU'i Racii.- 
Bards of the Tyne. 1849, p. 491. 

BRENTIN, the act, in playing marbles, of placing the hand 
on the knee and so discharging tlie marble from an elevation. 
"Brtnl doon" is the instruction, in playing, to keep the hand 
down on the ground. 

BRERE, to sprout, to spring up, to prick up ia the manner 
grain does when it first germinates. — Hodgson MS. " It had 
just breered when the caad nipt it"- — that is, the plant had 
just shown above ground when the cold nipped it. See also 

BREWERY, a boys' game at marbles. See Boorey. 

BREW'IS, crusts or pieces of bread soaked in the fat of 
pottage. — Bailey's Did. { ? Obs.) 

BRIAN, "to briati an oven," to keep fire at the mouth of it, 
either to give light or to preserve the heat. — Ray, North- 
Country Words, 1691. 

BRICK, to break. 

■' Ye'll hriek yor neck, mind. 
Yor higb-fiown cheps oft fyel an' brick." 

T. Wilson, Pilman's Pay, 1827, pt. ii., v. 93, 

BRICK, a patch of growing turnips surrounded by a net within 
which sheep are placed to eat off the crop. The brick (break) 
no doubt distinguishes between it and the unbroken part of 
the crop. See Breck, 2. 

BRICK, the birch tree. See Birk. 

BRICKER, BREAKER, a fissure produced in the roof of the 
mine, from the pressure on removing the pillar. — Brockeit. 


BRIDAL, BRIDE-ALE, a wedding feast. 

■' When Brydals, or Horse Races fell."— G. Stoart, JoM-SerUmsDUceuru, 
i(i8G, p. 19, 

BRIDE-SPURS, spurs allotted to the best runner after the 
H^narriage ceremony. — Brockeit. See Kail. (Obs.) 



BRIDE'S-WAIX, a wedding cnstom. (Obs.) 

" Oa the occasioa of tbe cel^xatkMi of a marriage, the bride's farm- 
tnre was broo^t in a wain or n a g guu to her hosbaiid's house, with 
much pomp and oeremoay ; oo the top of the load, and forming the 
most prominent object in it, was her spinning whed. gaily decorated 
with ribbons. This was called the bnU's sun."— Rev. J. E. Elliot, 
Hist. o/Bks. SMt. Omb, toI. vi., p. 246. 

BRIEF, a memorial, ch- b^ging letter signed by some 
responsible person, and carried about by a poor petitioner 
who has lost a cow or horse, or suffered some misfortune. 

BRIERS, beams or girders fixed across a shaft top. 

BRIG, a bridge. "The aad brigr " Coxhrigr 

" Shell neist try the Quay — the Costom-House, tee — 
The Brig — an' wor awd coaly river." 

T. Wilson, Tkt Movements, 1839. 
** Fre there aa went alang the Brig.^'—Ma Canny Hinny. 

BRIHAM, BRIME, a horse collar. This word has several 
forms — barkham, braffam^ briffam, barfham^ braugham, hrecJiA^i 
&€, — but the common pronimciation is briham. See note under 

BRIHAM, or BIRGHAM-FLAP, the old arrangement of the 
trouser band and front. 

BRIM. A sow in kind is said to be "a brimmer," or "^ 
breeming." A sow is said to go to brim when she goes to the 

BRITCHIN, that portion of horse harness buckled to the cart 
saddle, passing round the hinder part of the horse and fastened 
by chains to the "limmers" of the cart. 

BRIZZ, BRISS, to press, to squeeze, to bear a weight upon* 
to press down with the fingers, to constrain with the arms. 
** Come, let me brizz your breast to mine." ** To ^'w beneath 
the heel of contempt." 

BRIZZLE, BRISTLE, BIRSEL, to crackle in cooking. 

The carlins '* will then parch, crack, and, as we provincially call 1^* 
bristle ; when they begin to burst they are ready to eat." — Corre^nden^ 
from Northumberland to Gentleman's Magazine, 1788, p. 189. 

•' Mr. George Stephenson, the engineer, was at Mr. Hinde's diflD^ 
(British Association, Newcastle, 1838). He told me that he and hjssofl 
had made an inclined plane in their works to ascertain why the railro^ 
did not rust, and on laying silk on the line, after it had been used, that it 
all ' brizzled up,' and he was then assured that they were electrified."^ 
Jom^alof Rev. John Hodgson, Raine*s Life, vol. ii., pp. 382-3. 

••The modern Scotch is hirsle; but i6th century English had *ri»»^' 
and 17th century Northern dialect brusle.** — Dr. Murray, NewEng,W' 


BROACH, a reel of yarn. Compare Pirn. 

BROACH, the spire of a church. This word is given in the 
GtHtUman's Magazine of 1794 as a word from Newcastle. 

»" Chester-le-Streel has a bonny, bnony church, 
Wilh a broach upon (he uleeple : 
Bui Chester-le- Street is a dirty, dirty town, 
An mair shyem for the people." 

Broach is now used as an architectural term to describe a spire 
springing direct from the tower without any intermediate 
parapet. "Broach, a spit. It is a French word ; from its 
similitude whereto a spire-steeple is called a 6fooc/i- steeple, 
as an obelisk is denominated from (Greek) obelos, a spit. It 
signifies also a butcher's prick." — Rays Gloss. 

LJROACH, to break a hole through the stopping in a pit. 

BROACH, to face stones with a mason's pick. In local work, 
the stone is set on its broadest " bed," and the mason so 
works it, always striking downward with his pick. "Broached 
stones" are stones thus dressed. 

BROCK, a badger (Milis taxui), or a badger bound. To stink 
like a brock," "To sweat like a brock," are proverbs. The 
latter from the little insect (the larva of the froghopper) in 
the cuckoo spit, called a brock. See Grey, 

■' others brawl about Jack's brock, 
Thai all iha Chowden dogs can bang." 

Thos. Wilson. Filmaa's Piy, pi. i., v. 31. 

EROCK, a name sometimes given to a cow or husbandry 
horse. — B rocked. 

mOCK, any refuse straw or hay, &c., broken short. 

IROCKEN, broken. See Broken. 

" They could, aw think, compare 'I wi' miwst; 
But Clootie's gang, a' brockcu lowse, 
And frae his clutches fleein'," 

T. Wilson, Opining a} NiL.'cail!e and Caylisle KaiUiiy. iKjS. 

EROCK-FYECED, marked in the face with a streak like a 
badger, A '' brack-faced cow." 

BROCKLE, BRL'CKLE, liable to break, frail, uncertain, 
precarious. Hence applied to variable or uncertain weather, 

as "a brocklc day." 


BROCKWELL ; " the lowest workable (coal) seam of any 
district is, ipso facto, called the " Brockwell.*' — Professor G. 
A. Labour, M.A., Geology of Northumberland and Durham, 2nd 
ed., 1886, p. 51. Compare with Brockle, above. 

BROD, a small nail. (Obs.) 

*' Four hundred hrods^ is. 8d. ; two bonches laths, 2s.''— Richard 
Welford, Hist, of N ewe, XVI. Cent., p. 356. 

BROD, or BRUD, to separate peas from beans by means of 
a riddle. 

BROGLER, an untrained person, "a feckless body." "He's 
just a brogler " — that is, he is a poor hand, as a poor preacher, 
an unqualified medical practitioner, or a bad workman. 

BROGLY, shaky, twisted, uneven. **Aa've a pair 0' com- 
passes, but thor varry brogly yens " — that is, bent and twisted 
m the legs and generally shaky. " The road's a varry broify 

BROKEN, ** a part of the mine where the pillars are in course 
of removal." — Min, Ghss. Newc, Terms, 1852. 

*' They begin to work off the standing pillars of coal, which is (as tbe 
miners say) working in the broken.'* — Robt. Scott, Ventilatum of Coel 
Mines, 1868, p. 14. 

" The partial working of pillars was commenced at Walker Colliery 
by Thomas Barnes in 1795, and improved by Mr. Buddie at Percy Ma^i 
in x8io." — Gloss, of Coal Trade Terms, 1849. 

BROKEN-MEAT, meat left after a meal. 

BROKET, a IsLrk- Northumberland. See Pennant's Tour «« 
Scotland, 1790, i., 48. — HalliweWs Diet, 

BRONG, an occasional p. ten, of bring. ** He brong it aall on 
hissel." Brongen and hrong are used RSp.part. «*lfye'd oney 
hrong it seuner." See Browt. 

BROO, the forehead. "Sic a heed! all mooth an' ^r<w." The 
face of a dyke in a pit. See Canch. 

•• The front of the depressed roof at a dip hitch. ''^Greenwell. 

BROO, inclination, good opinion. Used in the negative. **Aa 
hed no broo on't" — I had a bad opinion of it and was timorous 
of the issue. 

BROODY, having a brood. ** A broody hen," a hen with 
chickens. ** Broody, or brcddy,"' is said of a matron who has 
her children in quick succession. 


ROON, brown. 

ROON-BUZZOMS, besoms made of broom. See Brum. 

ROON-GEORGE, brown bread. 

ROONIE, a brown spirit, popularly supposed to be dis- 
tinguished from a fairy, or fair-complexioned spirit, by its 
brown skin. See Duergar. 

JROON-KITTY, or KITTY-WREN, the wren, Troglodytes 

iROON-LEAMER, a hazel nut, when it becomes brown and 
mealy ended, ripe and ready to fall out of its husk. — Rev. J. 
Hodgson, Archaologia /^ liana, vol. ii., p. 132. 

"The term is figuratively applied to generous persons, called also 
Brownshill€rs:*—HalliwelVs Diet. 


" * A bross€n kite,' one with a large and well-replenished corporation.'* — 
Hodgson MS. 

ROTH, used as a plural noun. " A few broth." 

ROTT, shaken corn. — Ray's Collection of North-Country Words^ 

•* Brotts, fragments, droppings." — HalliwelVs Diet. 

ROUGH, BROOF, in Northumberland, the name for the 
halo which in thin, hazy weather encircles the moon, and 
is seen in mist sometimes over the sun. — Hodgson MS. 
•* He'ye seen the broofroond the myun thi' neet ? It's a lang 
way off." The beliet is that the larger the diameter of the 
circle the greater the anticipated storm. 

ROUGHTENS, in Rothbury parish, are cakes, with thin 
layers of cheese put on each side and baked, to give to 
mowers for their noon, or luncheons. — Hodgson MS. See 

»ROUT, brought. ** He brout them o up." See Browt. 

tROWDEN, BROODIN, to be anxious for, or warmly 

attached to, any object ; to be enamoured of it. Brorhfitt 

See Broo, 2. 

JROWDIN, BROODIN, vain, conceited, bold, forward — 
Brockett, 3rd ed. 


BROWN-HEADED-DUCK, the golden-eye duck, ClaKgda 
glaucion, \^ 

BROWN-HEN, a name for the black grouse, Tetrao Utrix. U 
is also called black cock and black game. 

BROWN LINNET, one of the names for the linnet, Cannabin^ 
linoia. Other names for the bird are lennari, and grey^ f^i 
and rose linnet, 

BROWST, a brewing, a quantity brewed at any one time-— ' 
Brocketty 3rd ed. 

BROWSTER, a hxe^ex.— Brockets 3rd ed. 

BROWT, brought, />. /ay/, browten. "He browt his fether v*rio 
him ; it's a wonder he hadn't browten his grandfether te^«" 
** He browt him up to the butchin business.'* Brong is ^d 
occasional form. 

BROWTENS-UP, upbringing. " It just shows his browt^^^- 
up " — that is, it shows the way in which he has been broug'it 
up. It is generally applied to misconduct or want of eaX'Jy 

BRUCH, the old name for a toad-stool, or a fungus. — Hdg^^^ 

*• Toad-stool, or, as the Northumbers call them, bruches.** — Turne?^** 
Herbal, 1562. 

BRUCKLE, to dirty.— i?ay5 Gloss. 

•• To hrookle, or hrukle, in the North, is to make wet and dirty.' *-"" — 
Kennett, p. 137, quoted HalliwelVs Did. 

BRUCKLED, dirty.— i^^ys Gloss. 

" Wet, stormy; applied to the weather.' — Brockett. 

" BfuckeVd wants explanation. Herrick speaks of * boys and bruck^^ *^ 
children, playing for points and pins.' "—Nare's Gloss. See explanati'''^ 

BRUD, to separate peas from beans. See Brod. 

BRUISER, a bullying fellow. 

" He can wallop a' the bruisers an' greet bullies on the Kee."— 
Corvan, 1854, Fire on the Quay. 

BRULLIMENT, a broil or quarrel— Brockett. 

BRUM, the plant broom. ''Brum (or broon) buzzoms" a^ 
bezoms made from broom, or, as they are called in coUoqui^^ 
English, ** brooms." 


BRUMSEN, brimstone. 

BRUN, to burn. This is the common pronunciation in 
Northumberland : /./.. brunt. The " Bnmt Hoose " was 
formerly a noted hostelry in the Side at Newcastle. 

■■ An aged Jacobite, whom we knew well in early youtii, lold us ihal 
ihe mosi vivid raeollection of old Misa Mary (Hodgson of Tone) was 
lhal of general Forsler'*{For3lerof Add erslones) appearance at Hexham, 
at the head of ihe English Jacobites, and of the splendid way he 
managed his magnificent black charger : but, added she, ' That was all 
be was worth, for he was a pig-headed fool.' Had she written these 
words she would no doubt have added, as she did to her dying day, 
' Rede and broiin.' read and burn, so habitual had secrecy been to her in 
early years," — Dr. Charlton. Soiiliy in NortUumbcrlani in Last Cialury, 
1874, p. 3. 

^^iRUNLIN, one who is made a butt or foot of. "Ye needn't 
think yor gan to myek a brunliii a' me" — said by one too 
sharp to be imposed upon. 

:^RUNT [p.l. of Imm), burnt. During a game at ball, or 

marbles, if one steps in the way, so as to stop the course of 

ball or marble, the plaything is said to be brunt. " He brant 

the baal." "Thoo's bruni maa tar; aa'Il he' that shot ower," 

■' A piece of btiinl slob."— T. Wilson, Joyci's Falixl Slovi. 

^^3RUSSLE (see Briz^le, which is the same word), to crackle 
in cooking or burning. 

^i:3RUST, to burst (pait, brail; p. bari. hrussen ox broiscn). "To 
hrust" — to break the skin, as " I'll brust your gob." Bruited is 
sometimes used. 

" The limes we've run till like lo brusl 
To hear blind Willie singin'." 

R. tiilcbrisl, d, 1844, him Willti Si>igiHg. 
"tie ought could them endure, but all they cleft or brail." — Fairie 
QmtHt, book v., cant, xii.-wii. 

Shakspeare has, "I'll be sworn he never saw him, but once in the tili- 
yard ; and then he bunt his bead, for crouchini^ among the marahal'a- 
men.'' — ^and Henry IV,, iii. 2. 

^^teRUZZLED, over-roasted.— HaWifiiW, See Brizzle, 

■Bubble, to snuffle, to blubber, to cry. The expression, " he 
hMed and cried" is very common. 

'•The prayer wadn't de. so ihey started te ii.W/f . 
Twas a' tbey could say i' Ihe midst uv their trouble." 

Song, The Demi, or the Nanny Goal. 

Bubbles, the secretion or mucus of the nose, " Wipe the 
bubblts off the bairn's nose." 


BUBBLY, snottery, soft, blubbering. 

" He's an ugly body, a bubbly body, 
An ill-far*d, ugly loon." 

*'SandgaU Girls* Lamentation." 

Bell's Rhymes, 1812, p. 48. 

" The keel-bullies a*, byeth great and sma, 
Myed a bubbly tide o* the boppin', O !** 

J. Selkirk, d. 1843, ** SwalweU Hopping^ 
BelVs Rhymes, 181 2, p. 47. 

BUBBLY-JOCK, the male turkey. Probably so named from 
the wattles hanging from the front of his bill and down his 

BUCK, the driver used by players in the games of " trippet 
and quoit " and **kitty-cat-an*-^w^^-stick." 

BUCK, the hook for attaching the chains to a plough beam. 

BUCK-BUCK, a game played by two boys. One boy " makes 
a back," and the other player leaps on it, calling out, '* Buck- 
buck, hoo many fingers div aa had up." If the buck guesses 
right the players exchange places. 

BUCKER, a sand beater, used for making «* bray-sand"; a 
domestic utensil, with iron head and wooden handle, for 
crushing sandstone to a powder for stone floors. Buckers were 
used formerly for crushing lead ore before the introduction of 
machinery for •* stamping." 

BUCKET, the piston of a lifting set of pumps in a pit. — Newc. 
Mining Terms, See Sword. 

BUCKET-TREE, the pipe between the working barrel of a 
pump and the windbore. 

BUCKLE, to marry. 

BUCKLE, a dint, or bend, or twist in the face of a plate of 
iron ; '* a buckled plate" is a plate that has got twisted or set 
awry on its face. 

BUCKLE-HORNS, bent horns. 

BUCKLE-MOOTHED, having a twisted mouth. See Buckle, 
2, above. 

" What a fyess, begok ! had buckle -moothed Jock, 
When he twined his jaws for the baccy, O." 

J. Selkirk, SwalweU Hopping. 


BUCKLE-TO, to work in earnest, to agree with. "Come, 

lads, let's buckle to." 

" Now, they'd nothing more to do 
Bat make the mother buchU to ; 
Which mnst be done, or else the bargain 
Would not be worth a single farthing." 

Edward Chicken, The Collier's Wedding, 1735. 

BUCKSHEENED, ha\'ing the shin bones bucked, or crooked 

to the front ; a condition produced by ricket in early life. 

" Bucksheen'd Bob, fra Stella, O." 

J. Selkirk, SwalwcU Hopping. 

BUDDEN, ordered ; invited to a funeral. See Boden and 
Bid, 2. 

BUDDOCK, the buttock, or nether part. 

'* He sits in his huddock and claws his bare buddoch." 

Song, Bonnie Keel Laddie. 

BUDDY-BUD, BUDDY-BUS, the flower of the burr, or 
burdock, Arctium lappa, Linnaus, — Brockeit. 

BUDDY-BUDDY, the caU to chickens for their food. 

BUER, a gn^LU—Rafs Gloss. ( ? Obs.) 

BUESS, BEUST, or BUST, a stall, station, or part of office, 
or business ; a beast stall, or booze, — Brockeit, See Boose. 

BUFF, a blow given by one boy to another to provoke him to 
fight. Compare Cowbat. 

BUFF, to beat. A word formerly in polite use. (Obs.) 

«* There was a shock 
To have bufd out the blood 
Of ought but a block." 

Ben Jonson, quoted in Nan's Diet. 

BUFF, to labour heavily. 

** He was buffin* at a back as hard as whinstone." 

T. Wilson, Pitman's Pay, 1843, pt., ii., v. 34. 

BUFF, to polish a knife, after sharpening it, by stroking, or 
Effing it on a soft leather strap. 

BUFF, the bare skin. " He wis stripped to the buff/' 

"Adam wore his native buff." — Ware's Gloss. ^ under word Adatn Bill. 

BUFFET, a foot-stool ; sometimes called a buj^et-siool, 

"Five bnffette-siools, 2s. 6d."— 11^/7/ 0/ Robert Clavering of Callaly, in 
D.D. Dixon's Vale of Whiitingham , 1887, p. 39. 


of coarse grass, Aira caspitosa. See Bull-pyet. 

BUFF.NOR-STYE. '« He could neither say buff nor sty^" 
said of a simpleton, or of one who is surprised past speech. 
Another form of this expression is gruff-nof-siye, ** He 
nowther said gruff-nor-stye " — that is, he churlishly gave no 
answer whatever. It is said when a person has been grossly 
insulting in his manner by refusing to answer when spoken 
to. In Nares Gloss,, huff ne baff is given ; ** Neither one thing 
nor another. Nothing at all." 

BUGHT, a sheepfold. See Bought. 

" A structure described by the shepherds as a bugkt for milking ewes, 
or assorting sheep." — ^James Hall, Gmids to GUndale, 1887. p. 99. 

** Aneath the dusky peak o' Cheviot, 

Where the falcon spreads his flashing wings. 
Where the wild thyme springs, and blne-bi^ blossom. 
And the lavrock o*er the yovte-bught sings.*' 

James Anderson, Th§ Scottish Lassie, 1879- 

BUIK, BUICK, a book. Pronounced bee-y-uk and iyuk, which 
see. In Anglo-Saxon the word is boc ; and the accented 
vowel is in Northumberland sounded as ee-yu. 

BUIRDLY, stout, stalwart, of large stately frame. 

BUIS, a space for the forage of stall-fed cattle. See Buess. 

BUIST, BUEST, or BUST, to put a mark or brand upon 
sheep or cattle by their owners. — Brochcit, The pronunciation 
is h-yeast. See Byest. 

BULE, BOOL, the bow of a pan or kettle. — Brockett. 

BULK, the open stall of a shop. 

•• The shop windows of one of these houses (No. 76, Head of the Si^y 
>vere the last which remained unglazed in Newcastle, and retain^^ 
within living memory, what were known as open bulks.*^ — Knowles af'^ 
Boyle, Vestiges cfOld Neuxastle, 1887, p. 4. 

BULL, a round bar of iron used in blasting in wet holes. Tl*^ 
hole being stuffed with clay, a bull is driven through it, aO^ 
thus a water-tight pocket for the blasting-charge is mad^* 
Also a short prop, with forked end, hung loosely at the re^^ 
of a set of tul^ in ascending ; or so balanced in front of a s^^ 
wg tnbs, on an inclined plane, as to strike witl^ 


the points and hold the set, should the rope break. It is 
also called " a cow," and is hung on the lever, or ** start," of 
a gin or crab. The recoil of the load, when winding ceases, 
causes the horns of the cow, or bull, to be thrust into the 
ground. The gin is thus brought to rest, whilst the bull 
holds the weight and prevents a retrograde movement. 

BULL, a stone for sharpening a scythe; usually a piece of 
rounded or squared sandstone of fine grain. A nodule. Iron 
buUs^ or balls, are ironstone nodules. 

BULL-DOG, the slag run from a puddling furnace. 

BULLER, BULDER, to gush out as a spring gushes, to 
bubble, to boil up. Hence applied to a voluble gush of 
words, a tumult of tongues, an uproar. A local revivalist 
preacher in Northumberland expressed himself thus : " When 
aa startid to speak aa was lost ; but when the spirit moved 
me at last, the words cam bullerin oot." 

BULLET, a round sweetmeat, like a bullet. 

BULL-FACES, the grass, Aira caspitosa ; called also bull- 
fronts, buff-fronts, bull-snouts, and winnel-strae. 

BULL-GRASS, the brome grass, Bromus mollis, L.; called 
also goose grass. 

_ « 

BULL HAAS, haws, the fruit of the hawthorn, when of large 
size. See Cat Haas. 

BULL-HEED, a firebrick, wider at one end than the other ; 
measuring gin. long by 4^in. at the wider or bull end, tapering 
to 2|in. wide at the narrow end, and of 2^in. thickness 

BUlLOCK, a steer of at least a year old. 

BUlLOCK, a variant olfullock, which see. 

BUlLOCKER, the largest sized marble used in boys' games. 

^OLLOCKS' tongue, the harts tongue fern, Scolopendrium 

BlJLL-PYET, bull's pate; a tuft of coarse grass among the 
finer meadow grasss. Bull-faces, bull-fronts, and bttff-fronts 
are various names used for tufts of coarse grass. 

BULLS, the heavier bars of a harrow, as distinguished from 
the lighter crossbars, or sheth. 


BULLS- AND-COWS, -lords and ladies," the flowers of the 
Arum maculaium. Also called Lam-Idkens. 

BULL-SEG, an imperfectly castrated ox. 

BULL'S-EYES, large lozenges made of toffey, and flavoured 
with mint. 

BULL-TROOT. a large fine species of fish peculiar to 
Northumberland, and much esteemed. The larger kind of 
salmon trouts taken in the Coquet are in Newcastle market 
called buil trcuis : but these fish are much larger than salmon 
trouts in the head, which is a part generally admired for its 

" Bilhcpe Braes for backs and raes. 
And Carit Haugh for swine, 
And Farras fcr the good ImII trcMt, 
If he be laen in time." 

CU Rhyict.—Brockttt. 

It is the Sj.'nc.' {ri:x. *- Bell trout, acocg as in Northomberland, 
from its great size. " — T-^ntir. 

BULLY, equivalent to brother; a mate, a comrade. The 
crew of a keel are always called *• the riuVrVs." 

•• The l^y.i^s an' pee-dee a' huddled together. 
Yen an' a did agree it A^-as torrible weather." 

Song, Thi Dn::, cr the Sanny Coat. 

•• Kfi!-ik^*:es is a term used for this species of watermen ; bMllus is also 
a common appellation among the people concerned in the coal works ior 
brothers. '■ — Brand. His:. .7 .\Vl.- .vol. ij.. 17S9. p. 261, mcU. 

•• Four or eve days before Ripley died, he went to see him, and beard 
Agnes s^iy to him. •i>t,V;,'. thou hast g~lven thy sil\-er whistle and chain 
to Lev^nard Hark, bat I trust thou shal: live to wear it thyself."— Trial 
01 13S4. Richard Weltord's His: cf Stsi:., vol. iii., p. 19. 

l^ULLY, the bullnnch. See Booly. 

nULRUSHER, a bukush. 

lU' make a humming or drumming noise like a bee, <^ 

huwUt ; alsv^ to spin a top. - The soon's bummin in my ears. 

To drive violently or hurriedly. ** They were bummed oot. 

•* liadaway bum yor top/* 

** In bve thev ^um'd me in a crack.'* 

r::mjM"s Pay, pt. ii., v. 35. 

** After thev Hwm'I as roand aboot. 
For a* the vrarld like a teetotom.'* 

r::wuM*s Fjj, pt. ii., v. 30. 


The limveUers i' thor whirUgigs hMmmmr 

T. Wilson. SUiMias, 1824. 


BUM, a sheriff's officer who distrains, or takes possession. 

** There was Preston, the bailiff, Joe Craggs was his bum.** 

Song, Limbo. 

BUMBAZED, bamboozled. See Baze. 
BUM-CLOCK, a flying beetle. 

BUMMEL, a bungle. 

'* They made sic a bummel wi' sail and wi' line. 
That they varry nigh cowpt thorsels inti the Tyne." 

Song, The Keelman's Stick. 

BUMMER, the driver of a carriage or gig. In former times 
commercial travellers were all gigmen, or bummers, 

*• A road for horse— a road for post — 
And yen for a' the bummers.'* 

Thomas Wilson, The Oilin' o* Dicky's Wig, 1826. 

BUMMLER, a large fly, a bee. *' A hummle bee" is the humble 
bee. ** He hummed the tune like a hummler iv a rose bush," 
said of a minister who had attempted to raise a tune. 

BUMMLEKITE, BUMMLERSKITE, the blackberry, the 
fruit of the bramble, Ruhus fruticosus. See Black- bow- wowers. 

** The fruit is vulgarly known in the district by the name of bumble- 
kyte, from its being supposed to cause flatulency when eaten in too 
great a quantity. No knowledgeable boy will eat these berries after 
Michaelmas Day, because the arch-fiend is believed to ride along the 
hedges on the eve of that great festival, and pollute everything that 
grows in them, except the sloes, by touching them with his club foot. 
The same notion prevails further North, where the bramble-berries are 
called lady's garter berries." — W. Brockie, Legends and Superstitions, 
p. 115. 

BUMMLER-BOX, a small house; an old square bed with 
sliding panels in front. 

BUMP, to drive against. ** He bumped his heed again the top 
an' myest felled hissel." 

BUMP, a knock, a blow, the swelling or lump caused by a 
blow. **Bump against," to fall or drive against with violence. 

" The laddie ran sweatin, ran sweatin. 
The laddie ran sweatin aboot. 
Till the keel went bump agyenst Jarrow, 
An' three o' the bullies lap oot." 

•• Little Pee DeeS— Allan's Collection, p. 194. 


BUN, BUND {p.p. of hind), bound. " He wis hun apprenti 
tiv a cairtwright." ** Aa's hun to gan the morrow," or " As 
tied ti gan the morrow." Compare New Eng. Diet., Bou 
ppl. rt*. In the present tense the i is short in hind, find, 8c 
and sounded like the i in tin. 

" Another laog and slavish year 

At last aw fairly struggled through ; 
Gat fettled up a set of gear — 
Was thought a man— and bun to hew." 

T. Wilson. Pitman s Pay, pt. ii., v. 73 

BUN, ready to start. ** Where are ye hun for, Jackey ?" 

BUN, a hare or rabbit's tail. 

BUNCH, to strike, to drive with the knee against the backsL 

BUNCH-BERRY, the fruit of the Ruhus saxatilis, of which ^ 
country people often make tarts. — Brockett. 

BUNG, to close up. ** The cundy*s hung'd up wi' clarts." " 
gat sic a bat it hung'd his eye up." 

BUNG, a worthless person. It is very usual to call a person 
** a lazy hung,'* ** an idle hung.'* 

BUNS, bounds. ** He's oot o' the huns^ 

BUNTIN, the cone of a fir tree. " To pepper buntins" is *<> 
throw huntins in play. 

BUNTON, a piece of squared timber. The rafts of squar^^ 

timber lying by the river side were always called ** tti^ 


'* Transverse pieces of wood placed in shafts to which the guides ^^^ 
the cages are attached." — Greenwell, Glossary, 1888. 

" In timbering the shafts of coal mines huntons and sheets are put *^ 
for the purpose of conducting the cages up and down the shafts."— jol*^ 
Kowell. correspondent Weekly Chronicle^ May 22, 1886. 

** It. p*' for one bunting and two sparres to a yeat (gate) and the mak^*^^ 
it, 4s. 4d.** — Gateshead Church Books, 1633. 

BUR, the hooked seed vessel of burdock. 

BUR, the chock placed behind a crowbar and used slS ^ 


«* Raited bv levers and burs on rollers up an inclined plane."— Hodg^^^' 
Hist, 0/ Nortkumberlandt pt. ij., vol 3. p. 276. 

BIII^DKN-BAND, a hay-band or rope, more commonly call^^ 


BURGHER and ANTI-BURGHER, names, imported from 
Scotland, of the two early secessions from the Church of that 
!and. (Obs.) 

There are in Newcastle, " six consreealions of Presbyter [ans, property 
so called, united in doctrine, discipline, and cammunion with the 
Church of Scotland ; and one of each of the classes of ihe secession 
from that church, stiled B»Tgk:n and AHli-Burgliers."—lmpar!iul Hiil. nf 
Neacaitti, 1801. 

BURN (pronounced Aof«), a brook. This word is of importance 
in its contrast with its synonym bick, which is the charac- 
teristic name in Cumberland and in the North-Riding of 
Yorkshire. Mr. J. V. Gregory (Archisologia .'Eliaita, vol. ix., 
p. 63) counts in Northumberland the occurrence of hum 
upwards of i jo limes, and of heck once only — the Wansbeck ; 
and in Durham burn occurs 74 times, whilst beck, as applied 
to brooks, is found 63 times. (Archaologia .'Eliana, vol. x., 
P- ^73-) "The most northern beck is Wascrow beck, which 
flows from the north of Wolsingham into the Wear at that 
place. Not one beck belongs to the basin of the Tyne." " No 
burn really gets so far south as the Tees itself." (The 
same, p. 181.) This test word indicates the probable southern 
hniit of Eernician, or non-Danish Northumberland— for 
b(ck is Danish or Norse — " More frequent in the Norwegian 
than in the Danish region." (Isaac Taylor, Words and Places, 
6th ed., p. loO.) Bum, on the contrary, is a common 
Teutonic term, Mr. Gregory's conclusion is — " that the 
County of Durham is the Northern limit of any important 
Danish settlements in the East side of England." (Arcl/aologia 
j-TLtiana, vol. x., p. 180.) The change of dialect which marks 
off Shields and Sunderland from the folk-speech of the people 
adjacent is further suggested as indicative of a race differ- 
ence. {"Permian People of North Durham," Archirologia Mliann, 
vol. X., p. 93.) In the western part of the county of Durham 
the mark between the burn and the beck is sharply defined. 
■"■ The mountain range from Burnhope Seat, at the western 
confines of Durham, eastward to Paw Law Pike, forms the 
division between the parishes of Stanhope in Weardale and 
Middleton-in-Teesdale. Theprincipal tributaries of the Tees, 
on the south side of this ridge are bicks, whilst those on the 
Wear side are burns." (W, Morley Egglestone, Weardalt 
Names of Field and Fell, p. 12.) See Beck and Born. 

tSURN-BANK, the bank which margins a burn. It is the 
name of one of the filthiest alleys in Newcastle; a place once 
k side of Pandon burn. 

^^Ke bank s 




BURN-GULLY, a term of derision. Formerly, and inlivi 
memory, country blacksmiths were the principal makers 
edge-tools used in husbandry, such as axes, hedge kniv 
gullusj &c., and many of them attained to great proficiexurj' 
the art of tempering steel. Others, again, not pcoficient 
their attempts at the business^ burnt the temper out of t 
steel, and consequently spoiled their work, and were call-^3^ 
in derision *^ burn gullies J* In course of time the phr^«-^^ 
extended to inefficient workmen in other trades. 

BURNSIDE, the side of a bum. 

BURNT. See Brunt. 

BURN-THEBISCUIT, a boys' game. 

BURR (pronounced bor), the sounding of the letter r by a strc^^=*^ 

tonsil breathing, as distinguished firom the palate r oi ^ fc^e 

south, and the *• tip-tongue- trill " of the letter as heard 

Scotland. It is the guttural sound which strikes a stran 

as the distinction in the Northumberland folk-speech. 

*' People nor town should I kave known 
Had I not heard the Bmrr." 

The line within which the Imrr is spoken may be said 
coincide with the county of Northumberland, but it pas — 
north of the Tweed at Berwick, and o\'cr into the county" ^* 
Durham on its north centre. On the Che\'iots it *^ 
replacevi by the Scottish r. A little to the west of Bard^^^ 
Mill it gives way to the trilled r. At Sunderland a.^^^ 
Sotith Shields an absence of the strong r marks off a dial^^^^ 
vlitfene^nc^ which is most noteworthy. The b^r from 
Northumhri;jin thrvxit is an intensificaticMi, not an elision 
the f sound* See K* 

'** Jvjfw*,* *isw^4/ jmd ^iv»w«'— * well kwma wofd m NartK>^ ^ 
Ks^Uzikt a rw^ 5w#ir« cr )^^\ wbef« fesss and ba%cn barrow. ■'-^ 

tbe $tc&y ^fCHMt!^ Nfiow tbee tioM^tCtte fin£«es cr clitK It is also caMj^^ 
' ^^«#nM^ juiid ;MaK>e^ tSr \V<bc^ $i|«wsw ' Sarw ' aewBs a bttdser."'^^ 
T.^ tuo«3v Xa-^w. \v>i w\xt . Nvv 9-K>» r. ^j^j,. «t col., Aug. nth. iS^^' 

Br KK TREE, th* crvier ttvi?. See Kx-a TWBi. 

BIKTV^N CHINK, j^ ch^;a auoe c* v^rysood iron, used i^ 
low^rut^ ACsi ho«$5i»^ th^ tu^j^s^^ c£ ks^eis iad 


tUS, a sunken rock, on which at very low tides the long sea- 
weed is visible, like a bush ; hence, probably, the name. 
" Bondicar huSy* ** Pan ft«s,'* " Togston bus, 

»USE, a stall, as a cow-^w5^, a hay-fews^. See Boose. 
lUSHEL-IRON, scrap iron. (Obs.) 

tUSHMENT, an ambushment. (Obs.) 

" After which so doone, and the bushment and furray met." — Earl of 
Northumberland, letter to Henry VIII. , from Berwick, Nov. 20th, 1532, 
in D. D. Dixon's Vale of Whittingham, p. 12. 

!USK, to get ready, to dress. " Aa*ll just busk mesel an gan.'* 
**He's weel buskit,** he is well dressed. " Aa'll busk a troot 
flee." See Buss. 

" When the fields busk their spring time attire." 

R. Roxby, Poetic Epistle, 1845. 

*' Rise up Josep and busk and ga, 
Maria an' thi child al-sua." 

Cursor Mundi. 

USKER, a professional mendicant minstrel. 
USKY (a variant of bosky), bushy. 
USS, or BUSK, to dress, to don. 

"The feathers of the woodpecker were preserved to *buss flies."* — 
Rev. J. F. Bigge, in Hist. 0/ Berwickshire Naturalists' Club, vol. ix., p. 562. 

" ' Faith thoo's buss'd like any lady.* *' 

Ed. Chicken, The Collier's Wedding, 1735. 

•• ' Smash ! Jemmy, let's buss ; we'll off 
And see Newcassel Races.' " 

W. Midford, X.Y.Z., 1814. 

" • For Geordy aw'd die, for my loyalty's trig. 
An* aw own he's a good leukin mannie ; 
But if wor Sir Matthew ye buss iv his wig, 
Bygocks, he wad just leuk as canny.* " 

J. Thompson, d. 1816, Canny Neucastle. 

•• * Bussed as aw was iv a' maw best.' " 

T. Wilson, Opening of Railuay, 1838. 

USS, a kiss. " Come gi*s a buss, ma bairn." 

TJSSES, hoops for the top of a cart or waggon. — HalliwelVs 


BUSSIN-THE.TYUP, dressing the tup. The tup was th« 
last corf of coals drawn out of the pit on the last day of th^ 
year ; and by way of showing their pleasure at the gaud3r 
days now commencing, the pitmen covered it with bumi 

" The lads beg, borrow, and steal candles for the occasioii.'* — Nott 
FUwuam's Pay, 1S43. 

BUSY-GAP-ROGUE. The name originally was, probabl 
byssy^ that is busky-gap, a pass abounding in bushes. Busy-gt 
is a "wide break in the ridge of basalt, about a mile fro 
Sewingshields. This was the pass most frequently chos 
by the freebooters of the Middle Ages when on th< 
maurading expeditions to the rich valley of the Tyne, a 
hence it acquired an e\'il reputation. In Newcastle formerl 
to call a brother burgess a Busy-Gap-Rogue was to incur t 
censure of ones guild, as is attested by an entry in the boo 
of the Company of Bakers and Brewers of Newcastle-upo: 
Tyne.*' — \V. \V. Tomlinson, Guide to Sortkumbsrlandy 18^ 
p. 192. 

BUT, an abbreviation of kciibut. On the Northumberlai 
coast the turbot f^oes by the name of brat. 

" Holibat. called there iurbci, are caught off Holy Island with t 
hook." — S. Oliver. Ramb^fs m ScrtkumbriUnd, 1S35. P- 210. 

BUT, outside of. "Btf/ and ben," outside and inside. Tl 
following old rhyme was used in winding yam : — 

'* But the house an* ben the house. 
In the house and out the bouse. 
Droon the house an* bum the house, 
An* heck that's >-en.** 

This was used by the spinners of yam when forming th 
hanks on the great wheel. 

BUT AND, an old form of and. «* Between the Yule but 
the Pasch." 

** Between the night tut j«i the day.** 

bv the late IWmard Rumney, BV.Ts Rkymis, 1S12, p. 166. 

BUTCHIN*, butchering. '* He*s started the butckim* business - 

BUTLER, a temi applieil in the North to a female who 
a bachelors house, a fi\rmer s housekeeper. — Brcckitt^ 3rd 
" Cook, slut, and ^ii*.Vr," a common expression applied to 
person who does all the turns of work in a house. 
" BM::fr' s-gr j,ie, without any ceremony.**— Ha.%*fttv*rs Diet. 


BUTTERIE, the bank swallow, or sand maLVtin.— Holy Island. 

BUTTER-PLATE, the spearwort, Ranunculus ftammula, 

BUTTRESS, a tool used by blacksmiths to pare down a 
horse's foot. 

BUTTS. Before the commons were enclosed, the holdings in 
land consisted of scattered strips under tillage. As dis- 
tinguished from a hutt^ a gored piece was a piece of land 
running off to a point, wedged in, as it were, between two 
strips. In Northumberland, gored pieces are sometimes called 
butts. So also are narrow detached strips. 

•• Where the strips abruptly meet others, or abut upon a boundary at 
right aogles, they are sometimes called butts." — The English Village 
Community, by F. Seebohm, p. 6. 

'* Sam-casts, rigs, butts, and doles of land.*' — Hodgson's Northumberland, 
iii., 2, p. 90. 

" On back (balk) of Gudeland joyning one with ye but, ye but beeing 
on ye west side." — The same, pt. ij., vol. i., p. 92, note. 

•* The six butts." — Survey of Old Bewick^ 1680, Bks, Club, vol. v., p. 255. 

TJ ZZ ARD, a coward. ** What a buzzard — freetened o' the 

UZZOM, the bosom, the breast. " Wiv a posy in her 

UZZOM, a besom, or broom. Buzzom-shank is a broom 
handle. ** To hang out the buzzom,*' to invite friends during the 
wife's absence from home. The ancient sign of an inn was 
a projecting pole, with a tuft, which gave it the appearance 
of a besom. Hence the phrase to **hing oot the buzzom'' is 
an invitation to bachelor friends and a sign of good cheer 
within. A broom at the masthead indicates that a ship is for 

•' An wor Dick, that leeves ower by High Whickham, 
He'll myek us hvoom-buzzoms for nowse." 

W. Midford, d. 1851, Pitman's Courtship. 

^UZZOM, a simpleton. " Thoo greet huzzom,'" or ** He's as 
fond as a buzzom,*' are very common expressions. 

BWOARN, born. 

•• Aw ken weel eneugh when he was bwoarn.''^T, Bewick, The Howdy, 
&c., p. 9. 


BY, beside, near to. It is used in combination, as Infty, Ooti/, 
Ower^v, Back^^, Fovbyy Upby, Doonft>'. Inby is further in, 
or inside ; in a pit it is in from the shaft. Ootby is just 
outside, or in a pit it is the direction towards the shaft or 
exit. Ovferby is just across; Back^just behind; For^y is 
in addition to; Upby is just up the street or road; and 
Doonby is just down the way. In all these, close neighbour- 
hood is suggested. 

•• Paide to John Carr, post, for keeping horses for bye-poste. Paide 
to Mr. Dente. for keepeing the 6y-booke of the rente of Gateshead and 
Whickham, 51.'*— Newcastle Municipal Accounts, October, 1593. 
The /Ji'-post is the local post, and the by-hook is the local, 
or borough, or town book of accounts. 

l\\\ as a suffix in place-names, elsewhere so common 
in {he districts of later Norse settlements, is not found in 
Norlluunl>erland. Ton and ham are, on the other hand, found 

nY*l\ by It. " Stand hyd;' stand by it. 

!>V1\» the lino from which each plaj-er first shoots in a game at 

!>VI\AKIK» tho upright portion of a wooden cattle band 
tiMniotly in us^^. It was attached by a loose joint to a bent 
XNWvU^n Kuul oalJcvl a *• tnLmmelt," See Baikie-stick. 

IxYK IHVriNS. 1>YI£ IK^LTINGS. or SHARPS, the finest 

UYK Cv^MMv^N, nsw ;han Ovx::n:cc or ordiiiaiy. 
U\ KNv a Kv'HN 

TAKN F^Kr. A :\\:^,:r.x. Free/ sirr-iltnn* oc soand the word 
>\\ ;ix^ a; \\ ;,^U^v, a> /n."r^i>^^.. Vriu arixit :S7S the hmrM Jiff 
\\a> a^,^^A>a,;\ ;^^^Nx xSkx oa :be ^jcch ocMjrr. Itstrans- 
N^^wsv tAV^\ MNW,?i\:riV^ tx^ KcxjlI CUk I\av j£ this place is 

>» N* >K«N^ sv x^>^ fsv X l^vv1Lis ^^ %-cr sran; o&cizicaBshiDS 


BYET, work left undone. 

" If aw sud get maw wark ower suin, 
She's flaid te deeth aw've left some byet.". 

T. Wilson. Pitman's Pay, ed. 1872, p. 10. 

" Leaving ' some byet * means he has not completed his day's work, or 
hewed the number of corves placed him by the overman." — Note to above. 

BYETH, both [T.], BEYETH [S. and N.j . 

" There's be noose aw winnot de — 
To myek us byeth a happy hyem." 

T. Wilson, Pitman's Pay, pt. iii., v. 58. 

BYGANE, ago. 

" Mony years bygane.^ — G. Stuart, JocO'Serious Discourse^ 1686, p. 36. 

BY-HAND, settled, or aside. 

BYKE, BEE-BYKE, a wild bee's nest. See Bike. 
BY-M-BY, bye-and-bye. 
BYSEN. See Bizen. 

BY-SONG, or BY-SANG, often MAA-SANG, an exclamation. 
*^ By-sang! thor*d a been a bonny wark, if aa hadn't getten 

BYSPELT, a strange, awkward figure, or a mischievous 
person . — Brockett. (Obs.) 

BYUK [T.] , BEYUK [S. and N.] , a book. Often spelt btiik or 

buick in local writings. 

" Aa liked a ballant or a buick." 

T. Wilson, Pitman's Pay, pt. iii., v. loi. 

BYUN, above, beyond. Variously used as a byun, heyun, ** It's 
hyun a joke " — it is beyond or too much of a joke. 

BYUT, to-boot, a boot. See Beyut. 

CAA, CAW, a tin pail. 

CAA (/.^, caa'd ; p. part.^ caan), to call. "Give him a caa.' 
Also to abuse or call names. ** He caa'd us ivvorything." 
See Caal, 4 and 5. 

CAA, to drive, to propel. **Gi's a bit caa o' the giunstan" — 
said by a man having an axe to grind. **To caa-tee'* is to put 
to, to close, to shut. ''Caa-iee the yett." **Caa-oot,** drive 
out. **Caa-in,'* drive in. "C^a the yows oot bye.*' **Caa 
in that nail.*' 

" Ca Hawkie, ca Hawkie, 

Ca Hawkie through the watter. 
Hawkie is a sweir beast. 
An' Hawkie winna wade the watter." 

Old Song. 


^ee Kadge, Kedge. 

Vhere are ye cadgln the box te ? " " He 
, the way on ov his back." To beg. 
fch off him." " Here's a chep come to 
1 liefigar. 

ton who goes from house to house purchasing 
fewls, &c,,and takes them for sale. A higgler, 
W{Hcdeion MS.) A carrier. For the carriage of 
ED. 1605, there were employed " the cadgers and 
^bere coals are not carried by water." (Brand, 
, vol, ij., p. 22, noti.) " Cadgers, before the 
ief agents in carrying on the commercial 
Setween the two kingdoms." (Rev, A. Hedley, 
WJEliam, voi. i., p. 249.) "Like gentlemen ye 
but look like corn-cadgers ga'en the road." 
Uu Syde.) " Where few but cadgers wi' their cairts till 
iver been." {T. Wilson, Opening Newcastle and Carlisle 
1838.) " Before the special apphcation of cadger to 
> bought and carried corn, Sec, the term appears to 
eo used for any carrier of merchandise." {Richard 
, Hist, of Newc, vol. iii., p. 171.) Nowadays a cadger 
nly as the name for a beggar. Compare with Badger. 

'■ Reapect to Quality was lost. 
Tinkers and Coblers rul'd the rost : 
The Nobles were the Common's Cadgers: 
The Gentry but the Soldiers' Badgers : 
And sae far'd we, fra ill to worse. 
When Cart was set before the Horse." 

G. Stuart, Joco-Strioui Discourse, 168C, p. 36, 

hearty, cheerful, merry, especially after good eating 
iking. — Brocket t. 

aff, the husk of oats. "A caff bed" was the commcn 
bed in use where feathers couid not be procured, 
vely, any light thing. 

fyre that cafft son may bryn." — Hampole, d. 1349, Friche of 
* (Morris), line 3148. 

mp meals, tag beds, and dairns."— T. Thompson, d. 1S16, The 
I How. 

" Wi' pleasure aw was ower the muin, 
A' else wis ra/ and sand 10 mine." 

T, Wilson, nimott-s Paj, 1829, pt. iii., v. Gj. 

lali cask, a keg. See Ka<j. 


cold. " Caai-comfort," cold -comfort ; ** Caad-deed" stone dea 
or cold and dead. To** catch caad'' is used ironically f« 
what is known as ** getting into hot water.*' 

"If cau'd deed ye'd freeten'd wor skipper, se brave. 
We'd myed ye te follow his byens to the grave." 

W. Midford, The Bewildered Skiver, 1818 

CAADISH, coldish, somewhat cold, but generally spok 

CAAD-PIE, CAWD-PIE, any accident happening to t 
train or carriage (in a pit). — Gloss, to Pitman's Pay. 

" Sic then was the poor putter's fate, 
Wi* now an* then a stannin fray, 
Frae yokens, caw* d pies, stowen bait. 
Or cowpt corves i' the barrow way." 

T. Wilson, Pitman's Pay, 1827, P^- i*** ^- 5^ — 

CAADRIF, CAWDRIFE, chilly, shivering, or cold. 

" Tha faither, Ned, is far frae weel, 
He lucks, poor body, verra bad : 
A' ower he hez a cawdrije feel. 
But thinks it's but a waff o' cawd." 

T. Wilson, Pitman's Pay\ 1826, pt. i , v. 9^ "-^ 



CA AKER, the iron plate on a clog or shoe heel ; the heel o 

CAAKER, or CORKER, an astonishing statement, meanin 
stopper." ** That's a canker, Geordy ! '* 


CAAL, need. ** What caal had ye to come there at all ? *' 


CAAL, the movement of water driven by the wind on 
surface. **C^// of the sea." Compare Caa, 3. The contrai- ^^a 
plienomenon (smooth oily surface of the water) is known 
keld on the Tyne. 

CAAL, a mill dam. ** He was fishin below the caall, a 
tumbled into the wettor." The **f^//-heed"is the topof aw 
or dam crossing a stream. The dam is sometimes called 

CAAL, CO A [W.T.] , to call. **Thoo tyeks a vast o'caalino 
— you are long in responding to my call. To abuse. '' ^ 
did nowt but caal us." 



CAA.L, to announce, to publish. **Get the bellman to caaVd,'* 
^*Caalin the fair." ^^Caal at church," to have the banns 
published. To name. '* They caal her Bella, efter her aunt." 

" Nowt else was wantin' but the priest 
To call us, and to tye the knot." 

T. Wilson, The Pitmin's Pay^ 1829, pt. iii., v. 71. 

CAALER, caller. An official at a colliery engaged to call up 
the men for work. '* He makes his first round at half-past 
twelve a.m., and knocks at all the doors with D chalked on 
them. Those are the deputies' houses ; they go to work an 
hour before the hewers. Every man of the fore-shift marks 
I on his door — that is the sign for the caller to wake him 
at that hour. The hewer fills his tubs, and continues 
alternately hewing and filling. Meanwhile, the caller having 
roused the putters, drivers, and off-handed men, the pit 
*hings on,' that is, starts work at five o'clock." (Dr. R. 
Wilson, ^^Coal Mimrs of Durham and Northiwiberland,'' Transac- 
tions of Tynesidc Naturalists' Field Clnhy vol. vi., pp. 203-4.) 
In pit villages several figures may be seen chalked on the 
doors. Each figure represents one slumberer to be caaled. 
Hence 2 2 on a door moans two persons to be roused at 2 
o'clock ; 3 3 4, that two are to be called at 3 o'clock and one 
at 4, and so forth. The caaler not only knocks, but waits till 
each worker has presented himself at the door, to show that 
his calling has been an effectual one. In former times the old 
caaler would cry, ** Robin Winship ! a-ho ! i' the neam o' God, 
rise and come to your wark." In one of the Tyneside 
melodies Edward Corvan gives poetry to the voice of the 

" Why sweet slumber now disturbing, 
Why break ye the midnight peace, 
Why the sons of toil perturbing ? 
Have their hours of rest to cease ? 

Ho ! marrows, 'tis the Caller cries. 

And his voice in the gloom of the night mist dies, 
The twinkling stars, through night shade peering, 

Blink above with heavenly light 
On the sleeping world, as a voice calls clear, 

In the stilly air of the sable night. 

Ho 1 marrows, 'tis the Caller cries. 

The collier sleeps, e'en now he's dreaming 
Of a pure bright world and loved ones there, 

He basks in the rays of fortune beaming 
In some far land full and fair. 

Ho I marrows, 'tis the Caller cries." 


CAALER, an auctioneer. The only auctioneer in Reedwater 
for many years was one Jock Brown, who was always known 
as " Jock the Coaler J" 

CAALIN-COURSE, the time at which the men are called to 
go to work. 

" Aw thought the time wad ne'er be gyen. 
That calliu-coursi wad never come ; 
And when the calUr call'd at yen, 
Aw*d getten neither sleep nor slnm.'* 

T. Wilson, Tki Pitwrnrn's Pty, 1827. pt. ii., v. 13- 

CAAN (/. part, of caai), called. " He's coom Bobby efter Vis 
granfether." "Aa wis caan back hyem agyen." See Caai-i 
4 and 5. 

CAAS, cause ; also the sound of the plural of calfj for coI^p^' 
" It's been the caas o' aa the Hash.'* ^Caas and 'cos are also 
abbre\'iated forms of because. 

CAASEY (the pronunciation of causey)^ a way, a causeW^-*?' 
«* Causey Bank," Newcastle. " Keep on the caasey aal the W3.> » 
the road's se dorty." See Causey. 

CAATION, caution. " It's a caaiicH noo." " He's SLcaatim V'^. 
that is, a spectacle, something extraordinary. A "ow/*^" 
board " in a pit, is a board set up to warn the men of ^^^ 
condition of the mine beyond it. 

CAB, GOSHCAB, or GO-CAB, exclamations of obso«^^^ 
meaning. See Exclamations. 

CABBISH, a cabbage. 

" Ye*ll be sayin' 'at coal's nowt but cabbisk staaks and tatie peeling- 
Gioriy's Last, 187S, p. i. 

CABBISHIN, CABISON, a strong halter, purposely mad^ ^^ 
lead about young horses when first broken in. See Kabbis J* ^^' 

CABIN, a wooden shelter house, store house, or watchm^-^^ 

•• Where aall the twisty, twincy, bad-tempered aad b eggor s comes ^^^ 
'at gets pctten inti calins beats me ! " — Gecr/ys Lmst. 

CABLE, or CAVEL, a stripe or share of land apportio*^^ 
by lot, cr lynel ; hence cable . as it is commonly spel^ *° 
documents ; " the calnes " in field names. See Cavel. 

CADE, or KYED, the sheep louse. 



ADGE, an anchor. See Kadge, Kedge. 

ADGE, to carry. '* Where are ye cadgin the box te ? " ** He 
cadged the poke aall the way on ov his back." To beg. 
** Aa*Il cadge a match off him." ** Here's a chep come to 
cadge " — applied to a beggar. 

\DGER, •* a person who goes from house to house purchasing 
butter, eggs, fowls, &c., and takes them for sale. A higgler, 
a huckster." {Hodgson MS.) A carrier. For the carriage of 
coals about a.d. 1605, there were employed ** the cadgers and 
wayne-men, where coals are not carried by water." (Brand, 
1789, Hist, of Newc.y vol. ij., p. 22, note.) ** Cadgers^ before the 
union, were the chief agents in carrying on the commercial 
intercourse between the two kingdoms." (Rev. A. Hedley, 
Archaologia /Eliana, vol. i., p. 249.) "Like gentlemen ye 
maunna seem, but look like corn-cadgers ga'en the road." 
[Jock 0* the Syde.) ** Where few but cadgers wi' their cairts till 
noo hev iver been." fT. Wilson, Opening Newcastle and Carlisle 
Railway, 1838.) " Betore the special application of cadger to 
Dne who bought and carried corn, &c., the term appears to 
have been used for any carrier of merchandise." (Richard 
Welford, Hist, of Newc, vol. iii., p. 171.) Nowadays a cadger 
Is used only as the name for a beggar. Compare with Badger. 

•' Respect to Quality was lost. 
Tinkers and Coblers rul'd the rost ; 
The Nobles were the Common's Cadgers ; 
The Gentry but the Soldiers' Badgers ; 
And sae far'd we, fra ill to worse, 
When Cart was set before the Horse." 

G. Stuart, Joco-Serious Discourse, 1686, p. 36. 

^DGY, hearty, cheerful, merry, especially after good eating 
and drinking. — Brockett. 

^FF, chaff, the husk of oats. ** A caff bed" was the common 
kind of bed in use where feathers could not be procured. 
Figuratively, any light thing. 

*'Als fyre that caffe son may bryn." — Hampole, d. 1349, Pricke of 
Conscience (Morris), line 3148. 

" Scrimp meals, caff beds, and dairns." — T. Thompson, d. 1816, The 
New Keel Row. 

•' Wi' pleasure aw was ower the muin, 
A' else wis caff aind sand to mine." 

T. Wilson, Pitman's Pay, 1829, pt. iii., v. 63. 

AG, a small cask, a keg. See Kag. 


CAGE ; in a coal pit, "A frame of iron which works between 
slides (called guides) in a shaft, and in which, since the substi- 
tution of tubs for cor\'es, the tubs of coal are drawn to the 
surface, and all passage in the shaft carried on." (Greenwell, 
Coal Trade Terms j 1849.) The cage in its modern form 
consists of three or four stories or stages, into each of which 
two tubs are run. The whole structure is slung from the 
winding rope attachment by "cage-chains," which are unitedby 
a large centre link, from which they depend, to the attachment 
at each comer of the cage. The ascending and descending 
cages are steadied by "cage-shoes," which clasp the "guides" 
at each side. The "cover," or "top," is a sheet-iron shield, 
which roofs the cage. The tubs are held in their places by 
the " sneck," a simple bolt passing through the top of each 
floor, with projecting revohnng catches at each end, which 
are turned down as the tubs are passed on. At the top of 
the shaft the cage is received and supported by "keps," 
catches which yield to the upward passage, but which M 
outward immediately, and form projecting rests, on which 
the cage stands whilst the full tubs are being removed and 
replaced by empty ones, as each floor in turn is made to pass 
and rest on the "keps." At the bottom of the shaft the 
structure descends into the "cage-hole," where its \'arious 
stages are relieved in turn of the empty tubs, and refilled 
with laden ones. 

C AG MAG, coarse, bad food; as an old goose, an inferior 

CAGUM, a "fair round belly." " He s puttin on a canny 
cagum " — that is, growing stout. 

CAIN- AND- ABEL, the early purple orchis. Orchis mascula, 

CAINGE, to whine, to grumble. 

CAINGEL, a crabbed fellow. — B rocket t, 3rd ed. 

CAINGY, cross- tempered. See Kaingv. 

CAIRD, a tinker— Norfhumberland.—Halliwdrs Did. 

CAIRD, a card. Also a wool card, formerlj' used for preparing 
the wool for spinning into yam. 

" Harder cairJs than wors to plav." 

T. Wilson, Pitman's Pay, pt. ii., v. 62. 

CAIRDER, a wool comber. 


CAIRDER, a card player. 

** He laughed and joked and ran the rig 
Just like a cairder wi' the ace." 

T. Wilson, Pitman* 5 Pay, 1829, pt. iii., v. 69. 

CAIRDIN MILL, a woollen mill. 

CAIREEDGE, a carriage. 

3AIRN, the harvest. «* The raiVw-supper." ** The cairn-hdihhy.*' 
See Kairn. 

[^AIRN, a churn. See Kairn. 

CAIRT, a cart. Compare Cowp-cairt and Lang-cairt. 

•* Cadgers wi' their cairts/* 

T. Wilson, opening NetvcastU and Carlisle Railway, 1838. 

^AIRT-AIXTREE, a cart axle. 

CAIRTER, a cartman. 

::AIRT-LIMMERS, cart shafts. 
:AIRT-REET, a cartwright. 

12AIRT-SHILVINS, the loose side boards of a farm cart. 
See Shilvins. 

3AIRT-SPURRINS, the ruts made by the wheels of a cart. 
See Spurlin. 

CAITIFF, a cripple.— -Brockett. (Obs.) 

CAKE, to cackle as a goose does. 

CAKE-CREEL, a rack at the top of a kitchen to dry oat 
cakes. — Brockett, 3rd ed. 

CALF-LICK, a straight tuft of hair growing up above the 
forehead ; differing from a coo-lick, which is a tuft on the 

CALF-YAIRD, the home of one's youth. The Northumber- 
land man always looks back with tender regard to his ^^caff- 
yaird,'' the dwelling-place of his infancy. 

" Wor calf-yard, yence thought poor and bare. 
To wealth and honour risen." 

T. Wilson. Oilin' Dicky's Wig, 1826. 

•' Aw've learn*d to prefer my awn canny calf-yaird; 
If ye catch me mair fra't ye'll be cunnin." 

Thos. Thompson, d. 1816, Canny Newcastle. 


GALLANT, a young man. 

•• Ye collier callants, so clever, 
Residing 'tween Tyne and the Wear." 

Collier's Pay Week, 1801. 
** Nyen but venra clever callants 
Could learnin's leather mount se hie." 

Thos. Wilson, The Pitman's Pay, 1829, Pt. iii.. v. i 

It is also applied to a loose fellow : — 

•• Gang seek your callands.** — G. Stuart, Joco-SeriousDiscoursi, 1686. p - 

CALLEEVERING, flying wildly or actively abc^^«Jt. 

^^Calleevering over the hills." "A wild calleevering youth. "^ ^ 

Hodgson MS. " Come inti the hoose an' divent stop tl^ ^=^ ^e 
caleeverin on.'* 

CALLER (a short), fresh, cool. This word is very familiaK" ^n 
the street cr}% ** Here's yor caller harrin, here's yor boK"» 'X^y 
fresh harrin." ** Let's hev some caller air." " It's a fmecc^^'^^ 


'* Gie me Cairter's caller spring." 

T. WU 

'Uson. Carter's Well. 

CALLER. See Caaler. 

CALLET, to scold. "A calletin housewife" is a pert, sai»c^;j» 
confirmed scold. — Brockeii, 

CALLS. Some of the calls to the animals on a £ann are ^^ 
follow: \Vhite'kcdd\\ or Gandy-gandy, a call to geese; If*^^' 
kick to ducks ; Chuck-cltMck to hens ; Poa-poa to turkey^ » 
Cuf'Cuf to pigeons ; Gisgis to the pig ; Sty is understood *o 
mean ** oft* to your sty " ; Fy-lake is a similar command ^ *o 
geese ; Hocf-hccf, or Hoary-koary. or Coask-coask (alwaj^s tv^i^® 
repeated), to cows ; Http-kouay to urge on. In speaking to a 
horse a peculiar noise is made something like Fwyu, or F»^'^*" 
ak-ka ; Wkca, or Woa^ is stop ; Heck^ or Hiie^ or Hye^ go to \^ 
left, or the side on which the man walks when afoot sdongsi^^ 
his horse ; Get is go to the right. In urging a dog to d^"*'^ 
cattle awav, Fy ncut is ver\- often used. A cry of encour^^^^ 
ment to a Jog is Hi^ne-ijJ. 

C.VLLl'ST, hard to the touch. See Kallust. 

CALM4M':NC1L, a slatepencil made from very soft beds ^^ 
day-slato called cam^ or cjum. It is got at Great Swinbix^"*^^ 
MiiU sa\*s Mr. Hoiigson, ** and at other places where beds ^' 
day-slate have been partially baked by whin dykes. 

*• Her*, too (near HousesieaJs^ a bed of torriAed limestone, wittx ^^^ 
*\( «\viM or wncil A:hi*i. lies iiu^iroxiitny in ihe basaltic diflf."— ."'~'''*=^^*' 
Sf>rtkumbftU9i, ill.. •*, (^ ^SS. 


lM {pJ, of come) t came. **A chep cam up, ga me a freet ; 
twas little Skipper Clark, man." See Com. 

cM, or KAME, the earth thrown up from a ditch on which 
:1ie quicks for a hedge are planted ; an earthen dyke. See 

" The hoonds hed a gran run, but some o* the field hed sair tues at the 
finish gettin' ower the cams" — Description of a Hunt, 

lM, cams [N.] , a mould, generally for making bullets. 
lM, a whitish, indurated shale. ** Swinburn cam,** See 


lMMEREL, cambrel, a crooked stick, used by butchers 
for hanging up carcases. The hock of an animal. See 

^MP, to race, or strive in shearing corn. In the harvest-field 
the reapers were accustomed to start upon their allotted rigs, 
and the campin was the race in which one strove to finish his 
rig first. The custom was abandoned about 1872, in con- 
sequence of the general adoption of reaping machines. The 
word is also found as kemp, 

\MPLE, to argue, to answer pertly and frowardly when 
rebuked by a superior. — BrocketU 

unmanageable. See Kamstarie. 

" A gadman to take charge of the team. His iron-pointed instrument 
was made of a young mountain ash or rowan tree, which kept the 
witches away from making the caXiXt camsteery y — W. Bvockia, Legends and 
Superstitions, p. 118. 

AN, the allowance of beer claimed by keelmen. Ca«-money is 
the cash payment claimed by the same honest fraternity of 
" keel bullies,** instead of the former customary drink. Caw- 
house, an ale-house. 

** "Every time they load a keel of coals from the staith, or ' dyke/ they 
get a * can,* or allowance of ale equal in value to two shillings and six- 
pence." — The Northern Tribune, 1854, vol. i., p. 210. 

'• Pat by wor gear and moored wor keel, 
Then went and drank wor can** 

•• Weel may the Keel Row.** 

Allan*s Collection t p» 324. 



CANCH, a precipitous rise like a step. In a river bed or ia 
rock cutting, where the strata leave step-like projection 
they are known as canches. 

" At Tyne Main once there was a caunck. 
And famous sport was found there. 
So long it stood — so high and staunch — 
All vessels took the ground there." 

R. Gilchrist. 1835, '• -^ Sew Song for Barge Day^ * 
Bards of the Tyne, p. 937. 

There are " a string o( cjuckes from the Willou-s to the glass-houses 
Blaydon Haugh. the river winding about those camskes like a mill rs 
The said cjH:hes must grow worse and worse unless something be d 
to protect the channel from the action of the inflowing bums.** — Ifd 
Dj:i\ Ckrcmu-U, Aug. 23rd, 1SS7. 

*• A protuberance, or certain thickness of stone to be worked O] 
cast." — MsntH^ G*cs5., .Wav. Terms, 1552. 

In a thin seam of coal it is necessar\' to work either an up_ 
or lower stratum of stone along with the coal, to give heig^*^ 
to the passage way. The coal being worked first, leaves ^ 
steep-like projection of stone. This is a catwh. Coal a.n<i 
stone are thus worked away alternately. A top canch is 
left until the stone in the "roof" is thus worked away. -^ 
bottom i\2K.h when the stone in the '• thill" is being tak^'J 
out. Where a slight fault or slip occurs in a bed of co3.1, 
the dislocation leaves one part of the seam above the otti^^* 
the step thus formetl being a cjKch. Here top and bottom 
cjn:h have to be worked away to make a gradient for tHe 
roadway. A top ,j'.v.i is also called a crco ibrow). 

CANDLE-r-ARK, a round cvlir.drical lx>x, used for storifS 
candles. Olten called simolv a Ijrk. 

CANDLE-CREEL, a basket for storing candles. *• Playing 
at .-j-u\V-.-f,'/.\'* playing at cards for candles. In early winter* 
fanv.ers used to set on to a neighlxjuring rendezvous, each 
man with a ./«- or l>askec of candles. A successful play^^ 
obtained a stock enousjh to sor\e his needs for the farm use 
throughout the res: of the winter. 

CANDLE-SIEVE, a candle ^iih wick made of the pith of a 

CANDYMAN. a bum-bailiff or process server: the man who 
serves notice of As :he pi:man cccupies his 
house in pan ^uyment of wages, it b«\>mes necessar>' (or 
him to vaca:e it. shou'.d he Icive his work at the colliery* 
During •• the grea: strike, * as it :< s:ill called, in 1S44, the 
wmK between capita; ar,d labour was carried out verj- bitterly, 


and the men ^ere served with notices of ejectment all round. 
To do this, the services of "vagrom men" were impressed; 
quite a small army being necessary to enforce the disagree- 
able task. In these the pitmen recognised several faces that 
had been familiar to them on their pay-Saturday strolls 
through "the toon" as the itinerant vendors who called 
" Dandy-candy, three sticks a penny." Thus the term 
*^Candyman** became generally applied m pit villages to those 
who served and carried out notices of ejectment. 

\NGLE, to wrangle, or haggle, or make unnecessary talk 
over a thing, as to cangU with the ticket-collector at a railway 

^NKER, to rust, to blight, to inoculate with an irritating or 
poisonous substance; hence, probably, its application to a 
cross-grained or bad-tempered wretch. A tree is said to be 
cankered when it appears blighted from some cause affecting 
its growth ; or a wound that festers is cankered, and a bad- 
tempered or cantankerous man is said to be cankered. " I give 
the following," says Mr. M. H. Dand, "as an instance of the 
superstition still lingering among old people. In 1847 a 
young man in my employment was ** stuck " in the shoulder 
tvith a pitchfork, which his mother put into the fire, and 
(vhich she implicitly believed would burn the canker out of 
:he wound, without the actual cautery." 

lNKRIS, cankerous, vile, bad. 

" Rank bad foaks wi' cankris harts that ne'er can happy be." 

J. P. Robson, Maw Gud Wishes tiv a' Men, 1870. 

lNNA, cannot. 

•• Ye canna say them nay, Mr. Mayor." 

Quayside Ditty, 18 16. 

lNNEL, a candle. See Candle-bark, Candle-sieve. 

" Ma tail hung lowse, XiVecannel weeks." 

T. Wilson, The Pitman's Pay, 1826, pt. i, v. 45. 

iNNEL, gravel. A variant of channel, which see. 

lNNEL-COAL, a hard coal, which can be cut and polished 
ike jet. It burns with a bright flame, like a candle. 

NN EL-SNOT, the burnt wick of a candle. 

NNILY, kindly, gently, softly, comfortably. ** He com 
hat cannily tiv us." ** Gan cannily doon the stair." ** Aa 
ioi>e ye may a all get cannily hyem." 



CANNINESS, kindliness, and all the virtues included in being 

CANNON-NAIL, the nail that holds the cart body to the axle. 

CANNY, an embodiment of all that is kindly, good, and gentle. 
The highest compliment that can be paid to any person is 
to say that he or she is canny. As "home" expresses the 
English love of the fireside, so in Tyneside and Northumber- 
land does canny express every home virtue. All that is good 
and loveable in man or woman is covered by the expression, 
** Eh, what a canny body ! " A child appealing for help 
or protection always addresses his elder as ^^ canny man." 
** Please, canny man, gi's a lift i* yor cairt." ** O, canny man, 
O show me the way to Wallington," What Northumberland 
bairn but has appealed, when punishment impended, "Please, 
canny man, it wasn't me ! " The fishwife who wishes to 
compHment her customer says, " Noo, canny-hinny, see what 

yor buyin*.*' 

•' O, bonny Hobby Elliot, 
O, canny Hobby still, 
O, bonny Hobby Elliot, 
Who lives at Harlow Hill." 
The word " refers as well to the beauty of form as of manners a**^ 
morals ; but most particularly is used to describe those mild a'^. 
affectionate dispositions which render a person agreeable in the domesC ^ 
staLte,**—Hodgion MS. 

** Wor canny houses, duffit theek*d — 
Wor canny wives within *em, 
Wor canny bairns, se chubby cheek'd. 
And sw*eet and clean yell find 'em ; 
Are a* decked out in Sunday trim, 
To mense this great occasion.** 

T. Wilson. Tki OiUn' o' Dkky^s Wig, 1826. 
" Can wi' me, like a raitii>' lad.'* 

T. Wilson, PitmMn's Ptty, 1826. pt. i., v. 71. 

It has also the following significations : Endeared : — 
" How w«ll we remember the cmmmy bit shop.** 

R. Gilchrist, 1835. ** Song of Im^foviwunis" 
Bards oftkt Tynt, p. 417. 

Modest : — 

" To get us a canny bit leeWn, 

Aw kinds o* fine sweetmeets well sell.*' 

W. Midford. PUmM's Comrtskif, 1818. 

*• What canny little w^cges we used ta ha ta pay ! ** 

Geo. Chatt. OU Farmer, 1866. 

Orderh', neat : — 

" Eh, lads, but it's a bonny way ! 

But what myest pleased wor Nanny, 
Was seeing fogies, awd and gray. 
Paid just for keepin'l rajrwv." 

T. Wilson, fkt OiJm' o* DLky^s W^, 1826 — 

Careful : — ** Be c^nny wi' the sugar." 


Canny is also used adverbially, as *^ Canny, noo, canny!'* 
)r "Gan canny" — that is, go gently. 

" A, U, A, maa bonny bairn, 
A, U, A, upon maa airm, 
A, U, A, tnoo syun may laim 
To say dada se canny." 

R. Nunn, d. 1853, Sandgati Wift'i Nurse Song. 

** They stroked them canny, wi* the hair." 

T. Wilson, opening Newcastle and Carlisle Railway, 1838. 

«* No canny" means unhuman, as a witch or wizard. See 
lote under No. 

In combination, we have canny-bit, a considerable portion of 
inything, a good deal. ** Aa've steudin* here a canny-bit" — 
've stood here a considerable time. ** He wis a canny-bit 
iheed on us** — he was a good way ahead of us. Canny-few^ 
L fair number. ** Was thor mony at the meetin' the day ? ** 

Wey, a canny -few" 


" Then Gyetside Jack 

Wad dance wi* goggle-eyed Mally, O ; 
But up cam Nick, an' gav him a kick, 
An* a canny bit kind of a falley, O." 

J. Selkirk, d. 1843, Swalwell Hopping. 

.NNY-NANNY, a small species of the humble bee, dis- 
inguished by having six stripes, commencing on the nose. 
X is so called because it is stingless. 

iNT, an angle greater than a right angle ; a sharp, sudden 
urn which upsets. The tip or turn given to a scale beam 
n weighing is called a cant. In the thrifty marketing of the 
)itman, the pound of sugar is described as " in quarter 
)Ounds in order to secure four cants of the scale in weigh- 
ng.** — T. Wilson, Note to Pitman's Pay, end of pt. i., 1843, 

" If the tram had gi'en a cant, 'twad flung the maister oot." — T. R. V., 
A Ramble to see Sadler's Balloon, 1816. 

iNT, to turn on edge, to tip over, to make with a cant, 
hexagon nuts are called canted nuts. 

lNT, to sell by auction. Hence cantin^ an auction, and cantin 
aalor, an auctioneer. 

" I will yt all my goods after my deathe shalbe canted and sold at my 
foredore." — Newcastle Wills and Inventories, 1570. 

IlNT-DOG, a handspike with a hook, used for turning ovet 
large pieces of timber. 


CANTEEN, a small wooden flat barrel, containing about half 
a gallon, in which a pitman carries water or coffee with him 
to his work, — Gloss, of Coal Trade Terms, 1849. 

CANTER, old milk cheese. 

CANTLE, the top of the head, the crown ; the head of a cask. 

CANTLE-PIECE, that part of the end of a cask into which 
the tap is driven — Northumberland. — HalliwelVs Did, 

CANTRIP, CANTRAP, a spell, a charm, a trick, or out-of- 
the-way performance. 

•' Where like a conjuror he'd sit, 
His black airt at some cantraps tryin*." 

T. Wilson, Tkt Pitman's Pay, 1827, pt. ii., v, 46. 

CANTY, lively, cheerful, and comfortable. 

" Still Jack's an honest, canty cock, 
As ever drain'd the juice of barley.** 

T. W^ilson, The Pitman's Pay, 1826, pt. i., v. 90. 

•' Half cock'd, an' canty, hyem we gat." 

The same, pt. iii., v. 82. 

•• O, my sweet laddie, 
My canny keel laddy 
Se hansum, se canty, and free. O !" 

H. Robson, " Sanigate Lassies Lament:' 
Allans Collection, p. 211. 

" Upon a pin hung a silk manty 
And wily -coat (to make her canty):* 

G. Stuart, Joco-Serious Discourse, 16S6, p. 50. 

CAP, to overtop, to surpass. "This caps the stack" is a 
proverb, meaning something overtopping. " A good story 
capped** (Geord/s Last, 1878, p. 5) — a good story surpassed. 
To put a cap or shackle on a rope. 

** An' let wor canny townsfolk knaw 
That Billy's show still caps them a*." 

]. P. Robson. Billy Pmrvis's Bumiti, 1849. 

CAP, the blue "top" on a candle or lamp when it bums in a 
mixture of fire-damp and air, not in an explosive condition.— 

CAPES (kyeps)^ ears of com broken off in thrashing, or grains 
of corn to which the husk adheres after thrashing. 

CAPHEEDf a top placed upon an air-box used in sinking a 
|lil^ Jfcc#«iar the purpose of catching as much air as possible.— 
Gktf^ (sfCoal Trade Terms, 1849. 


CAPPER, one who excels ; a story that surpasses another. 

CAPPIT, or CAP, a piece of leather sewn on a shoe to 
mend it. 

CAPPY, a boys' game, in which one stoops or gives ** a back," 
on which a cap is laid ; the players vault over, as in leap 
frog, each one resting his hands on the cap as he leaps. The 
one who first causes the cap to fall must exchange places 
with the boy who is " making a back." 

CAPPY, captain ; used facetiously in colloquial address. 
" What cheer, cappy^ 

" A dog, called Cappy^ he doated upon." — W. Midford, Cappy, or the 
Pitman's Dog, 1818. 

CAPRAVEN, probably a cap, or hood, in a framework of 

** Cap ravens for trussles." ** Six capravens at i6d. per peece." — 
D. Embleton, MS. Extracts from Barber Surgeon's Books, Newcastle. 

CAPS, hood-sheaves of corn-shocks, also called cap-sheaves. — 
Halliwell's Diet. 

CAPSHELL, the piece of iron which covers the end of the 
plough beam to regulate the breadth and depth of the furrow. 

CARE-CAKE, a kind of small cake baked with eggs, and 
eaten on Eastern's Een (Shrove Tuesday). — Dr. Murray 
(car-cake), New Eng, Diet, A blood care-cake is a thick pancake 
mixed with blood. 

CARECHIN, cheedully—Northumberland.—Halliweirs Diet. 

CAR-HANDED, left handed. See Caa-handed. 

CARKISH, a carcase, the body. 

•• In wor huddock lie doon,keep yor au'd carhish warm." — W. Midford, 
The Bewildered Skipper, 1818. 

CARL, a country fellow. 

•• Can the silly, daft carles think we'll still be fools."— G. Stuart, Joco- 
Serious Discourse, 1686. 

CARLIN, a familiar term for a woman. In G. Stuart's jfoco- 
Serious Discourse, p. 14, the landlady of the inn is called ** a 

" Carline, a woman, especially an old one ; often implying contempt or 
disparagement." — Dr. Murray, New English Diet. 


CARLIXS, "choice grey-peas, of the preceding autumn, 
steeped in spring water for twelve or fifteen hours, till they 
are soaked or macerated ; then laid on a sieve, in the open 
air, that they may be externally dr>-. Thus swelled, and 
enlarged to a considerable size, and on the verge of vege- 
tating, they are put in an iron pot, or otherwise, on a slow 
fire, and kept stirring:. Thej- \i-ill then parch, crack, and, 
as we provincially call it, bristle : when they begin to burst, 
the\- are ready to eat." {Gentleman s Magazine^ 1788, from a 
Northumberland correspondent.) Another method adopted 
is to fr>' the carlins with fat, and season highly with pepper 
and salt. The second Sundav before Easter is observed as 
Carlin Sunday. A tradition associates this custom with a 
commemoration of the disciples plucking the ears of corn on 
the Sabbath day. Another associates it with a famine in 
Newcastle, which was relieved by the arrival of a ship in the 
Tyne loaded with a cargo of grey peas. The remembrance 
of their deliverance was thenceforth proclaimed b}' the jjeople 
in observing a feast of carlins on the second Sunday before 
Easter. The use of carlins on this day is, however, not 
confined to the Tj-neside people. The large peas of a 
brownish yellow spotted colour, called *• brandlings," are 
quite different from the ordinary grey pea, and are much 
fancied and in request for carlins. 

CARLIN SUNDAY, the fifth Sunday in Lent. 

" On this day car Ubouricg people assemble at their accustomed 
alehouses, to spend their 4-ji.";>c-proa:s. The landlord provides the 
ijf lings." — Mackenzie. H:s*cr\ .7 .Vrr:«»K.vr.j»j, 1S25, vol- i., p. 2x6. 

CARLISH, hard, stiff: applied to ropes difficult to bend, &c. 
'* He's as carlisk as a piece o' bend leather." 

KARLE-GATE. The old Roman roads leading through 
Northumberland in the direction of Carlisle were known as 
Cariidi-gaU. Gai4 or Gate, a road. See Stanegate. 

** Before the year 1293. the king's jastices itinerant seem to faa\^ some- 
tnBM halted at Foorstoiies on their way from Carlisle to Newcastle ; and 
tUs vaj. as h paswd through the neighbouring lands of Stancroft. near 
Mawhnwgh, is evidently called C«f.;.w>;j// {KjrUlgjitf)."— Hodgson's 
WwllMiilivinitf* iii^ s. p. 275. m:u c. 

LUtmora thsB a oentary since, one of the names of the causey." 
"* 'ft aonh of Corbridge, and north-easiuard towards the 
called CsrtnU Caun /*— 7</ 5.i*cf . 

nan Wall. *'\Vith the outer parallel military way. called 
.••— Tlr sffsw. p. 307. 


CARR, a marsh, as Prestwick Carr, which was formerly half 
lake and half marsh. The name occurs only once in 
Northumberland — in Prestwick Carr above. 

•• Carre, a hollow place where water stands." — Ray's Gloss. 

CARR, in place-names, as Bondifa^r, Berling Cary, near 
Warkworth, is a rocky place. It is noted in Northumberland 
as occurring twenty times. — Mr. J. V. Gregory, Place-names 
of Northumberland, p. 63. 

•• [Old Northumbrian — carr, rock. J A rock : now specially applied to 
. insulated rocks off the Northumbrian and Scottish coasts." — Dr. Murray, 
New Eng. Diet. 

" Sail ye near, or sail ye far, 
Keep off the rocks of Bondifarr." 

Old Rhyme. 

CARROCK, CURRICK, CURROCK, a crag, a cairn. In Mr. 
J. V. Gregory's Place-nanus in Northumberland its occurrence is 
noted five times ; three times as applied to inhabited places. 

CARROT-POWED, red-haired or carrot-headed. 

CART-BODY, the wooden body of a cart or waggon. Caf/-arse, 
the loose end of a cart. — Halliwell's Did. 

CARTER-FELL, the dividing ridge between England and 
Scotland, from whence issues the river Rede. Near the 
southern extremity of the parish of Simonburn we have the 
Green-Cflr/5 and the Black-Car^s, signifying respectively the 
green heights or hills, and the black or heathy hills. — Rev. A. 
Hcdley, Archaologia /Eliana, vol. i., p. 254. 

CARTIES, or SARTIES, certes, surely. ^^Sarties, y'or iv a 
horry.*' Probably for Maa Sarties! — an exclamation. 

CAS, because. 

CASH, a soft band ; sometimes found separating one stratum 
from another ; when thin, called a cashy parting. — Greenwell. 

•• White post, with cashy partings." — Borings and Sinkings, A.B., p. 46. 

CASILTY, weakly, in doubtful health. "Hoohe' ye gotten 
on wi' yor lambs thi *eer?'* •'Why, thor's a lot on them 
nobbut casilty." Ray has the word ^* Kazzardly {adj, ), csitile 
subject to die ; hazardous, subject to casualties." 

CASINS, ** dried cow's dung, used for fuel." — Ray's Gloss, 

CASKIT, lunar caustic, nitrate of silver. — Dr. Embleton, MS, 


CASKIT, a cabbage stalk. See Castock. 

CASKITY, or CASKETY, soft and sappy. Anything caskety, 
or full of sap and easily broken, is said to be *' frush." 

CASS, to cast away, to disperse ; /. part,^ cassen. The form 
of kest is used as past tense. 

" Like ony chicken efter moot, 
When its awd coat it fairly casses.'* 

T. Wilson, Pitman's Pay^ 1829, pt. iii., v. 5. 

"Just like cassen claes." 

T. Wilson, Humble Petition, 1832. 

•• Now have I cassen away my ears." 

J. B. Rumney, Ecky^s Mare. 

•* Where me eyes were casssen 
It seemed as if the busy shore 
Cheered canny Tyne i' passin'." 

T. Thompson, d. 1816, Jimmy Joneson's Wherry. 

CASSEN, said of a sheep when cast upon its back and unable 
unable to rise. See Awelt. 

CASSEN-OOT, thrown out ; used with reference to the 
ordinary debris of pits, but also to natural outcrops and 
faults. Ex. — Casten-oot to the day^ cropping out at the surface. — 
Hugh Miller, Geology of Otterhurn and Elsdon. — Memoir , Geolog. 
Survey, 1887. 

CAST, to cast up, to throw up. The word appears to be 
marked with its final ^ as a variant from casSj which means 
merely to disperse. Cast, on the contrary, is always distinctly 
pronounced, and is associated with the act of cutting or 
shovelling and lifting a thing; hence the expressions, "to 
cast snow," *• to cast peat," ** to cast ballast " are all connected 
with work done with a spade or shovel. Compare Cass, and 
the substantive form of the word, under Cast below. 

•• A gutter cast in the Close for w^ier "^Municipal Accounts, Newcastle, 
October, 1656. 

•• Paide to William Graie, for looking for casting ballist into the river, 
or other rubbish." — Municipal Accounts, Newcastle, 1593. 

CAST, to twirl, or warp, applied to v/ood.—Brockett. 

CAST, to add up. " Castin *coonts" (Pitman's Pay)— adding up 


CAST, a mound of earth cast up as a boundary of lands between 
dififerent proprietors, or as a fence. It also means a long 
ditch. A worm cast is the familiar excrement thrown up in 
soil, or the sand-worm*s heap thrown up on the beach. 

•• The Angerton cast was the boundary between the meadow ground 
for mowing hay upon, and the Pow-burn on the tillage side of the 
Angerton grounds.'* — Hodgson MS. 

II AST, the space covered by a cast of the hand in sowing. 

-AST, a thing atwist or aslant, as ** a cast in the eye." ** The 
frame-work hes getten a cast.** 

AST, a lift forward, as ** Gi*s a cast V yor cairt,** 

AST, a swarm of bees. 

AST, a length of gut, three feet or more, used on a line in 

AST, CASTREY, adj\, of a very hard nature ; applied to 
strata, as " Post girdles and cast partings," ** Hard splint or 
casttey metal." — Borings and Sinkings^ C.E., pp. 20, 52. 

Faster, a shoveller or caster of coal from a keel to a ship. 
On the Wear, and at Blyth, the casters were men who entered 
a keel when it arrived at the ship and cast the coals. Keelmen, 
casters, and trimmers were formerly distinct sets of men at 
those ports. 

^ ASTLEW ARD, a rateable division in Northumberland. 

" Castlewards. A tax formerly laid on those that dwelt within a certain 
distance of a castle, for the support of the garrison." — HalliweWs Diet. 

ClASTOCK, the stem of a cabbage; called also caskitdind. kaistock, 

C^AST-OUT, to fall-out or quarrel. —Brockett, 

CAST-UP. I. To remind reproachfully or as upbraiding. 
** If aa was to de see, ye wad cast it up to me fyece." 2. To 
reappear, to turn up again." ** Hes the dog cast up yit ? " 
3. To throw off. ** They'll cast up my bairns, when Tm dead 
and gane." — Joco-Serious Discourse, Newcastle, 1686. 

CAT, a piece of soft clay moulded into the form of a mower's 
whetstone, This was thrust in between the laths, and after- 
wards "daubed," or plastered. See Daaber and Catter. 


CAT, a ball made by mixing coal and clay together. Th»-^ 
** Crow coal " which is found in the extreme south-west c — al 

Northumberland and in Alston district bums with a fcetL 4 

smell. To prevent the discomfort thereby occasioned, ca:- ts 

are used in the domestic hearth. Placed in a peat fire th F=— >y 
soon become incandescent, producing a hot, lasting glo\^^B?. 
They are sometimes called clay -cats. 

CAT, a piece of wood used in the boys' game of kitty-cat. 

CAT-BAND, an iron band passing over the cover of a hat^^vrj) 
in a keel, by which it is fastened down ; it is hooked into a 
staple at one end, and locked at the other. Still in comm '^oq 
use on the Tyne. Also " an iron loop placed on the und^^r- 
side of the centre of a flat corf bow, in which to insert tuie 
hook." — Greenwell, 

" Paide for a catt-bande and a staple for the dore that the priest bra nte 
in prison, 6d." — Newcastle Municipal Accounts, 1593. 

CAT-BUILT, applied to an old style of shipbuilding, whidi 
is described as being on the Norwegian model. The stern 
was much narrowed, and the planking swept up in an 
elliptical fashion, giving a barrel-shaped appearance. The 
** tumble in ** was so considerable that a man could stand on 
the side and paint the bulwark. The last of the old cat-buUt 
ships is said to have been wrecked about 1850. The " pink" 
was a development of the model, which was superseded by 
the later type of ** collier." 

CATCH, a sudden pain, a stitch. ** Aa've getten a catch V me 

CATCH, a sneck or hasp for fastening a door. The moveable 
checks by which tubs are held in their places in a pit cage 
are called catches. 

CATCH-DAY, a tenant's obligation. 

•• That is, to go from the lord's house with a horse-load of his goods, 
after sunrise, and return before sunset, but during that time not beyond 
a reasonable distance." — Hodgson's Northumberland^ vol. iii., 2, p. 67, 

note e ; also p. 144, note. 

CATCHED, p.t. of catch. 

•• So hyem he com an catched the beast." — M. Catcheside, Ye Lambton 
Worm, 1867. 

CATCHY, ready to find fault, or quick at playing on the 
expressions of another. 


CATCHY, a child*s game, in which one catches another. 

CAT-GALLOWS, a game played by children. It consists of 
two sticks placed uprigjit, with one across, over which they 
leap in turns. — Brockett, 

CAT-H AA, the hawthorn berry ; called bnll-haa when of large size. 

" Many hips, many haas, 
Many frosts, many snaas." 


CAT-HEED, an ironstone nodule. A thin compact stratum is 
sometimes called "a girdle, or cathead.'* Or these strata are 
described as ** cathead girdles *' — that is, nodular girdles. 
Shale containing nodules of ironstone is called ^^ cat heady 

CAT HEP, CAT HIP, the berry of the Rosa spvtosissima. See 

CAT-PEASE, the fruit of the vetch, Vicia sativa. 

CATRAIL, that singular work called the Catrail, consisting of 
. a ditch with a rampart of earth on each side, which has 
been traced from the Peel-fell, between Northumberland and 
Roxburghshire, across the latter county — to Mosalee farm, a 
mile westward of Galashiels. (S. Oliver the Younger, Rambles 
in Northumberland, 1835, p. 10.) ** It is frequently called the 
Picts-work ditch." (The same, p. 104.) ** The course of this 
singular work, followmg it in all its windings, was upwards 
of forty-five miles. In some places the trench has been 
observed to be about twenty-seven feet broad, and the 
ramparts of earth on each side from say six to ten feet high, 
and from eight to twelve feet thick.** (The same, p. 172.) ** It 
is an invented name for an invented rampart, both due to the 
imagination of Chalmers. — Caledonia^ 1807." (Johnston, Place- 
names of Scotland, p. 60.) 

CAT'S CLOVER, the bird*s-foot trefoil, Lotus corniculatus. 
Called also craa-taes and crad's foot. 

CAT'S-COLLOP, the milt, or spleen of animals. 

CAT*S-CROP, the crop from small potatoes which have been 
left in the ground during the winter, and which spring up in 
an irregular manner in the summer. 

CAT'S-FOOT, ground \vy.— Ray's Gloss. 

CAT'TAILS, the seeding stalks of cotton-grass. See Ling. 


CATTER, an old name for a plasterer. The fraternity of 
plasterers in Newcastle were anciently styled ^^ catUrs and 
daubers." — Brand, Hist, of Newc.^ vol. ij., p. 268, note. See 
Cat, I, and Daaber. (Obs.) 

CATTIS, straw much broken in threshing is termed "knocked 
aa to cattisJ" Cotton wadding or cotton wool put in the ear 
is called cattis. 

CAT-WHIN,burnet iose{Rosa spinosissima). — Brockeit^ 3rd. ed. 

CAT-WITH-TWO-TAILS, an earwig. 
C AUK-SPAR, barytes. See Cawk. 

CAULDRON BOTTOMS, familiarly called cauldron-arses, cone 
shaped masses of stone occurring occasionally in the roof of 
a coal mine. They have smooth sides, and, when the coal is 
excavated below, they are apt to drop out without warning, 
and form one of the serious dangers to which the miner is 
liable. They are sometimes csiW&d pot-stones. 

CAUSEY, C A W S E Y (pronoimced caauy), a causeway. 
♦•Oiw'$fv Bank,** in Newcastle, a street leading from City 
Kcvid to Garth Heads, formerly paved with small cobble 
stones ; hence its name. The term is also specially applied 
to the ren\ains of Roman paved roads in Northumberland, 
which are p^^pularly ascribed to supernatural agency, as 
^nX'kb^s l\nr.v,i/* or *'De\41*s Cawsey,'* a branch from the 
\V<itUng Street striking otf north of the Wall. 

CATTION-BOARD. a v>^raing notice in a pit to caution the 
u\e« not to |>roceed till instructions are gi\-en by the deputy, 
who vWs not pernut a naked light or an unlocked safety 
Um^^ iv^ Ih^ c^riiexi bexxxni the point indicated by the C4tutum 

vWVF* tv^ s^^patA;*'; tv^ :i^parate with a rake and the foot the 
rftvNit sliA>^r^ tUMu vxxn. This oferatioo is done by holding a 
u^W aikI kKku:^: the $ho« $irava^:3Liztst the teeth to separate 
the vXMtts Se<^ I. A\ iN^s. 

0A\ Kl X OAVU.v A di$ttiNi:icei bv kc- Crwii are die lots 

vA^t ^^ v^t«Nri\ At ;«A^f^t ^^^xvis^fcc the difiefeot wcrldng 
^\I^<^>e^ VAvh vvi.^* vhA>ii;^ >i5s:ojcmi\ jLsd the wunaber cm his 
;xU^ \> iK^ vuivNiH o^ ^Nr ^^bccvi" it wiach be most hew 
\^ A >;.<;v\^ ^yV^NVvx txl^ A^Kbe? ,-jRnsu.flitir txkes p^ce. The 
\^v^;\^ v>^ ^5\\sisN;*vVsNt A^ »^^v^i\ v^jRtt^^ xr« ijso divisioos of 


CAVIN, pawing, as a horse does. 

GAVINS, chaflF, broken ears and siftings of corn. 

CAW, to turn, to drive. See Caa, 

CAWD, CAWTE, cross-grained in temper. **He*s a cawd 
chep." ** He's tarrible cawd.'' 

•• The yerlle of Huntlay, cawte and kene, 
He schall wyth the be." 

Chevy Chase. 

CAWEL, a hen-coop. 

C AWK, sulphate of barytes. 

CAWSEY, a causeway. See Causey. 

CENTRE-BAR, an iron bar in a tub or tram, passing 
underneath its body, to which the coupling-hooks are 
fastened; the bar in a pit cage carrying a falling catch at 
each end for holding the tubs in their place. 

CESS, or SESS, an assessment, or rating. To levy a rate. 
" The hoose is cessed at ten pund a *eer.'* 

CEYUK [S.], CYUK [T.], a cook. The c is sounded hard, 
and the word is kc-yuk^ kyuk, 

•• Wor geuses are keuk'd.**—Jajnes Horsley. 1882, A Ride upon the Smng 

CH AAK, chalk. To chaak up is to charge to ; from the custom 

of keeping coimt on a board with marks of chalk. 

" She chalks up scores at a' the shops." — T. Wilson, Pitman's Pay, 1826, 
pt. i., V. 62. 


CHAAKIN-DYEL, CHALKING-DEAL, the board on which 
reckonings and accounts in chalk are kept. 

CHACK, a slight refreshment taken in haste. " Aa just had 
time to get a ckack" 

CHAFEWEED, cud weed Filago Germanicay L, 


"As slyly as thy fans Chafts waggs.'*— G. Stuart, Joco-Serious Discourse, 
1686, p. 64. 

" Aw tied his chaffs and laid him out." — R. Gilchrist, b. 1797, d. i844» 
Blind Willie's Death, 


CHAIR-DAY, the evening of life ; that period which, from its 
advanced season and infirmity, is chiefly passed in ease and 
indulgence. — Brocketty 3rd. ed. 

CHAIRGE, charge. 

•• Paid to Mr. Christopher Shafto, lawier, in parte paimente of his 
chairgis, SI,**— Newcastle Municipal Accounts, 1593. 

CH ALDER, CHALDRON, in Newcastle, is a measure of 53 
cwts. of coal. The old colliery waggon contains a chaldron, 
and is called a chaldron waggon. Eight of these equal ** a keel 
of coals.*' To hear a ship described as **of twenty keels" 
refers to the carrying capacity of the vessel. See Keel. 
** The original chaldron (of coals) was 2,000 lbs. weight. We 
accordingly find the chaldron rated in 1530 at six bolls, in 
a lease of mines at Elswick, from the Prior of Tynemouth. 
In Kxx) we find ** the coal waynes containing eight bolls, and 
some scarce seven bolls.** {Books of Hoastrmn's Company.) In 
point of fact seven and a half bolls of coal are equal to very 
nearly 2.000 lbs. weight, per modern custom-house admeasure- 
ment. And we thus perceive how the keels were said, so 
early as 14.51, to carry twenty-two or twenty-three chaldrons] 
twYUty^tliroo chjldn^ns^ of 2,000 lbs, weight each, being equal 
to nearly eight modern Newcastle ckaUroHs^ of 53 cwts. each. 
Ufrv>n\ the London ckjUn'^^ a right proportion is deducted 
(v^r ** heaped measure," we shall have left almost exactly 
2xvVH> lbs* \sn?ight as above. (T. John Taylor, Archachgy of 
tkf c\\i« T9xi4^ iS^2.) **The content of the ckaldron waggon 
\^cusiom-lH>use measurement^ is 217-9^9 cubic inches; and 
that of the K>11 being 9676'S, the .'kJuJr^n is therefore equal 
tv^ i-*\^-*^ lx4U, anvl not. as usually but errooeously stated, as 
-*4 K^ils.'* ^i.»,>j5wn ,7 <.\'wi* Tr-M Terms. iS^Q.) See Boll. 
** Uon\ |>Aivl teethe ooiV^ervs fox their Sant Thomas CkdlderSj^^ 
ChxxsXK-xMWAs^ \2kV^ v\^ivasrJ> .ViflBx-tfu-' .^.v^wos* December, 
* <;\<>^ rho , *w».Vv» WAS Also **a n:easuns of grain, consisting 
u^ }:v*,\rrAl ^^s\^^ ^ushe:s." . Cjiacc Gr^eawelU G^-sssfj to Boldcn 

ccra. aad even grind- 
s;\>:^<^ xvrtx^ r,\<NAs;:r^i bv :he •iuwrV-'m or .-isLur, •• At the 
U,^h^>^^ s S;Ax:h a:^* Hexitvcth Siiith :.-: .iiAJwr of grindstooes, 
>' ^> "^" v^ "^ -^ Tt-rvm^*,^, '5\>- — K^:hJL^d Weliard. Histeryef 

x\ , *.«. w^s^'s N \>\h v.i.x jV :"s^ 

0>\ W \ VNSx OV. M ; VXOV\ ro j^^c^c^. ro daizn acquaint- 
a;n\n - Aa x^a.* ,:>^ o:<vir yvxsi :: Sr rjti::: z ^hMlinad us." 
•^WK*^;'^ V,iaisi;>^i ;.:k AA :sy[\^ :t^ > .— ^ * Ye be* ibe better 

WORDS. 143 

HANCE-BAIRN, an iEeghimate cfaikL— Bnvlv^. 

HANCY, pfecanoci& UDcenain in operation, *'a cksmry 

HANGE, or CHANGERAVIFE. an itinerant apple woman* 
or dealer in earthenware, who takes old clothes or rags in 
exchmrngt bx iriiai she sdls. 

" Cheap ^iples, wives ! Cheap ^>ples» whres ! Seek oot a* roar and 
rags, or aad shoes, or and daise to-day"— (Newcastle Crr). — Brxhttt. 

H ANGER- AND-GRATHER, the man who changes and 
repairs the pumping buckets in a pit. See Graith, 3. 

H ANN EL, C ANN EL, gravel ; being the material of which 
the chtmad or bed of a river is composed. — Dr. Murray, .Ww 
Eug. Did. See Chinnel. 

" Sand and ckmrnmeL'—Borirngs mmd Siukngs, F.K., p. 14. 
•* Sand and tammiir^Tki smmt, A.B.. p. 21S. 

IHANNER, to scold, not loudly, but constantly; to Ix^ 
incessantly complaining. 

** She keeps ckamtur, ckmmutring all day long/*— Brocikf//. 

'* The cock doth craw, the day doth daw. 
The cksuturim* worm doth chide.'* 

nifi 0/ Uskir^s n V/. 

CHANTER, the fingering pipe of a bagpipe, on which the air 
is played. 

'HAPPIN, a quart. The northern form of ckopin. (Obs.) 

•• Send in a Ckappin of yonr wine." — JocoSerioMS Disconrsf, Newcastle, 
1686, p. 14. 

*H APS, the jaws. See Chafts. 

*HARE, a narrow lane. This word is in very common use in 
Newcastle as the name of narrow streets or alleys in the 
populous parts of the city. Many of these were destroyed by 
the great fire which followed the Gateshead explosion of 1854. 
In 1800, as many as twenty-one chares were found on the 
Quayside, among which were the following: — Plumber's 
Chare, Hornsby's Chare^ Broad Chare, Colvin's or Colman*s 
Chare, Pallister's Chare, Peppercorn Chare, Blue Anchor Chare, 
Grinding or Grindon Chare, Goudy Chare, Byker Chare, Dark 
Chare, Peacock Chare, Trinity Chare, Rewcastle Chare, Cox's 
Chare, Crome's Chare, Fenwick's CJiare, East of the Town 
Wall, at the " old suburb of Sandgate," the word chare is of 


less frequent occurrence, and is mostly replaced by the woi 
"entry"; but formerly there existed here Thorp's Cfaa 
Dent's Chart, Errington's or Maughan's Chart, Pearson's 
Chan, Foxton's Chare, and, at a later date. Joiner's Chan. 
Malcolm's Chare, and Common Chare. All these were narro-w 
lanes. The "Broad" Chare itself would admit a cart, but 
the others narrowed down to the straightest and darkest 
retreats. "Most of the chares," says Mackenzie, "may L>e 
easily reached across by the extended arms of a middle-sized 
man, and some with a single arm ; but a stout person won Id 
find it rather inconvenient to press through ihe upper part o( 
this lane" (Dnik Chart). The houses here almost touched 
each other at the top; and the whole of these charts were 
densely packed with humanity. " It has been justly observed. 
continues Mackenzie, "that the ground occupied by these 
(hares is the most crowded with buildings of any part of h« ** 
Majesty's dominions," (Mackenzie's History of Ntttcmfle, %>• 
163.) In the upper town are found Manor Chare, Denic:*" 
Chart, Friar Chare. High Friar Chare, and Pudding Cfci«, t^^»*' 
first-named a wide thoroughfare. In Gateshead, the ' ""^ 
passes and avenues are, as in Newcastle, called (hat^^^': 
Oakweilgate Chare, High and Low Church Chare, St. Mary * 
Chare, Tomlinson's or Bailiff's Chare (deriving name ftoC^^ 
some of the ancient officers of the borough), and Jackson's (^^1 
Collier's Chare, and Murk, or Mirk Chare. To the extincs^"^ 
topography of Gateshead belong VaXe.Yschihera, mentioned i^ 
the earliest charter relative to the borough in the Durhai^ 
Treasury (but the Rev. Canon Greenwell, who prints tli"^ 
document in his Feodarium Prioratus Diitiehiiensis, thinks tln^ 
property it granls "most probably was a part of the land ar ^' 
Cramlington held by the Prior and Convent ") ; also Walde- "^*' 
schere and Pylotf/inri!. At Hexham, St. Mary's Chan, the ' 
narrow street, now called Back Street, and Pudding Chart 
now called Back Row. Both chares lead to the Market Place- 
They appear on the map of Hexham dated 1826, There 
also a farm near Acomb called Chare Head, In the villagi 
of Whaiton, Northumberland, also at Whickham, there is 
"Church Chare," and in Morpeth there is a "Copper Ch'trt 
At Holy Island, "Tripping Chare" is found, and al the sami 
place we have the name " Chare ends " or " Chare lits " given^* 
to the spot where three lanes converge neat the landing- placed 
of the oversand road. Two of these chares which end hcre^^ 
are mere field roads, so that the term is not applied in alW- 
cases to an alley of houses. The word occurs in the neigh^ 
bouring county in Sandwell Chare at Hartlepool, in Castle 
Chare at Durham, and at Bishop Auckland, where %ve fint* 
"Gaunless Chare" and " Wear C/in«." In Richard Welford's 

of hi >s \ 
fU, *>• ■ 


■(. t^»*■■ 

lary * 1 



^>ory of Newcastle in the XIV, and XV. Centuries^ p. 394, 
Dwer Chare and Grype Chare'' are mentioned. "These 
« seem at different times to have gone by different 
les, generally being called after the owners of property in 
n, and the names changing with the owners." — R. J. 
rleton, Newcastle Town^ p. 313.) " A laughable misunder- 
iding happened at our assizes some years ago, when one 
he witnesses in a criminal trial swore that * he saw three 
come out of the foot of a chare /* * Gentlemen of the jury,* 
laimed the learned judge, * you must pay no regard to 
: man's evidence, he must be insane.' But the foreman, 
ling, assured the judge that they understood him very 
i, and that he spoke the words of truth and soberness." 
Impartial History of Newcastle, 1801, p. 30, note.) As already 
itioned, the worst of the Newcastle chares were destroyed 
fire in 1854, but that calamity came as the regenerator 
I plague-stricken town. A contemporary observer thus 
irded it : ** The elements have done their wild work in 
trcastle; the blocks of human habitations in the disgusting 
M, where the sun's glorious rays never entered, and where 
lera and typhus held revel, are swept away." {Nortliern 
itne, 1854, vol. i., p. 388.) Chare probably means, like 
Scotch wynd, a turning. 

ilM, The use of charms for the cure of disease and for 
ding off ills of any kind is not yet extinct : instances may 
net with quite commonly. The horse-shoe is nailed to the 
►le door, and the ** holey-stone" is found hung on a nail on 
inside of the door of the dwelling. There are still coins 
led for luck, or the small bones from a sheep's head, or a 
si tettie," carried in the pocket to clmrm off ailments. The 
IS of incantation are gone — but not lonar gone by. In a 
to Pitman's Pay, edition of 1843, p. 17, Mr. Wilson says: 
uackery is not confined to drugs. The ignorant are often 
osed upon by what designing knaves call * charms', and when 
former fail, recourse is had to the latter." Patients to this 
travel miles to visit an ignorant and rude practitioner 
has acquired repute in much the same way as a wise 
Y of old was supposed to posses special mystic powers. 
Lee-penny, Irish Stone, Kin-cough. 

" Aw've just been ower wi* something warm, 
To try and ease the weary cough 
Which baffles byeth the drugs and charm.'* 

T. Wilson, Pitman's Pay, 1824, Pt- i-. v. 96. 

)ER, a male sheep imperfectly developed in one of its 


CHAT, refreshments, something to eat. — Hodgson MS. See 

CHATS, keys of trees, as ash chats, sycamore chats, &c. {Ray's 
Gloss., 1691.) •* Spray wood, small twigs." {Brockett, 3rd ed.) 
Chats in lead-mining, small pieces of stone with lead ore 
adhering to them. When the ore has a portion of the matrix 
attached to it, it is of less specific gravity than the solid ore, 
and in process of dressing it comes to the surface, and the 
material so appearing is called chats. It is raked off and 
dressed in a finer and closer set mill, called a chat mill, and 
the product is known as •* seconds'* or chat ore. 

CHATTER, to tear, to make ragged, to bruise.— HalliwelPs Diet. 
Chattered, bruised. See Scathe red. 

CHAVYL, a cleaver, as a butcher's cleaver. — Hodgson MS. 

CHAWDY, the stomach of a pig, which is cleaned, boiled and 
eaten as tripe. 

CHAWLIN, eating with a mumbling sound. 

CHEAT, a linen breast piece without a shirt to it — a "dickey.** 

CHEATRY, deceit, fraud. 

CHECKERS, the game of draughts. Checker board, a draught 

CHECK-VIEWER, one who checks the working of coal on 
behalf of the owner of the royalty. 

CHECK-WEIGHMAN, the representative of the men, who 
checks the weight of coals at the surface, on behalf of the 
workmen at a colliery. 

CHEEK, the side of a place. ** The door cheek.'* The rock on 
each side of a lode of lead is called the cheek of the vein. 

•• To show them we deal wi' Newcassel, 
Twee blackeys sal mense the door cheek.'* 

W. Midford, Pitman's Courtship, 1818. 

CHEEP, to make a noise like a young bird ; to speak weakly 
or quietly. ** He wis hit ten bad eneuf, yit he nivver clueped.** 

CHEEPER, a young bird, an unfledged thing. 


CHEEPY, the titlark. 

CHEER, a common salutation is '^ Watch hear! " or " What char?' 

•'Chfart, Qi ehttre. look; air ofcooalenince," — Nart'i Glass. 

CHEERER, a glass of toddy. CA^erw- glass, a large toddy 
tumbler. " Buttered ckctrer," a little butter added to spirit 
and warm water. 

CHEESE. To place the cheese bottom uppermost was formerly 
considered as a token of great disrespect to the person so 

" The folk of Cliatlon say the cheese of Chalton is better 
than the cheese of Chillinghaiii ; but the cheese of Chatton's 
nee mair like the cheese of Chillingham than chalk's like 
cheese." Another reading of their Border shibboleth begins 
"There's as good cheese in Chillingham as ever Chafts 
chewed." Denham quotes the above and says the " gird " in 
it is at the local pronunciation at those places, sh being 
sounded for ch. This peculiarity is also located at Chirnside. 
See Murray, Dialect of S. Counlies of Scotland, 1873, p. 85. 

" To set tbe cheese on the table upside down is still considered as a 
nant of respect for thi; person before whom 11 is placed ; and to set down 
a loaf boltom nppermost. alter culling a slice of oread, is supposed to be 
as unlucky an omen as to spill the salt."— S. Oliver, RantMis in 
Natliumbitlmd, 1835, p 134, 

CHEESE-AN'-BEEED, the budding leaves of the hawthorn, 
which are picked and eaten by children. 

CHEESE-AND-BREED-BELL. On Christmas Eve, at 
Hexham, the Priory bell was rung at seven o'clock p.m., and 
this was called the cheese-and-bnad-beH. 

CHEESES, seed of common mallow, Malva iylvistris. 
■■The sitting down when school was o'er 
^^ Upon the threshold of the door, 

^^^^ Picking from mallows, sport to please. 

^^^1 The crumpled seed we called a ehtisi." 

:HEG, CHEGGLE, to gna 


V or champ a resisting substance.— 

,piEMMERLY,CHAMBERLYE,urine bottled tillit ferments, 
' H'Aiid then used for cleansing clotlies. 

^^•'And then ui 


CHEP, a familiar name for a man. " Wor cheps " means our 

associates. " Them clteps is nee use," said in pointing to some 

feckless fellows, 

" Me nyem is Billy Oliver, i' Ben well toon aw dwell, 
An aw's a clever chep, aw's sbure, tho* aw de say*d mesel*. 
Sic an a clever chep am aw," &c., &c. 

•• Billy Oliver* s Ramble ." 

Allan's Collection^ p. 79. 

" The maister was a cannie chep, 
They ca'd him Jacky Carter." 

R. Gilchrist, Voyage to Lunnin, 1824. 

CHEPSTER, the std^rXmg.—BrocketL 

CHESFIT, a cheese vat ; the vessel in which the curd is placed 
to be pressed into cheese. 

CHESS, to chase. In a colliery " after the winding engine has 
been standing for some time, the cages are run up and down 
the shaft to see that all is right before men are allowed to get 
into the cage.'* This is to chase or chess the ropes. — GteenweU, 

CHESSELL, or CHESSWELL, a cheese press.— Broffcrrt, 
3rd ed. See Chesfit. 

CHESTED, coffined. " He will have to be chested to-night." 

CHESTER, a Roman camp. This is always pronounced 
Chester^ never caster or cester, in Northumberland. As may be 
expected, in the land of the Roman Wall, it is of frequent 
occurrence, and about twenty-six place-names may be counted 
in Northumberland which end in Chester, or are combined with 
it. In Northern England we find Tadcaster, Doncaster, 
Lancaster. In the Midlands and South-West it is a soft r, 
as Leicester, Worcester, Gloucester. Elsewhere the c has 
become c/r, and we find Winchester, Chichester, Chester- 
field — the ch being sounded as in Manchester and in our 
Northumberland chesters. "The Romans held Britain for 
nearly four hundred years. They left behind them only six 
words — Castra, a camp; Strata, a paved road; Colonia, a 
settlement ; Fossa, a trench ; Portus, a harbour ; and Valium, 
a rampart. The treatment of the Latin word Castra in this 
island has been both singular and significant ; and it has 
always taken the colouring of the locality into whose soil it 
struck root. It is worthy of notice that there are in Scotland 
no words ending in caster. Though the Romans had camps 
in Scotland, they do not seem to have been so important as 
to become the centres of towns." (Prof. Meiklejohn, English 
Language, 1886, p. 210.) " When we find ourselves in a land. 


no longer of casters, but of chesterSy we begin to ask whether 
some of these settlements were not Jutish or Saxon, rather 
than Anghan." (Freeman, English Towns and Districts, p. 327.) 
** The Clusters [of Bernicia] as opposed to the casters ot Deira, 
are, if not distinctively Saxon, at least English, as opposed 
to Danish." {The same, p. 448.) The chief names in the 
limit of Northumberland folk-speech are Chester-le- Street, 
Lanchester, Ebchester, Colchester, Binchester, Halion 
Chester s, Walwick Chesters, Great Chesters, Chesterholm, 
Rudchester, Chesterhope, Rochester, &c. In Cumberland 
the Roman stations are called ** castles," as Bewcastle, 
Papcastle, &c., and the sites "castle steads." Whitley Castle 
is a station in Northumberland, but lying close upon the 
confines of Cumberland. 

CHEVIOT HILLS. According to Johnston {Place-names of 
Scotland, p. 62) Cheviot, Welsh cefn, a ridge or back. Compare 
Chevy Chase and Chevington, Northumberland, -ot is a difficult 
ending to explain. In c, 1250, Montes chieuiti ; a. 1300, Mons 
chiuioth. Probably Gaelic c(h)iabach, 'bushy,' from ciabh, hair, 
which would yield both *' Chevy'' and ^* Cheviot,'* — Page 255. 
These hills give their name to the short- woolled sheep known 
as Cheviots and to the cloth made from their wool. 

CHEWN, a dish-clout. 

CHIBE, a kind of onion. — HalliweWs Diet, See Chives. 

CHIEL, a friend, one very intimate. ** He's a queer chiel " is 
applied to a familiar as a pet description of a quaint or queer 

•• Sae wiv some varry canny chiels. 
All on the hop an' murry, 
Aw thowt aw'd myek a voy'ge to Shiels, 
Iv Jemmy Joneson's Whurry." 

T. Thompson, Jemmy Joneson's Whurry, 

CHIEVE, to achieve, to succeed in, or accomplish any business. 
CHILDER, children. 

CHILDERMASS-DAY, Innocents' Day.— i^a/s Gloss. 
CHILL, a cold. ** He's getten a chill." 

CHIMINS, the seeds or inner husks of oats, soaked two or 
three days in cold water to become a jelly, and then boiled in 
water or milk, in which state they are by many considered 
very good. They are used in Cumberland and Northumber- 
land, but most and best made in Scotland. — Hodgson MS, 
See So WANS. 


CHIMLEY, CHUMLA, chimney, Chimley-ctuck, the pot- 
hung in the chimney. Chimley-neukf the chimney corner — t. 
Chimley -piece f the mantel-shelf. General. 

" Losb's big chimley at Walker.*' 

** Changes on the Tyne." 

Bards of the Tyne, p. 215. 

CHINE, a chain, [S.] In farm work, " lang chines*' are plou^^j^ 

chains; ** short chines'* are trace chains; "shoother chines^" 

are the chains for yoking to the cart shafts. The sm^sK/y 

bubbles rising from an otter as he dives across the bottom 0/ 

the water are called his chine. 

" The chep wi* the chine,** 

James Horsley. A Ride on the Swing Bridge. 

CHINK, money. 

'* Noo when aw cum ti think, aw'd better spend maw chink.** 

Ed. Corvan, The Comet, 1858. — Allan's Collection, p. 73. 


CHINNEL, to separate the dust or smallest coals from larger 

CHINNELY, small, as gravel or coal separated from the dust, 
or dead small. ^^ChinUy coals are neither round (large) nor 
small, but such as will pass over the skreen and among the 
best coals." — GreenwelL Chinnely clay is clay with admixture 
of gravel. Chinnely sand is sand with gravel. The stream 
near Bardon Mill is called ** Chincley burn." Compare 
Trindle, Trinilies. 

CHIP, to break or crack ; said of an egg when the young bird 
breaks the shell. — Brockett. 

CHIP, a term used by salmon fishers, who say that a fish 
" chips,'' when it cuts the surface of the water without leaping. 

CHIRM, to chirp ; applied especially to the melancholy under- 
tone of a bird previous to a storm, — Brockett. " A charm of 
birds." See Chorm, 

" I cherme as byrdes do whan they make a noyse a great nomber 
togyther." — Palsgrave, Halliuell's Diet. 

" What variety of character, as well as variety of emotion, may be 
distinguished by the practised ear in a * charm of birds.*" — C. Kingsley, 
Prose Idylls, "A Charm 0/ Birds,*' 2nd ed., 1874, p. 13. 

CHISEL, CHIZZEL, a common quality of meal from oats. 
** A caad chisel crowdy." The coarse offal from flour, known 
as boxings, used for feeding pigs. 


CHISEL, the cutlin^ face of a drill, or boring rod. 

CHIST. a chest, a variant of kist. 

■■ Two olde chysles."— Will, in K Weltard^s Hislaty 0/ NeiiCJille in Ihc 
XVI.Cnttaly.p 320. 

CHITTER. to chatter, ■■ Mi; teeth wis ckitlerin wi' the caad." 

CHITTEK-CHATTER, chat, prattle; also the action of the 
teeth when chattering with cold. 

CHITTERS, part of the intestines of a goose, used in making 
a giblet pie. 

CHIVES, the small onions, Allium schwiwprasum, found on the 
Roman Wall in Northumberland. The chives at Walltown, 
&c,, are described as "Native, Local type." — Baiter, Flora 
of Northumberland and Durham. 

" In Ihe crevices of Ihe whin rock chkis grow abuDdantly, Tba 
general apinion is that we are indebted for those plants to Ihe Komans, 
who were much addicled to ihe use of Ihese and kindred savoury 
v^etables,"— Dr. Bruce, Handbook to Roman Wall, 1884, p. 171. 

CHOCK, packed, crammed, blocked. "C/tock up again'd." 

CHOCK, to block ; to choke, as in the phrase, " The spoot wis 
chocked up wi' clarts." 

CHOCK, a piece of wood for stopping waggons at the top of a 
bank. {Mining Glossary, Newcastle Terms, 1852.) Also a 
square pillar for supporting the roof of a pit, built up of short 
lengths of wood. 

CHOCK-AND-BLOCK, tightly filled up. 

CHOKE-DAMP, called also afttr-damp and snrfeil, the result 
of explosion of fire-damp in a mine ; the deadly carbonic acid 
gas. German damp/, "any thick smoke, mist, or vapour, 
especially when it is of sulphureous nature." — Adelung, 
quoted by Wedgwood, Diet, of Eng. Etymologv. 

CHOKE-DEALS (for chock-deals), deals fitted closely together 
so as to be caulked, if necessary, in sinking. 

" We lay thaak-diaU (as we call tbem), which is deals put In as last, 
or M along, as we dig the sand or earth." — J. C, Compliat CoHiir, 170&, 

CHOLLER. a double chin ; also the loose flesh under a turkey- 
I cock's neck — a cock's wattles. — Brockett. 

^H^ cocks n 


CHOP, to make a sudden retrograde movement. "The wind 
chopped round to the nor'rard." "The fox chops back and 
doubles like a hare." (James Armstrong, Wanny Blossoms, 
p. 85.) ** We have two Labourers at a time at the handle 
of the bore Rod, and they chop, or pounce." Q. C, Compleat 
Ccllier^ 1708, p. 11.) "Have good strong wooden Plugs 
ready made, whilst boreing, to chop into the Bore-hole 
immediately." (The samc^ p. 14.) It also means to put out, 
to confuse. " Now, this has chop't me by my text." (jfoco- 
Serious Discourse, Newcastle, 1686, p. 38.) Hence a chop is a 
mischance. " Sir, after this there did befaw Another chop, 
was warst of aw ! " {JChe sattie, p. 28.) 

CHOP-BACK, in mining, an excavation driven the reverse 

CHOPS, the chaps or mouth. 

" For hay but seldom blest their chops " (the donkey s fare beio] 
generally thistles)."— T. Wilson, The Oilin' 0' Dicky's Wig, 1826. 

"To find out the nyem, now each worried his chops*' — bit his lips.- 
R. Gilchrist, The Skipper's Erudition, 1824. 

CHORCH, church. The more frequent form on Tyneside 
where kirk is now seldom heard. The hard k for ch is hear 
in kist, a chest ; kairn (kirn), a churn ; and in the final sounczzsd 
of such words as ihak, thatch ; scrat or scart, scratch ; mucU 
much ; snak, snatch ; stick, stitch ; birk, birch, &c. Compar 
Kirk and following words. 

"Now we've a chorch te mend the bad, 
And help them up to Heeven." 

T. Wilson, The Oilin' 0' Dickys Wig, 1826. 

CHORK, saturated or soaked with water — Northumberland,- 
HaUiwelVs Did, 

CHORM, to croon, to warble. 

" Charming some bee-a-baa-sang." 

J. P. Robson, Lament, 1870. 

CHORM, a chirp, chatter, as of birds. See Chirm, Churm. 

" Sweet is the breath of morn, her rising sweet. 
With charm of earliest birds." 

Paradise Lost, iv., 641. 

CHORNELS, small hard swellings in the glands of the neck in 
young persons, called ** waxing chtrftels:'—Brockett—Ckimell. 

CMORT, to squirt with the teeth. Brockett gives chiri. 





FiOUKS, the glands of the throat, immediately under the 
jaw bones. — Brockett^ 3rd ed. 

^pUP, CAT-CHOUP, a hip ; the fruit of the hedge briar, or 
wild rose — Ruhus major, 

EIOUS, an old term for small coal. — Chas. Beaumont, Treatise 
on Coal Minings quoted in Impartial History of Newcastle^ 1801, 
p. 478. 

HOW, to chew. ** Chow, chow, the baccy chow " is the chorus 
sung in a children's game at merry-go-round. 

HOW, a chew of tobacco, a quid. 

rIOWK, to choke.* " The stoor meast chowk'd us.'* In a 
dog fight, ** Chowk that dog off.** Also used to express thirst. 
'* Bring me a drink — aa's fit te chowk.'' " Chowkcd wi' his aan 
^at ** — checkmated ; hoist with his own petard. 

iOWLS, or JOWLS, the }SLWS.—Brocketty 3rd ed. 

IRIS-CROSS, bad tempered, cross ; a fit of temper. 

"1772, January 13. The said W™ Smith in his cairs crosses abused 
the Beadle and endeavoured to sow discord and division among the 
members." — Keelman*s Books. 

IRIS-CROSS, a cross. In a child's game a distinction is 
:arefully observed between a chris and a cross y the former 
^eing made thus x and the latter thus -f . 


*' Honest Blind Willy shall string this iv rhymes, and aw'll sing'd for a 
Chrissenmas carol." — T. Thompson, d. 1816, Canny Newcastle. 

*' Item, paid for seven yardes of yalowe carsaye, and seven yardes of 
blue carsaye, at 2s. 8d. the yarde, for the fulles" (fool's) "cottes and 
cappes agaynste Christynmas, 37s. ^d." — Newcastle Municipal Accounts, 
December, 1561. 

IRISTEN, a human being. ** As wise as a Christen,*' said 
)f a dog, meaning as wise as a human being. Mr. Halliwell 
lotes that in Newcastle the sedan chairmen were called 
* Christian horses." 

IRISTENING (pron. chrisnin,) This is generally carried 
)ut with attendant pomp and circumstance ; but before the 
Drocession starts for the church the nurse makes up a neat 
)arcei in which spice cake, or loaf, with cheese and a packet 


of salt are enclosed. This is handed to the first person met 

with on leaving the house. If the infant be a girl it is lucky 

to give it to a man ; if a boy, to give it to a woman, but it 

must be given to the first person met with. 

" She deck'd us for church on the Christning day, 
Cut the bread-and-cheese meant to be stow'd 
In the first lucky pocket she met on her way 
To the church from their humble abode." 

T. Wilson, Thi ViUagi Howdy . 

Brockett says — under **Child*s-first -visit" — "The first time 
an infant visits a neighbour or relation, it is presented with 
three things — a small quantity of salt, bread, and an egg.** 

CHUCK, bread. A slang or colloquial word. 

CHUCK, a jolly fellow. 

•• We found mony a hearty chuck.'* 

T. Wilson, The Oilin* o' DUhy's Wig, 1826. 

CHUCK, to throw away. 

" Aw*s grieved at heart, push round the can, 
Then empty fra wor hands we'll chuck it." 

R. Gilchrist, 1844. Bold Archie and Blind Willie's Lament. 

CHUCK, the sheU of the land and of the sea snail. The game 
of ^^ chucks an marvels*' is played with five of these shells 
and a marble ; sometimes with five small mutton bones, or 
with five small stones. The marble is thrown up and allowed 
to "stot" (rebound) and is caught in its second fall ; between 
each "stot" the player picks up one of the chucks at a time till 
the five are in hand ; then two and one, then three and one, 
and so on, till at the last throw the whole five are adroitly 
caught at a sweep. The game is called *^ chucks 2ind bandies" 
in South Shields. Compare Cocks and Hens. 

CHUCKERS, DOUBLE CHUCKERS, potions of ardent 
spirits. Terms well known [in Brockett*s time] among 
Northern topers. Douhle-chucherSy a bumper which requires 
two chncksy or gulps. — Brockett, 3rd ed. 

CHUCKLE-HEED, a stupid person. " What are ye deein, 
ye greet chuckle- fued,*' said to a clumsy workman by his 
master. See Cuckle-heed. 

•• The lubbart wi* the chuckle-heed:' 

R. Emery, d. 1871, The Owl, 

CHUCKY-OOT, look out. 

*• Clawdy, tee, might chucky-oot, 
He's jaws he'd surely plaister." 

J. P. Robson, d. 1870, Hamlick, Prince 0/ Denton* 


CHURM, to express pleasure or satisfaction by a humming 
sound peculiar to quadrupeds and birds. A chirp or bird 
note, the coo of the dove. See Chorm and Chirm. 

*• The churm o* the turtledove is hurd i' wor country-side.** — ^J. P. 
Robson, d. 1870, Sang 0* Solomon, Northumberland version, chap, ii., 
V. 12. 

CHURN-SUPPER, harvest supper. See Kern-supper. 

CINDER BASIN. When a woman has lost her reckoning 
it is still not uncommon to hear that *' she has lost a cinder." 
This phrase refers to a cinder put into a basin at stated times 
to mark a date. The counting of the cinders should agree 
with the reckoning. 

" I remember a hind*s wife (I am speaking of sixty years ago), who 
was born and bred in Rothbury Forest, where old superstitions and 
customs lingered long, and who, in the interval between her confinement 
and being "churched," would not go out of her house without first 
putting a cinder on the lintel of the door frame." — Letter, Middleton H. 
Dand to writer, April 27th, 1889. 

CINDER COAL, coal deprived of its bitumen by the action of 
a whin d)'ke or slip. — GreenwelL 

CIRSE, or SES, a circular sieve for straining buttermilk. 
Scarce, to sift. 

CLAA, a claw. Claa, claat, to claw, to scratch. **Claa me, claa 
thee " — you scratch my back and Til scratch yours ; or you do 
a good turn for me and I will return the compliment. 

CLACK, the low valve of a pump. Its use is to support the 
column of water when the bucket is descending. — Glossary 
of Coal Trade Terms, 1849. In the column of pipes in a pit, 
through which water is pumped, that section containing the 
valve is called the clack-piece. The face on which the valve 
closes is the clack-seat. The clack-door is the plate bolted over 
the aperture which gives access to the clack, 

CLAES, clothes. 

•• Nyen can say we are i' debt, 
Or want for owther claes or scran." 

T. Wilson. Pitman's Pay, pt. i., v. 80. 

CLAG, to stick, to make to adhere. 

" Aa gets them aa clagged togither agyen wi* cobbler's waax." — His 
Other Eye, 1880, p. 7. 

" The putter f/d^^^i his loweon behind (the tram) and proceeded." — Mr. 
John Rowell. article **Soam," Newcastle Weekly Chronicle, April 14th, 1888. 


C LAG -CANDY, candy, so called on account of its sticky, or 
cloggy nature. Used to describe something sweet, as : — 

" Thou's a' claecanded, ma bonny hinny, 
Thou's double japanded, ma canny bairn.*' 

Song, •* Up the Raw:* 

BelVs Rhym$s, 181 2, p. 298 

CLAGGER, a palpable hit, as with a soft missile that strikes 
and sticks (dags) ; a repartee that effectually shuts up an 
opponent. ** That's a dagger, noo ! " Also a cleaver, made of 
a circular piece of leather, with a thong through the centre, 
a boy*s toy ; softened in water, and pressed by the foot on a 
stone, it will adhere to and lift the stone by the atmospheric 

CLAGGUM, toffy made with treacle and a little kneading. 

From its sticky consistency, it dags. 

" If money's short. 111 take 
Rabbit skins for claggum:* 

W. Stephenson, d. 1836. The Itinerant Con/eciioner. 

CLAGGY, of an adherent, viscid nature. Tar or treacle are 
thus called daggy substances. 

A seam of coal is said to have a claggv-top when it adheres to the 

" - :'--Gt 

CLAGGY-TOP, coal adhering to the roof of a pit, 

" A seam of coal is said to have a claggv-top v 
roof, and is with difficulty separated." — Greenwell. 

CLAIPIN, noisy, tale-telling. 

GLAIRED, dirty, covered with mud. See Glare. 

CLAIRTS, or CLARTS, wool upon which sheep's droppings 
have gathered and hardened, which is saved and sold by 
shepherds to be cleaned and rendered fit for manufacture. 
The word is quite common among the Cheviot shepherds, 
and at Yetholm the cleaning of this wool is a regular trade. 

CLAITH, cloth. 

CLAM [N.] , damp and clammy, viscous. " Ye mun air the 
shaal ; it's quite dam,'* said of a shawl that has got wet. 

CLAM, a moveable collaring for a pump, consisting of two 
pieces of wood indented to receive the pump, and screw- 
bolted together. — Gloss, of Coal Trade Terms, 1849. 

CLAM, an and-iron. See Clamps. 

" i. iron chimney with tongs, rakes, and clams:' — R. V/eUord, History 0/ 
Newcastle, XVI. Century, p. 239. 


^AM. i. To press, to hold an article tightly. 2. To castrate, 
^hen the operation is performed, not by incision, but by 
:ompression. — Brockett. 

^AM, CLOM, or CLUM, praeterite of the verb to climb. 

.AMJAMFREY [N.] , a rabble crowd. 

-AMMER, to clamber or climb. ** Aa've clammered up them 
itairs to the Garth, an' aa's fair dyun.** In Nan's Gloss, the 
¥ord is given as *' a colloquial pronunciation." It is in 
:onstant use. 

^AMMERSOME, clamorous. 

^AMP, a large fire made of underwood. — Brockett, 

^AMP, to walk with a clanking or noisy tread ; to bind or 
loop with iron. 

^AMPER, a heavy blow. See Clanker. 

-rAMPS, irons at the end of fires, to keep up the fewel. — 
Ray*s Gloss, 

-»AMS, instruments used in gelding lambs and foals. — 
Hodgson MS, A small vice or press. — Brockett ^ 3rd ed. 
The shoemaker's clams consist of two pieces of wood of a bent 
»hape opening at the top, where leather is held to be sewn. 
Cramps used in masonry. Weeding tongs, with long wooden 

^ ANKER, a heavy, clanging blow, a hit that settles an 
argument, an effective rejoinder. 

" That day a' Hawks's blacks may me, 
They gat monny a verra sair clanker, O." 

J. Selkirk, d. 1843, Swalwell Hopping, 

-r AN KIN, as " a clankin lass," a stout, active girl. Probably 
referring to the clank made by the clogs of an active maiden. 

!^ANNOMS, streaks of colour in stone. 

LrAP, to pat tenderly. "Give him a clap on the back," is 
equivalent to " encourage him by your approval." 

" She curl'd ma hair, or ty'd ma tail. 
And clapt and strokt ma little Cappy." 

T. Wilson, The Pitman's Pay, 1826, pt. i., v. 43. 


CLAP, to put quickly ; to seat oneself hurriedly. 

" Clapt little Neddy on his knee." 

T. Wilson, The PitmatCs Pay, 1826, pt i., v. 86. 

''Clap on the kettle, hinny." 

'* He clap^d on the jarvies iv a minute." 

" If a shoe's wanted ye hardly need stop — 
Iv a jiffy they clap on a new 'un." 

T. Wilson, Stanzas on an Intended Roadt 1825. 

" Clap yor lug tiv a stob." 

J. P. Robson, d. 1870, Wonderful TaUygnp- 

*' Aa clapt mesel doon." 

R. Emery, d. 1871, Baggy Nanny, 

CLAP, to crouch down as a partridge does. " The covey's 

clappedy ye canna see them." 

"If any person come near the calves, they clap their heads close to the 
ground." — James Hall, Guide to Glendale, 1887, p. 25. 

CLAP-BENNY, a request made to infants in the nurse's arms 
to clap their hands, as the only means they have of expressing 
their prayers, or of signifying their desire of a blessing.— 


CLAP-BOARD, a smaller size of split oak, imported from 
north Germany, and used by coopers for making barrel 
staves ; in later times also for wainscotting. — Dr. Murray, 
New, Eng. Diet. (Obs.) 

•• Item pd for clapbords, 2s. Sd.*'— Gateshead Church Books, 1649. 

CLAPPERCLAW, to beat, to abuse. 

" He clapper-claw' d their jerkins soundly." 

G. Stuart, Joco-Serious Discourse, 1686, p. 71* 

CLAPPERS, the kind of rattle made of three pieces of flat 
wood, usually fastened together by a thong. The middle 
piece is about twice as long as the other two and is reduced 
at one end to form a handle. It is used about a farm to 
frighten crows from the corn and potatoes. ** Callant ! " g*^ 
away to the craas, and take yor clappers wa yea.'* The word 
is also used as a simile for the tongue, as " Had yor clapf^ 

CLART, CLAIRT, to besmear with mud ; to do anything in a 
sloppy, slatternly way. ** What are ye clartin on wi* there? 

CLARTS, mud, dirt ; also applied to dirty wool. See Clairts. 

" That hallion McAdam the pavement up-tore. 
And left in its stead darts and dust in galore." 

R. Gilchrist, 1835, Song of Improvement^' 

" Wi' darts they should be plaister'd weel 
That jeer'd Blind Willie's singin'." 

R. Gilchrist, d. 1844, Blind Willie's Singin. 


LARTY, to dirty. " Yell clarty the door step wi' yor feet." 

LARTY, muddy, bemudded, low, mean, as " He's a clariy 

*♦ Other clarty tricks he play'd." 

G. Stuart, Joco-Serious Discourses^ 1868, p. 47. 

It also means foul when applied to the weather. *' A clarty 
day." At Morpeth, a few years ago, on a very wet day, the 
old bellman made his announcement as follows : ** Oh, yes ! 
the sale that was to take place at one o'clock by Mr. Storey 
is postponed on account of the clartiness of the weather." 

•• If it be clarty, you're sure for to get 
Weel plaister'd byeth 'bint aud afore, man/* 

T. Charlton, " Newcastle Improvements ^ 

Bards of the Tyne, 1849, p. 239. 

^^ Clarty fine" means shabby genteel, and ** clarty finery," 
tawdry finery. 

!^ASH, the sound made by a heavy clanking or crashing blow, 
as in the violent shutting of a door or the letting fall of tin- 
ware, &c. •* She set the tea tray doon wiv a clash" *' He 
banged the door tee wi' sic a clash" 

!^ASH, to strike, to slam, to throw down violently or with 
clatter. " Hoo wis aa to pull up, wiv a train like that ahint 
us, when he just clashed the distance signal i' me feyce as aa 
wis passin't." (An Engine Driver expostulating.) At an 
assize trial in Newcastle a witness deposed, ** He clashed his 
jaa ; an then clagged up his eye wi* clarts." 

"Oh, lass, dinnet clash the door."— Joe Wilson, d. 1875. 

LASH, to gossip idly; light or idle talk. "Aa canna be 
fash't wi' that man's clash,** 

" I came to have a little clash.'* 

Ed. Chicken, The Collier's Wedding, 1735. 

LATCH, a mess, slops. 

LATT, to pull the loose wool from about the udders of ewes 
as a precaution from being swallowed by lambs when sucking. 

LATTER, a rattling noise ; loud, tattling talk. " The window 
shutter cam doon wiv a clatter" 

•• We need not wonder at the clatter ^ when every tongue wags.** 

T. Wilson, Pitman's Pay, 1826, pt. i., v. 12. 

" Aw've knawn him sit my est roun' the clock, 
Swattling an clatt'ring on wi' Charley." 

The same, pt. i., v. 90. 


CLAUGHT, snatched at — Northumberland. — HaUiwelVs Did, 
See Claa. 

CLAVER, to climb up. The Rev. John Hodgson suggests 
that the word combines the idea of " cleavering or adhering, 
mixed with the idea of climbing." In this sense it is very 
suggestive of the act of ** speelin' " a tree, or otherwise at 
once clinging and climbing. 

•* Hill upon hill rises ever se hich, 

Up whilk the pMoor animals now drag tneir load, 
For a' the warld like claverin up the sky." 

T. Wilson. Stanzas on Intended Road, 1824. 

" Then into the coach Geordy clavered wi* speed.** 

R. Emery, d. 1871, Newcastle Wonders. 

CLAVER, to gossip in a loud tone. 
CLAVER, clover. — Brockett, 
CLAVERS, loud idle talk. 

" Be dumb, ye leeing, yammerin' hoonds ! 
Nor wi yor clavers fash us.'' 

W. Oliver, d. i848» The Bonassus. 

CLAVERS, goosegrass, Galium aparine. — Brockett, 3rd ed. 

CLAY, a pitman's candlestick, made of a piece of clay. 

CLAYDOLLY, the woman worker in a brickfield, who carri^^^ 
the brick from the moulder's table to the open field where ^^- 
is to be dried. 

CLEAD, to cover, to clothe. See Cleed. 

CLEAK [N.] , to snatch. See Click. 

CLEAN, entirely. ** Aa wis clean done." " He wis clean gy^^-* 
iv a minit." Clean gyen is also used as a matter of compariso*^ 
»* It is clean gyen wi'd" — that is, superior to some competing 

CLEAN, a pit is clean when free from gas. A coal seam is cledi^ 
when it is free from dirt partings. 

CLEANIN, the after-birth of an animal. 

CLEAP, to name or call. — Brockett, 3rd ed. 



X^EAT, the vertical joints or facings in coal or stone. There 
are frequently two cleats in coal, at which, when distinct, the 
coal may be broken into rhomboidal fragments. These cUats 
<io not always intersect each other at the same angle. — Gloss. 
€>f Coal Trade Terms, 1849. "She cleats bonny,*' said of coal 
^when this characteristic is marked. 

I^EAVER, a disc of leather perforated in the centre for a 
string. The knot in the string closes this centre hole, and on 
the leather being wet and applied to a smooth surface the 
disc clagSf or adheres to it. Thus stones, &c., are lifted and 
carried by boys in play. The toy is also called a dagger [N.] . 
See Clagger. 

ILEAVIN, the fork of the human body. 

"What a poor forked creature man is 1 " — King Lear. 

*' A forked radish with a head fantastically carved." — T. Carlyle, 
Sartor Resartus. 

I-ECK, a hook. " Hing yor coat on that deck.** See Cleek, 2. 
I-ECK, to breed, to hatch. 

•• Will potato seed deck the first year ? '* Will it produce tubers the 
year in which it is sown ? — Hodgson MS. 


young birds. Cleckin or clockin is the chuckle, or cluck-cluck 

of satisfaction or alarm made by the hen mother over her 


" Wad ye believ'd, in less than a fortnith a beautiful clockin o' chickens 
was hatched/'— Geddes, Ikeyho. — Bards of the Tyne, 1849. 

IrED {p.t.), clothed. See Cleed. 

" Aw cled into her mourning weed." 

Bernard Rumney, an excellent ballad of 
The Sickness of Ecky's Mare. 

^IrED-SCOOR, a cled score, equal to twenty-one in countmg 
sheep. In the transference of hill stock the numbers are 
frequently calculated by the cled-scoor, 

^ LEED, to clothe. 

" Feed us and cleed us weel, she may." 

T. Wilson, The Pitman's Pay, 1826, pt. iii., v. 52. 

'* When I cam to your bridal bed 
I'd fouth o'claes to cleed me back, 
But now IVe scarce a single plack." 

Description 0/ Sandgate. 

" The n^ek'd to cleed, the hungry to feed, 
And gie the houseless shelter." 

T. Wilson, Oilin* 0* Dicky's Wig, 1826. v. 34. 


CLEEDIN, clothing, covering. 
CLEEK, CLICK, to snatch. See Click. 

" I clefked yen of them by the arm.*' 

JocO'Serious Discourse, Newcastle, z686. 

CLEEK, a crook to catch at anything. A barbed hook used to 
land salmon. (A **ga£f*' is a salmon hook without a barb.) 
A snatch hook. 

" He's made a cUeh but and a creel — 
A creel but and a pin ; 
And he's away to the chimley top, 
And he's letten the bonny clerk in.'* 

Old song, The Keach V the Creel. 

CLEEK, to breed or hatch. See Cleck. 
CLEET, the hoof of an ox or a sheep. See Clute, Clooty. 
CLEG, a gadfly ; hence applied to a tedious, tiresome child. 
CLEG, a clever person, an adept. — Brockett, ? Gleg. 

CLEUGH, a dell, or cleft through which water runs. 

" A gray stone in a clowghe syd under a plac called the Crowkhyl.* 
Award dated 1554. — Dr. Charlton. North Tynedale, p. 66. 

" The one of them hight Adam Bel, 
The other Clym o' the Cleugh, 
The thyrd was William of Cloudeslee, 
An archer good ynough." 

Old ballad, printed 1550. 
"A hope is the head of a vale, a cUugh is a sort of diminutive Aoj^ 
where the vale is narrowed by opposite craigs." — S. Oliver, Rambles ** 

Northumberland, 1835, p. 87, note. 

CLEW, a ball of worsted ; hence, probably, a globular swellirr::^? 
like a boil. When a person is restless and uneasy it '^ 

common to say, *' He's getten a clew.** 

CLEW, CLEWS, or CLOOSE, the floodgate of a mill dam.- 

Brocketty 3rd ed. See Cloor. 

CLEYT, CLITE, to wear unevenly, to make one-sides^' ^' 
'* Your shoe's cleyted.** See Aclite. 

CLIAR, CLIRE, a hard substance formed generally on Hm^^ 
liver or lungs of animals. Clired^ having a clirey a dangero'"^* 
obstruction in an animal's throat. See Clyre. 

CLICK, a rent, a tear. " Leuk what a greet click thor's iv \m^^ 


CLICK, to snatch, to catch up, to clutch. "He clicked it oot 
o' me hand." 

*' They lower 'd the sail, but it aa waddent dee, 
So he clicked up a coalt air* maist felled the Pee-dee." 

W. Armstrong, Jinny HooUit 1833. 

" AaVe seen him, in this muddled mess, 
CUck up his chsilk and wooden buik." 

T. Wilson, Pitman's Pay, 1827, pt. ii., v. 45. 

CLIFTY, smart, busy, industriously active. It is now oftener 
applied to a horse, and more particularly to a mare. '' She*s 
a clifty ganner." 

" Clam up the shrouds, and wrought han-spun, 
And preuv*d themsels twa clifty men." 

G. Stuart, Joco-Serious Discourse^ 1686, p. 70. 

•• There's very few can foot so nice 
As clifty Will Carstairs." 

Genuine Tom WhittelU 1815. 

CLIM, to climb. Past^ clam ; p, part., clommen or clom, Drayton 
u^s this form in his Battaile of Agincaurty p. 30. dimmer is to 

*• The waves to climme,** ib. p. 5. — Halliwell's Diet. 

CLIM, the name Clement. 

CLING, to dry up, to wither, to shrivel. In The Priche of 
Conscience one of the symptoms of approaching death is 
stated to be that the patient's **bely clynges.'* Edition 
Morris f line 823. 

" Pal and clungen was his chek, 
His skin was hlungen to the bane." 

Metrical Homilies, p. 8. 

CLING- CLANG, in confederacy. ** Thor aall cling -clang, like 
the tinklers o* Yacomb." — Old saying, 

CLINK, to hammer up so as to tighten anything, to clench. 

CLINK-RING, an iron ring used in building wooden ships. 
A bolt with a head is put through first, then the ring is 
slipped on the inside and clinched. 

CLINKER, a furnace slag, or the fused products of com- 
bustion on a smith's hearth, or in an engine furnace. 

CLINKER, a clever person, an adept. 


CLINKER-BUILT, having the edge of each plank or layer 
overlapping, not butting, the next to it. The wooden steam- 
tug boats on the Tyne are clinker-built yesich strake overlapping 
the one below it. In Hodgson's Northumberland ^ iii., 2, p. 76, 
there is a description of the discovery at the Roman station, 
Whitley Castle, of a large dung-hill. " It abounds with old 
shoes, all made right and left — those of men, clinker-built" 

CLINT, a cliff of rock. In Northumberland, generally appli 
to river cliffs. — Hugh Miller, Geology of Otterburn and Eldsdon. 
Geological Survey Memoir. 

CLIP, to clamp, to hold fast. To shear sheep. 

CLIPPERS, a spring hook used in sinking, by which the bo^^ 
of the corf is hung on to the rope. 

CLIPPET, a large hook fastened to the end of a stick, ancf 
used in sea fishing to haul the fish into the boat, or out of tlie 
vessel's hold when discharging cargo; the fish are hooked 
through the gills when lifted by the clippet, 

CLIPS, weeding tongs; large lifting hooks used in hoisting 
timber, made like a pair of tongs, with hooked ends, which 
'* seize " as the weight of the log bears. 

" The pot-hooks, or bow, by which a pot or pan is suspended over a 
fire." — Brockett, 3rd ed. 

" Shears, scissors— Northumberland. ''—HalliwelVs Diet. 

CLIPSE, eclipse. " The meun's i' the clipse:* 

CLITTER-CLATTER, various terms for idle, gossiping 
talk. ^ 

•• I clytter, I m^Ve a noyse as harnesse or peuter dysshes, or any sucbe 
lyke thynges.'*-— Palsgrave, quoted in HalliwelVs Diet, under Clitter-cktUr. 

CLIVES, CLIVAS, CLIVUS, a stick cut with a fork or 
hooked branch at one end, like a very long walking stick. 
It is used by woodmen to hook on to a tree so as to direct its 
fall if it should appear to lean aside. " Had on choppin» 
mister, till aa cut a clivus.** Said by a woodman at Temperley 
Grange, March, 1890. 

CLI VVER, CLIVVOR, clever. Well, in good health. « Hoo 
are ye the day, lad ?" " Man, aa's clivvcrr 


CLOCK, CLOCKER, a beetle. Any large beetle is called a 
dock. " Killin doehs wi' clubs" is an expression applied to a 
person using large means for very small ends, or to one 
whose performances fall short of his promises. "He's 
eJways gan to kill docks wi' clubs" is ihe very effective 
description of such a person. The seeding head of a dandelion 
is called a clock by children, who repeat the words, " Bell 
horses, bell horses, what time o' day? One o'clock, two 
o'clock, three and away." The number of puffs, which are 
after this required to dissipate the seeds, indicate the hour. 

CLOCK, to sit an egg ; hence the phrase "clockin' " — that is, 
sitting for an inordinate time. "What are ye sittin' c/oc^i'fi 
theor at ?" 

CLOCKER, a sitting hen, or a hen with chickens. " Clocker 
an' bords," meaning hen and chicks, is applied to a variety of 
the garden daisy which has the large central head surrounded 
by diminutive flower heads. 

CLOCKER, a maker or cleaner of clocks. "Wor clock's aa 
wrang, Bella; she wants cleanin." "Ay, Harry, but the 
docker's comin next week to clean hor." 

CLOD-MELL, a wooden mallet for breaking down clods in 
potato fields, Sec. 

feckless, slattern, "A doffy body" 
10 is a slut or slattern. 

CLOFT, the cleft or branch of a tree. 

i branches, or of a branch with the trunk,"— 

CLOG, in mining, a sledge loaded with stones and dragged 
round by the gin, to which it acts as a brake, 

CLOG, a log of wood. " Dry the dog a. bit mair afore ye put it 
o' the fire." The yule-log is commonly called " yule-clog." 

CLOG, a shoe with wooden sole. It is usually protected by 
^^Ton plates, called " caakers." 

^^B " A bat that never cost a groat — 

^^1 A necklets sarh— a clog and shoe." 

^P T. Wilson, Pilniait-i Pay. i8a6. pi. i., v, 61. 

CLOG, to patch or repair. 


CLOGGER, a clog shoemaker. In Newcastle there was 
formerly, at the Head of the Side, a ** dogger's Entry." 
This, like the "Baker's Entry," *• Flaxdresser's Yard," 
** Butcher Bank," and such other places, probably indicated 
the special trade carried on in the locality. 

CLOINTER, disorder. See Clunter. 

CLOIT, a clown, a stupid fellow. — Brockett, Clot is the more 
common form in Newcastle. ** Get oot, ye greet clot^ ye." 

CLOOD, a cloud. Cloody^ cloudy. 

CLOOR, a sluice — Northumberland, — HalliwelVs Diet. The word 
was used by a witness in an assize trial at Newcastle, July, 
1890. ** He pulled doon the cloor.'* Compare Clew, 2. 

" Cloor, sluice, &c., dial, form of clow.'* 

Dr. Murray. New Eng. Diet. 

CLOOT, to clout, to patch with cloth, or to mend anything 
with a patch, as ** Cloot the tin pan." 

•• Ods heft ! maw pit claes — dis thou hear ? 
Are warse o* wear ; 
Mind, cloot them weel when aw's away." 

J. Shield, Bob Cranhy's Adieu. 

To strike; as ** Aa'll cloot yor jaw." 

" She cloois the bits o* bairns aboot. 
An packs them off ti skuil." 

T. Wilson, The Washing Day, 1843. 

In The Pitman's Pay, pt. ii., v. 56, the little trapper boy tells 
woefully : — 

" Full mony a curse and clout 
Aw gat for sleepin at the door.*' 

CLOOT, a cloth, a rag. ** Aa'll pin a dish-cloot te yor tail," says 
an irate cook to an intruder into the kitchen. • A cheese-cloot 
is the cloth used in cheese making. 

CLOOT-DOLLY, a doll made of cloth. 

CLOOTY-HAT, a bonnet for field work, made of cloth. 

CLOOTY, the devil ; that is, the cloven-footed one. See 

Cleet, Clute. 

•• They could, aw think, compare't wi* nowse 
But Clootie's gang a* brocken lowse." 

T. Wilson, Opening of the Newcastle and 
Carlisle Railway, 1838. 


CLOSE, a small enclosure, as << a close of land/* ** a calf close.'' 
See Garth. A narrow street closed up for defence, as the 
Close at Newcastle, which was defended by the Close Gate 
and the Castle. 

" Formerly several of the principal Barons of Noxthumberland and 
people of Newcastle had houses in it, also the antient Mayors." — 
Hodgson MS. 

CLOSE- BED, a panelled bedstead, or bunk, with sliding 
doors. These close^ or "box-beds" were sometimes hidden 
behind what appeared to be the panelled side of a room. No 
better description of their unsanitary condition could be given 
than close-bed, 

CLOSER, a firebrick 9 inches long by 2J inches square; 
sometimes called a ** soap," from its resemblance to a bar of 

CLOT, a clod, a sod. ** He hit him wiv a clot.'* A heavy, 
stupid fellow. See Cloit. 

CLOTCH, an ungainly person with awkward gait.^ 
CLOTCHY, clumsy. ** Eh, but yor a clotchy han'." 
CLOT-HEED, a blockhead. 

CLOUD-BERRY, the ground mulberry, Ruhus chatiuemorus^ Linn. 
It is also called, noops^ knot-berry^ and knout-berry. 

"Abundant on Cheviot, &c. It is said to have been gathered on 
Simonside and the Deadwater Fell, at the head of North Tynedale." — 
New Flora of Northumberland and Durham. — Natural History Transactions, 
vol. ii., 1867, p. 158. 

CLOUGHY, a woman dressed in a tawdry manner. — Grose. 

CLOUR, a small lump or swelling, a dimple or indentation 
like the hollow made in a piece of tin by the blow of a 
hammer. In mining, a clour is a ** small depression of roof 
into coal, mostly in a post roof." — Greenwell. See Clyre and 

CLOUR, to strike so as to dint the head. ** He gat a clonred 
heed " — a broken head. 

CLOUTER, CLOWTER, to work in careless or disorderly 
manner, to perform dirty work. 

CLOUTERLY, clumsily, awkwardly. 


CLOUT-NAILS, nails made with very large, flat heads. 

CLUBBY-SHAW, a youthful game played by two parties 
with a globular piece of wood, and a stick curved at one end 
to correspond with the ball. — Gloss, to Pitman's Pay^ 1843. 

" The famous feats done in their yoath, 
At bowling, ball, and clnbby-shaw." 

T. Wilson, Pitman's Pay, 1826, pt. i., v. 11. 



chickweed, Stellaria media. 

CLUD-NUT, two nuts grown into each other. Compare 
Clutters. Two nuts grown together thus are called a 
" St. John." Three nuts similarly intergrown are called a 
" St. Mary.'* The latter, being rare, is much prized, and 
when found is usually worn in front of the finder's cap or 
hat. Sec Jud-nut. 

CLUFF, a'cuff, a blow. " A duff o' the lug." To cuff. ** Aa'll 
duff yox jaw for ye." 

CLUFF, to strike into standing corn with the sickle. The term 
was used to distinguish from the drawing motion necessary in 
using the old serrated ''hook," which was formerly in general 
use for reaping. The **hook" was superseded by the smooth 
edged and broad bladed sickle, with which the reaper duffed 
the corn. 

CLUM, CLAM {p.t. otdim), to climb. 

CLUMPER, to encumber, to pack close. ** It's sair dumpert.'' 

CLUMPY, CLUMPISH, lumpy, lumpish, unwieldly. 

CLUNG, ** closed up, or stopped. Spoken of hens when they 
lay not ; it is usually said of anything that is shrivelled or 
shrunk up; from ding.'* — Ray's Gloss., 1691. See Cling. 

" If thou speak false, 
Upon the next tree thou shalt hang alive 
Till famine cling thee." 

Macbeth, v. 5. 

CLUNGY, adhesive. — Brockett, 3rd ed. 
CLUNK, to hiccup. 


CLUNTER, CLOINTER, to make a noise with the feet. A 
person treading heavily with shoes shod with iron is said to 
clunter, — Hodgson MS. 

CLUT, to strike or cuff. See Cloot, Cluff. 

CLUTE, the hoof of a cloven-footed animal. A familiar 

reference is "aad Cluty,'* or ''Clcoty.'' See Clooty. 

" Clute, the half of the hoof of any cloven-footed animal." — Gloss, to 
Pitman's Pay, 1872. 

CLUTHER, a confused crowd ; an entanglement, as of goods 
packed indiscriminately. 

CLUTHER, to crowd closely. "The folks wis aal clutheted 
aboot the door." 

CLUVS [N.], hoofs of horned cattle. "Atween the cluvsr 
See Clute. 

CLYAITH (hl-yaith), cloth. 

CLYAITHIN, CLAITHIN, clothing. See .Clead, Cleadin. 
Clead is the act of covering with anything Clyaithin is 
covering, or clothing, with cloth. 

CLYRE, CLYER, a sort of gland formed in the fat of beef and 
mutton. It is in the centre of the leg of mutton in the 
portion of fat called ** the Pope's eye," and also in the fat of 
a round of beef. It is not considered good food, and is said 
to affect the curing qualities of beef in pickle. In mining, 

■ dyers are lumps of stone like hard nodules, as ** whin ciycrs^'' 
&c. Compare Cliar, Clour. 

CO [W.-T.] , to call. 

COAD [W.-T.], cold. SeeCAAD. 

COAF [W.-T.] , a calf. 

COAL, originally, charred wood ; coal, as we now know it, was 
called sea coal, stone coal, pit coal, to indicate its character 
as a distinct substance from coal proper. In the growth 
of its use, however, the mineral took the name of coal 
exclusively, and the other became charcoal. 

To ** Carry coals to Newcastle ** = ** to take a thing to where 
it is naturally plentiful ; to do what is absurdly superfluous/' — 
Dr. Murray, Ucw Eng, Diet. This phrase was current as early 
as the seventeenth century. 


COAL AND CANDLE LIGHT, the long-tailed duck, Harelda 
glacialis, L. Called also yenny Foster. 

COAL-ENGROSSERS, an old term for the vendors of coal 
on the Tyne. (Obs.) 

** Hoastmen, called in English coak-engrossers.^* — Gardiner. EngUmis 
Grievance Discov.^ p. 55, ed. 1796. 

COAL-HILL, a landsale pit fwhich) used always to be termed 
the Coal-hill , — Raine, l^orth Durham, p. 252. Colehill at Orde. 

COAL-HOOD, the reed bunting ; called also the black bunting, 
Cinchramus schoeniclus, Linn, 


" I must take my leave of this subject of sinking, after you have been 
pleased to give your sinkers (because it is customary), the labourers 
whom I have employed for you, a piece or guinea, to drink the good 
success of the colliery, which is called their coaling money.'* — ^J. C, The 
CompUat Collier t 1708, p. 31. 

COAL-PIPES, very thin, irregular layers, or scares, of coal. 

" The small veins of coal, called by the miners coal-pipes.*' — Mackenzie, 
Hist, of Northumberland^ 13251 vol. i., p. 85. 

Coal-pipy, streaked with thin carbonaceous layers, as ^^ coal-pipy 

COALSAY, COLESAY, the coal-fish. It is also called podlie 
when young, and podler, saith, or scath when somewhat larger ; 
also black jack and often rock salmon by the fishermen, as it 
bears a strong resemblance in form to the salmon. See Soil, 
Hallan, and Poodler. 

Soil is the name by which the fry is known ; they appear at Shields about 
June. " In a short time they increase to about five inches in length, when 
they are called hallan. By September they increase to about a foot in 
length, and are then called poodlers." — Rambles in Northumberland and on 
the Scottish Border, by Stephen Oliver, the Younger (W. A. Chatto), 1835, 

COAL SHALE, shale of a highly bitumenous kind. See Jet, 
and compare Metal. 

COAL TIT, or COLE TIT, the blackcap. See also Black- 


COALY, an old term used when the coal trade was spoken of. 

" Pushed aw'd Coaly frev his seat, 
And ruined all." 

T. Wilson, Dirge on Death 0/ Coaly, 1838, 


COALY, abounding in coal ; applied also to any bed approaching 
to the nature of, or mixed with, coal or coaly matter. 

"Dark coaly thill." — Borings and Sinkings, A.B., p. 23. 

" Wor awd coaly Tyne, doon frae Stella to Shiels." 

T. Wilson, Stanzas, 1824. 

" Rivers arise ; whether thou be the son 
Of utmost Tweed— 
Or cocUy Tine, or ancient hallowed Dee.** 

Milton^ A.D. 1627. 


CO ASH. A milk-maid says, ^* Coash-coash^ hinney!" or ^^Coash- 
coashf my lady ! " to soothe and make the cow stand during 
milking. To cows or cattle generally it is a call to urge 
them to come on quickly. 

COATS, or COTE, combined in place-names, as CuUercoatSy 
and in eight other places in Northumberland. Anglo-Saxon 
cote^ a hut. — ^J. V. Gregory, Archaologia ^liana^ vol. ix., p. 43. 
The Duke of Northumberland's cottage allotments are called 
kwot 'lainds, 

COB, a thick, amorphous cake or loaf of bread. It was usually 
made from the last piece of dough. (Obs.) 

COB, a blow from a ball. In the game of *' stand-all *' the 
losers get their cobs. 

COB, a term in football, applied to a kick of the ball when held 
in the hand. 

COB, to pull the hair or ear, to strike, to thump. ** They got 
their lugs properly cobbed.*' 

COBBIN, striking, thumping ; a punishment among children 
and workmen. — Brockett. See Cog. 

COBBLE, a small boulder, such as is used in paving sidewalks. 

" To cobble with stones, to throw stones at amy thing.**— Grose. 

COBBLER*S-WAAK, a peculiar kind of dance performed by 
sitting down on the '* hunkers'* and closing the legs at the 
knee. It is very difficult, and from its grotesque appearance 
is sometimes called the crab-waak. 

COBBLE-TREES, double swingle-trees, whippens, or splinter 
bars. — Brockett^ 3rd ed. 


COBB'S CAUSEY, or CAASEY, a branch from the Roman 
Watling Street, at Bewclay, which leads athwart Northum- 
berland towards Berwick. Cobb is a " jotun " to whose work 
tradition attributes the making of this Cyclopean way. It 
passes near the following places : Ryal, Angerton, Hartburn, 
N ether witton, Brinkburn, over Rimside Moor, near High 
Learchild, Glanton, Percy's Cross, Fowberry, Bowsdon and 
West Ord, then crosses the Tweed about a mile to the north 
of the latter place. 

COBBY, brisk, hearty, in good spirits. 

" The Bankers now can sport a smile, 
And luik byeth crouse and cobby ; 
Nay, they've been knawn, just for a while, 
To ha'e been even gobby." 

T. Wilson, Captains and thi Quayside. 

COBLE, COBBLE, the north-east coast fishing-boat, an open 
or deckless craft. ** Fakene their cobhlez'* {MS. Matte A rtkun, 
fo. 61 , quoted in Halliwell.) * * Cohall " in 1 372. [Records of Fame 
Islands,) Pronounced cowble in the north of Northumberland, 
and cobble in the south of the same. The coble is built with a 
very deep cutwater ; but towards the stern, which is square, 
it is made with a widening fiat bottom. It is thus a boat 
without a "keel," but the fiat bottom has two bilge clogs, 
called a ** skirval." Under canvas the lines of the boat make 
her a splendid sailer, her deep bow holds the water, and her 
shallowing after-quarters allow the furrow that ** follows fast" 
to close without impeding the ** way." As the after-part draws 
only a few inches, the rudder is carried down much below 
the level of the bottom. These peculiarities necessitate the 
coble to be towed stern foremost, or, when landed, to be in like 
manner turned stern to the beach, and at the same time the 
rudder has to be unshipped. The boats thus require rapid 
and clever handling, not only in working them under their 
single mast, with its square sail and jib, but in manoeuvring 
them on approach to shore. 

COBLE-GATE, the right of salmon fishing for a coble. As 
much as can be fished by one coble. See Gate, 3. 

CO'BY ! or CO'BY, NOO ! come by; that is, come out of the 
way. It has been remarked that nearly all similar exclamations 
are given in tone of command by a Northumbrian. There is 
no ** By your leave"; and the poorer the speaker the more 
peremptory his order to stand aside. 

COCK, a thrust, a push. ** Gi's a cock up, will ye ?" See Cog. 


COCK-A-RIDE-A-ROOSIE, a person who is perched or 
perked up unduly. 

COCKED, tipsy. See Cocktail. 

*' HaXfcoch'd and canty hyem we gat.'* 

T. Wilson, Pitman's Pay, iii, 82. 

COCKENS, the field poppy, Papaver rhaas. It is also known 
as fire-flaut, lightnings^ thunder-flower^ tkunnor-cups, and stinkin- 

COCKER, a cock-fighter. 

•• They're racers, cocker s, carders keen." 

T. Wilson, Pitman's Pay, 1826. 

COCKERS, or COGGERS, properly, half-boots made of 
untanned leather, or other stiflf materials, and strapped under 
the shoe ; but old stockings without feet, used as gaiters by 
hedgers and ploughmen, are often so called. — Brockett. 

"Cockers and Trashes, old stockings without feet, and worn-out 
shoes." — Grose, 

*' A kind of rustic high shoes, or half. boots; probably from cocking 
up." — Nare's Gloss. 

COCKET, brisk, apish, pert. — Grose. See Cocked. 

COCK-EYE, an eye set asquint. Cock-eyed, squinting. 

COCKLE, a splatch of saliva or phlegm. 

COCKLE, to cackle. " A cocklin hen.'* Also to chuckle 

COCKLE, to make a noise in swallowing. ** Cocklin in taking 

COCKLES. These favourite bivalves are hawked about the 
wintry streets to the thrice-repeated cry of " Cockles alive !'* 
The weird melancholy of this wandering chant gave a 
superstitious attribute to the " Cockle Geordy " ; and he 
became known familiarly by the name of " Bad-weather- 
Geordy.'* It was considered unlucky in certain cases to hear 
his wailing cry, and sailors averted the omen by ** breathing 
a prayer backwards." 

given to a highly fossiliferous bed in the Northumberland 
coalfield. Cockle-shells or mussel-shells are names given by 
sinkers to fossil bivalves. The large cockle is the Producta 
gigantea. Mussels in rocks are the Anthracosia. 


COCKLING, cheerful. 

•• A cockling person." — Brochett. 

COCKMADENDY, a self-important "dandiacal body." 
COCK OF THE NORTH, a facetious name for Newcastle. 

'*The chief town of those parts." — Joco-Serious Discourse between a 
Northumberland Gentleman and his Tenant, by George Stuart, Newcastle, 

The winter immigrant bird, the snowflake {Plectropharses 
nivalis) y is called Cock of the Norths snow huntings and over -sea 

COCK-PENNY, a perquisite of the schoolmaster at Shrovetide. 
This used to be the season for throwing at cocks, when a 
yearly cock-fight was part of the annual routine of several of 
our northern free-schools. — Brockeit. 

COCKS-AND-HENS, the stem of ribwort plantain, Plantago 
lameolata, used by children to play at "fighting cocks,** Cocks- 
and-hens, the water avens, Geum rivale. Also the name given 
to the shells of the large land snail ; those of a grey colour 
are called hens, the others are called cocks. When emptied 
of the snails, boys "fight" the "chucks" by squeezing them 
together until one breaks the other. After a successful 
encounter a " cock chuck " is said to be " one year aad," and 
if he remains unbroken after a second " battle," " two year 
aad " ; and so on, a year being added each time. Hens are 
considered too soft for fighting, and are not considered worth 
picking up. See also Rattan-tails. 

COCKS-KAMES, the early orchis. Orchis mascula, and the marsh 
orchis, O. latifolia. The early orchis is variously called cocks- 
kames and deed man's thumhy and the marsh orchis has the 
several titles of cocks-kames, de'iVs foot, dud nun's fingers, Adam 
and Eve, Cain and Abel. 

COCKTAIL, warm ale and rum, with ginger. This word 
probably means cocked ale, which came to be written as a 
single word, cocktail. To be cocked is to be tipsy, and a 
man half drunk is sometimes said to be hdAi cocked. These 
expressions may all possibly belong to the same root. 

•• At ivery yell hoose i* this toon 
We had a cocktail pot." 

J. P. Robson, •• The Pitman*s Happy Times." 
Allan's Collection, p. 227. 

COCK-WOB, COCK-WEB, a cob-web. 


COD, a person who has charge of a set of men at any particular 
job, but who is himself under a foreman. The word is much 
used among mechanics. — Hodgson MS, 

COD, a pillow. A cod is also the pillow or bearing of an axle ; 
and the counterpoise on the bottom-board of a smith's bellows. 
A pin-cushion is called a pin-cod. 

" Item — I give — my bed, that is to know, a feather bed, a bolster, two 
codds — blankets, two coverlets, two sheets." — Will in Richard Welford's 
Hist. 0/ Newc, XVI. Cent.^ p. 207. 

** Lay my cods a little higher." 

Ed. Chicken, The Collier*s Weddings 1735. 

COD, to practise deceit, to pretend. " He mun hecoddinye'' — 
that is, he must be deluding you. "Whe are ye coddin?** 
is a common inquiry when one is telling an improbable 
story ; it means, " Whom are you trying to deceive ? " 

COD-END, the bottom of a trawl net. 

"The codsndt that is to say, the bottom of the net." — Newcastle Daily 
Lioder^ October 4th. 1890, p. 4, col. 6, foot. 

CODJYBELL, the earwig. Called also iwitchhcll and forhy- 

COFE, a deep pit, cavern, or cave. — Brochett^ 3rd ed. Compare 

COFFIN, a cinder which has flown from the fire. If shaped 
like a coffin, it is ominous of death. On the other hand, if 
like a purse, it omens wealth. 

COFFIN-KIST, a hearse. 

•• Unscetly coffin-hists.** 

T. Wilson, Captains and the Quayside. 

COFT, bought — Northumberland, — HalliwclVs Diet, Past tense and 
part, of coff, to buy. Scottish. 

COG, to thrust, or strike on the backside. **Gi*s a cog up, 
will ye ?** The same as cock, 

COG, COGGY, a hooped wooden vessel. A cask sawn in 
half makes two cogs, A child's porringer made of wood 
is called a coggy ; it is often made to resemble a miniature 
milk-pail. A drinking vessel is also a cog, or coggy, 

** Long may he live to teem a Cog.** 

Dr. Charlton, North Tynedale, p. 96. 


The meaning here is, long may he live to empty a cog, 
drinking vessel. 

COG-AND-RUNG-GIN, a pit windlass worked by horses 
The horse travelled round the pit mouth pulling a lev< 
attached to a vertical shaft, and the cogs, or teeth, of 
horizontal wheel on this shaft, worked in the rungs, 
spokes, of a small pinion on the windlass, or drum shaft, thi 
making it to revolve in the required direction. It was tl 
earliest form of horse engine, or gin, for raising coals ai 
water. — R. L. Galloway, Hist, of Coal Mining, 1882, p. ST^ 7. 
See Gin. 

GOGGLE, to tremble, to totter, as anything does when like — to 
fall. " The waal myest coggled ower on top o' them." Hen^— ce 
coggly^ or cogglety, cranky, unsteady. "The plank wis se 

coggly *at aa nearly tummeled off.*' 

COIL, to whip, to thrash. 

COINS, COIGNS, a street corner. 

" The coins foot gathering of men and boys. The coins otcoignees pc^iot 
to its position as a place where nearly all thoroughfares converge. *^— 
R. Forster, Hist, of Corbridge, 1881, p. 57. 

COL, a road scraper. It is a flat piece of iron plate, like a 
hoe, set at right angles to a shaft or handle. See Harle. 

COL, to scrape together with a coL 

COLD-FIRE, a fireplace filled with paper, sticks, and fuel 
ready for lighting. 

COLD-LORD, a boiled pudding made of oatmeal and suet. 
One mixed with suet and some treacle and sugar loses the 
cold name. — Hodgson MS. 

COLE, to put into shape, to hollow out. — Brockett. 

COLE HEAD, or COLE TIT, the cole titmouse, Parus aUr. 
Called also black-coal-Jued, 

COLLAR-LANDER, a receptacle fixed on top of the delivery 
pipe of a pump to receive the water before its delivery into 
the conduit. •* Hogger" is more commonly the term used for 
this arrangement. 

COLLAR SHANK, a rope to fasten work horsed up in the 



ZOLLERENS, COLLARINGS, a framing composed usually 

of pieces of cross timber, placed under the pump joints in a 

pit shaft for the purpose of steadying and supporting the '' set." 

*' The coUerens, which formerly supported the bratticing were all gone 
to decay." — Robert Scott, Ventilation cf Coal Mines, p. 31, 1862. 

" Pieces of wood or iron for securing the pumps in the shaft." — 
Mining Glossary, Newcastle Terms, 1832. 

30LLEY, a lamplighter. The last of the oil lamplighters in 
Newcastle was always called a colUy^ and was hailed by 
boys as — 

" Colley vnv a lamp, colley wiv a leet, 
ColUy wiv a little dog barkin at his feet.** 

Newcastle Street Song, 

From the soot of the oil lamps and the smoke of his flambeau , 
the colUy presented the dirty appearance of a sweep. The oil 
carried by him added a greasy condition to his clothes. 
Compare Colly. 

COLLEY, butcher's meat. The word is never used for bacon 
or salted meat. ** Ho lads, mind ye come hyem, thor's colley 
the mom " — that is, there is to be butcher's meat, as 
distinguished from other food. Where crowdy and other 
plain fare is the staple food, colley ^ or fresh meat, is a festival 
dish. Compare Collop. 

COLLIER. The common term is •* pitman*' in Newcastle. 
Collier is rarely heard in use by natives. Yet the term is 
a very old localism. " Paide for letting fourthe colters at 
Pilgrim streete gate and Newiate earlie in the mominge to 
worke, 2s. per pece each on, 4s." (Newcastle Municipal Accounts, 
1594.) It would have been interesting had the record told 
us how ** earlie in the morninge" the shivering •* fore shift " 
of Elizabeth's days turned out to their darksome toil. 

COLLIER, a sea-going vessel carrying coals. 

The old phrase, ''to carry coals,'* to put up with insults, 
to submit to any degradation, originated from the menials 
in a mansion — the ** black guards " who carried wood or 
coals. They were despised as the lowest of the low, and 
the term became one of reproach. This explains the passage : 
"Gregory, o* my word, we'll not carry coals." ** No, for then 
we should be colliers," (Romeo and Juliet^ i., i.) 

COLLOGUIN, acting in colleague with, scheming together. 

" The baccy and yell are still dear ; 
It's just a colloguin amang them.*' 

T. R. v.. The Politicians, 1816. 



COLLOP, a slice of salted meat, a rasher of bacon. Colhp 

Monday is the day before Shrove Tuesday, on which it is 

usual to have eggs and collops^ or pieces of bacon for dinner. 

On Collop Monday it was formerly customary to take leave of 

flesh for the Lenten fast ensuing. The flesh meat was 

anciently preserved through the winter by salting, drying, 

and hanging up. See Mairt. " Slices of this kind of meat 

are at this day called collops in the North, whereas they are 

named steaks when cut from fresh meat, as unsalted flesh is 

usually styled here ; a kind of food which our ancestors seem 

to have seldom tasted in the depth of winter. (Brand's 

Pop. Antiquities, 1777, p. 331.) The following rhyme gives 

an old account of the transition to Lent and the emergence 

on the great festival : — 

" Collot Monday, Pancake Tuesday, 
Ash Wednesday, Bloody Thursday, 
Long Friday 11 never be done, 
Hey for Saturday at afternoon. 
S — for Sunday at twelve o'clock, 
When the spice pudding jumps out of the pot." 

COLLY, the black or smut from coal ; called in the Northern 
counties coUotv or killow. — Wallis, History of Northumberland, 
p. 46. To blacken or make black ; from the substantive. 

*' Brief as the lightning in the coliy*d night. 
That in a spleen unfolds the heaven and earth." 

MidsMmwur Ni^kfs Dream, act i., sc. i. 

" And passion, ha\*ing my best judgment collied. 
Assays to lead the way." 

Othello, act i., sc. 3. — Nan's Gloss. 

COL-RAKE, a small hand-rake for the fireside ; not roa/-rake. 
See Col. 

COLT- ALE, an allowance of ale claimed as a perquisite by 
the blacksmith on the first shoeing of a horse. Hence, a 
customaPk" entertainment given by a person on entering ' 
into a new otfice is called ''shoeing the coit.^* The first time 
a gentleman serves on the Grand Jury he is caUed a colt. — 
Kiv\ W;/» See Coit Ale, 

COM. came- I'sed instead of the more firequent oiiif, " He 
..M« in afore me/* See Cam. 

- Avt ,v«i v>n A \v\ v<p te the two t\xber dar. man/'— D. C, ''Skipi^'s 

OOMl>. S<ven pUce-nAmes in Northumberland have this 
esuhix^ : e\A:npIes. A,v«t;\ lvir,v«t^^ ^, In some of these 
cAses ,vw,^ ApjvAr? to be a coxruption of 4m. Acomb is 
Ar.cic :::.Y AkeUw ; W ia.,»«iV;i^^ Winkijawr, &c. Compare 


COM'D, CUM'D, the p. part, of come. Cummin is still in ordinary 
use, however. " He'd oney cummen in a minit afore aa gat 
there mesel." 

•• They'll think thoo's com*d fra Lunnon, O ! " 

" IVreckenton Hiring." 

Allan's Collection, p. 292. 

COME, the foreward slope of a hoe or a spade. A spade or 
shovel too much bent inwards is said to have too much come. 
Compare Anchor. 

COME-AN'-GAN, an expression implying good store of 
anything, or resources. " Thor's plenty to conu-aW-gan on," 
meaning there is so much that you can cut and come again, 
or that you can return again and again. It is by inversion 
applied to bodily or financial condition, as '< Poor body, he 
may we'll be deun ; he hes nowt te come-an'-gan on." 

COMELY. ** Ma comely" is a common expression, equivalent 

to my darling, or my dear. 

** Maa granny liked spice singin hinnies, 
Ma comely! aw like thou as weel." 

W. Midford, Pitman's Courtship, 1818. 

" Noo, hinny — maw comely — aw hope ye believe 
That we wish to be cleanly an' canny." 

J. P. Robson, '* Nanny Jackson's Letter." 

Bards of the Tyne, 1849, p. 237. 

common expressions, meaning come forward ; generally 
spoken to persons in great kindness. — Brochett. ** Go your 
ways," a mode of dismissal. Both phrases are in Shaks- 
peare. — HalliweWs Diet. 

COMFORTABLE, the rowing boat formerly used for passengers 
on the Tyne. Having a roof, it was a great improvement 
on the older open passenger boat, hence the name. (Obs.) 

" We've comfortables y tee, isteed, 
O' Jemmy Joneson's whurry." 

T. Wilson. Captains and the Quayside. 

*' Before steamboats became so numerous upon the Tyne, there were 
several covered passenger boats, called comfortables, which went every 
tide to and from South and North Shields." — Mackenzie, Hist, of Neuc, 
1827, p. 722. 

COMIN'-ON, invariably used instead of saying ** It's raining." 
" It's comin'-oft:' 

COMMONY, a boy's marble made of baked clay ; the common 
marble. It is sometimes called a ** muggy," as distinguished 
from a " potty," the latter being made of a fine quality of 


COM MOTHER, a godmother. The term was also used in 
addressing an aged woman. (Obs.) 

" In their communication deponent asked her and said, ' Commotkn, if 
it shall please God to take you to His mercy,' &c." — R. Welford. Hist, of 
Ncwc. XVI. Cent., p. 379. 

CON. to fillip.— 5roryfri?«. (Obs.) 

CONEEK-MAN, an Irish labourer from Connaught. 

CONSANT, constant. 

CONSATE, conceit, a self opinion. ** He hes consate on hissel, 
aa think, noo.'* '* Consate's as bad as puzzon.*' 

CONSCIENCE, an exclamation. "Ma cottscience ! what a heed 
he hes." 

CONSIDERATION, money paid to the hewers for bad coal, 
or for any extra trouble. — Mining Gloss., Newcastle Terms, 1852. 

CONSITHER, to consider. 

CONTRAIRY, the old pronunciation, in general use. 

" Slippers thrust upon ccmtrmrr feet ! *' — Shakspeare. 

CONTRARIUS, perverse, |^^'en to contradiction. "He's a 
varr\" lontrarins chep.*' *• Yo*r the amtrariest bairn 'at iwer aa 
seed.** The word is of very frequent use. 

'* Yhit has the world, als men sese and heres. 
Ma ,ny^ other ccu^jtrims maneres." 

HsmtK<f, ed. Mcrris, line 1.590. 

*' The vrorld es Goddes enmy by ^iUe (natnre). 
That Aw.'TimM es to Goddes ville.** 

Thi s«ar, line i.iio 

Ci'^N VOW A lover to which is attached a dog for the wheel of 
A ov>aI wa^^xn ; the oki nanie for a •*lwcak." (Obs.) 

'' A i^TK^i »t« v>n the kx« part c/ the vacpxL, with his foot npcm a 
Mt\>i\K \v<v« \^( xwxvi caUeii the .\*<R«n. aDd that moves on a ptTOt. whicb, 
tw^^nit v>n x>n« v*^ th« wbMvs. be cas iscxease or dimini^ the velocity at 
|\W^i^ .4^1 tmt>M*T%ju KcfT^Tm /• Xnn.'xs^, iSox. p. 49S. 

v\H^. A \v\\ . ** An Akw Ar>i ;bi:w: tor the .w." The |wonunciation 
vvt the vh\nV.ot\<. wow ^vxirjoevi in iDodeni coUoquial English 
,xs tbo ,^* \n ^'* . \s m Nccthur.-iberijLisd a marked peculiarity. 
V A'v,^, vvimcxl. OvHt:\55<^l : .Awtf. to oxx&t; t^tmUr. a counter; 
,,v^.;x>. vv\uut<^5i:^. In At^^IsXsaxoc «»% /ikai, m, cu^M^suft 
AW x\^ NMn^s vNt how\ tisx;. aoxr. ccw. brow« sour, all of them 


sounded in modern English as ou. In Northumberland the 
words are spoken as hoo, thoo, ttoo, coo, broo, soor (long oo sound 
as in pool). Sooth, mooth, hoose, doon, hroon, tlwosatid, for south, 
mouth, house, down, brown, thousand, are further examples of 
the same li sound. 

COO. A coo, or '*cow," in mining, is a pole having a fork of iron 
at the end ; or a short forked iron bar hung behind a " set " 
on an incline, or on the " start '* of a gin. In a forward 
movement the coo drags loosely behind, but, at any recoil, 
the forked end, being thrust into the ground by the retrograde 
movement, prevents the waggons from running ** amain," or 
it enables the weight on a gin to be held when the strain 
is taken off the "start." Compare Bull, i. 

COO, to hide oneself. ** When yor hidden, mind ye cry coo,'' A 
children's game. 

COO, to cow, to frighten, to intimidate. To " tyek the coo " is 
to be afraid. Cooed, cowed. Cooin, disheartening, distressing. 

"It was, ne doubt, a cooin seet 
To see them birplen 'cross the floor." 

T. Wilson, Pitman's Pay, 1827, pt. ii, v. 16. 

COOERN, corn. The generic name for all grains, wheat, oats, 
barley, &c. 

COOF, a blockhead, a fool. **Yor only a coof, man, after aa 
yor brag." This word is probably a variant of coaf, or rather 
cooaf, a calf ; meaning one that is calf-hearted. 

COO-GIT, cow gate, or right of pasturage for one cow on 
common land. 

COO-GREAP, COW-GRIPE, the space or gutter between the 
rows of stalls in a cow house. The Javel Group in Newcastle 
is the ** gaol greap " or gaol drain. 

COOK, to give in, as " to cry cook.*' Brockett says : ** To 
disappoint, to punish, to manage so as to obtain one's end, to 

" To cry coke, is in vulgar language, synonymous with crying pcccavi,*'— 
Brand, Popular Antiquities, 1777, p. 409. 

COO-LICK, a tuft of hair which obstinately stands up on tlie 
crown of the head. A "calf-lick" is the same, but above the 


COOM, the dust and scrapings of wood produced in sawing; 
the scales of iron found lying near a smith's anvil. — Brockett. 

COO- PA A, the left hand. " He gave us his coo-paa ; the beggar 
knaas ne better." Coo-paad is left-handed. 

COO-PLAT, a heap, or plat, of cow's dung. 

COOR, to crouch down. See Cour. 

COORSE, coarse. It is applied to rough weather. ** It's a 
coorse neet." 

COO-SHARE, COO-SHAREN, cow's dung. 

COO-STROPPLE, a cow tie ; also ** a cowslip ; that is, cow's 
thropple, or throat — looking deeper than the cow's lip." — 
Brockett, under cow-stropple. (Obs.) 

" A cowstrople in the month of January, 1632, was considered sufficiently 
curious to be presented as a New Year's gift." — See Chron. Mirab., p. 21.— 
HalliwelVs Diet. 

COOTER, a coulter or ploughshare. 

COOTH, loving, kindly, as, ** She's a cooth bit lassie." Also 
comfortable. " Hoo are ye thi day ? " ** Oh, aa's cooth'' 
Compare Couther, Couthiely. 

COO-TIE, a hair rope for hobbling a cow when being milked. 

COP, to catch, ** He copt a butterflee." ** Run after him an' 
cop *im." Always used in the sense of siezing and correcting. 
Compare Kep. Copper, a policeman. 

COPPER-TOPT, red haired. 

COP-STYEN, a coping stone. 

COPT, over- topped, exceeded. **Thatfo// him" — that exceeded 
his power. 

COPT, caught. 

COPY-CHRISTY, Corpus-Christi. " Copy-Christy day." See 
Richard Welford's History of Neivcastlc for particulars of plays 
enacted by Incorporated Companies in Newcastle on Corpus 
Christi day, ** after the laudable and ancient custom of tne 
same town." ** Corpus Christi day, May 29, 1567. For 
painting Beelzebub's cloak, 4d." (Obs.) 


CORB-STYEN, a curb stone. See also Stob, and Glentstonh. 

CORBY-CRAA, the carrion crow, Corvus corone, L, Great'Corhv^ 
the raven, Corvus corax, L. Both these birds are now extremely 
rare in Northumberland. 

" In the latter part of the last century a raven annually built its nest in 
the steeple of St. Nicholas' Church, Newcastle." — John Hancock, Birds 
of Northumberland and Durham, p. 32. 

CORF, a basket made of pined hazel rods. It contained from 
ten to thirty pecks. Corves were formerly used to bring coals 
out of the pits. 

••A car/o( hayre*'— a basket of hair for lime. — D. Embleton, Barber 
Surgeon's Books, Newcastle. 

*' Come, hinny, Barty, len s a hand 
On wi' ma corf.'* 

T. Wilson, Pitman's Pay, pt. ii, v. 33. 

CORF-BOW, the handle of a corf. (Obs.) 

" Young plants of oak. ash, or aller, of about three inches thick, or 
better, for the coff-bow." — The Complcat Collier, 1708. 

The corf-bow is about two yards long. It is sometimes made of iron." — 
Brand, Hist, of Newcastle, vol. ij., 1789, p. 681. twte. 

CORF-RODS, the strong hazel rods used for making corves. 

Corker, a smart retort; sometimes called a '* settler'' — 
that is, an unanswerable reply. ** That's a corhcr for him." 
Billy Purvis used to say, "Tyek him away ti Ralphy Little : 
he'll give him a corker, '' Ralphy, a noted policc-oflicer, would 
settle his business for him. 

CORKY, soft through exposure, as wood that has suffered 
through lying too long with the bark on. Sec D.vzed. 

CORL, to curl. 

" Aw now began te carl maw hair 
(For carls and tails were then the go) " 

T. Wilson, Pitman's Pay, 1843 cd., pt. iii. 

CORLYCUE, a flourish in writing — a twisted or curly tail. 
CORLY-DODDIES, the field scabious, Scabiosa arvcnsis. 
CORN, to feed with corn. ** Is the horses cortied yit ?" 


CORNAGE, or castle-guard rent of the North of England, 
was originally a payment in lieu of cattle, and called in 
English horngeld and neatgeld, cattle tax, or ox lay. — Hodgson, 
Northumberland, iii., 2, p. 322. (Obs.) 

"It may either mean simply a Crown rent (Coronagium), or a rent 
psLyable in homed cattle {Comuagium), — Archaologia jEliana,vo\. i.. new 
series, p. 44. 

CORN-BARRIES, red or white currants. 

CORN-BUNTING, the common bunting, Miliaria Europea. 
CORNEY, in liquor. (Obs.) 

" Yen day when aw was corney.*' 

T. Thompson, d. 1816, Jemmy Joneson's Wherry. 

CORNEY, prolific; applied to corn when the ears are well 
filled. Compare Gifty. 

or MELL-DOLL. These variant forms represent the name 
of the figure borne home formerly on the last load of com 
from the harvest field. The cormy-doll was an image made 
by dressing up a sheaf of corn to appear like a rude human 
figure, which was mounted on the top of the last cart-load 
taken from the field. See Kern and Kern-doll. 

CORP, a corpse. " He was browt hyem a corp,'* 

" A corp they're gaun te barry." 

T. Wilson, Captains and the Quayside. 

CORP-CANDLE, a thick candle placed in a candlestick of 
a peculiar form — used formerly at ** lake- wakes." — BrochetU 

CORPORATION, the stomach. 

" ' He has a good corporation^* when applied to an individual, means 
that he is not deficient in accommodation for the entertainment of his 
viscera." — Hodgson MS. 

CORRAN-DUMPLIN, the great hairy willow-herb, Epilohium 
hirsiitum. Called in N. Northumberland apple 'dumplim, 

CORRANS, CORNS, currants. *' Reed corrn harries," red 


'• Ah. hinnies ! about us the lasses did lowp, 
Thick as aims in a spice singing hinnie/* 

T. Thompson, Canny Newcastle. 


CORR'NY-DOOS, cakes with currants in them, or tea-cakes 
as they are called. [North Tyne.] DoOy dough. Compare 


CORSE, to curse. ** Corsin an sweerin." 

CORTAINE, the defensive court attached to a house. See 


" Cortine, ot curtain. Only an antiquated spelling." — Nans. 

CORVE, a curve, a bend. Sometimes used for corf. 

CORVE, to cut. See Kirve. 

CORVER, the man who makes and repairs corves. The 
corvey is paid in the following singular way : ** He is allowed 
4jd. for every score of corves that are brought up the shaft, 
lor which he is bound to find the pit with as many corves as 
are wanted, and also to keep them up to their exact measure, 
and in good repair." — Brand, Hist, of Newcastle , vol. ij, 1789, 
p. 681, note. (Obs.) See Corf, Corves. 

•• His feyther kept a carver's shop. 
His mother tuik in sewing." 

J. P. Robson, Hamlich, Pritice 0' Denton. 

" And whereas I speak of corves, or baskets to put the coals in, we must 
have a man (which is called a corver) to make them." — The Compleat 
Collier, 1708, p. 34. 

CORVES, the plural of corf, which see. 

COSSEN, the p.p. of cost. ** It's cossen a mint o* money.*' 
COSTRIL, a little barrel. — Grose. 

COT, the strong/./, of the verb to cut. ** He cot his finger.' 

COT, to mat together, to ravel or hankie. Hair for want of 
combing gets cotted. A cotted temper is one difficult to please. — 
Hodgson MS. 

COT. See Cat, 2. 

COTE [N.] , a cat. 

COTE, or COATE, a house or cottage. Coate-ldLnd, land 
attached to a cottage. See Coats. 

COT-HOOSE, the house of a cotter. See Cotter. 


COTS, inferior sheep skins, in which the wool is tangled. See 
Cot, 2. 

COTTER, a woman worker on a farm without male relations 
in the house with her in the same employment. 

COTTERED, applied to stone or coal, hard, cross-grained, 
tough. — Gnenwellf 

COTTERIL, a check or split pin put through a slot in the 
end of a bolt to hold it on the inside. 

COTTERILS, money, coin. 

•* When wark*s flush, for time o' want 
Lay by some cottrils i* the blether.*' 

T. Wilson, Pitman's Pay, 1829, pt. iii., v. 59. 

•• The loss o' the cotterils aw dinna regaird." 

T. Thompson, d. 1816, Canny Newcastle. 

COUCH, the hole or earth of the otter. Also called the hold. 

COUH, to cough. The gh sound is that of a heavy guttural 
breathing, quite unlike the modern pronunciation of hof. 
Compare Rouh, for rough. 

COUL, COWL, to scrape together dung, mud, dirt, &c. To 
smooth the surface of what is gathered. — Brockett, 

COUL-RAKE, COWL-RAKE, the instrument with which 
couliftg is performed. — Brockett. He adds, •* This term is also 
used for a fire-iron, in which sense it is more properly a coal- 
rake." But see Col, which is apparently a variant ot cotd 
and quite distinct from coal. 

COULTERNEB, the puffin, FraterciUa artica, L. 

COUNGE, to hesLt— Northumberland.— Halliweirs Diet. 

COUNGE, a large lump of bread or cheese. 

" Bring him (poor fella) a shive oh butter an breed : cut him a good 
counsic ; an strenkle a leap'yt ov sugar ont." — Thomas Bewick, The Howdy, 
&c., ed. 1850, p. 10. 

COUNTRY-KEEPER. So lately as the year 1701, the police 
of Tindale and Reedsdale was maintained by officers called 
country-keepers, who, for a certain sum, "insured'* their own 
districts against theft and robbery, and in case of their taking 
place, made good the loss.*' — Mackenzie, Hist, of Northumber' 
land J 1825, vol. i., p. 66. 


COUNTRY-SIDE, the district, as distinguished from a 
particular spot. ** She's the best mear, aa tell ye, iv aa the 
country-side '*^thsit is, for miles around. 

COUP, to upset, to barter ; to exchange cavils. See Cowp. 

COUPLES, the roof principals ; anciently couples of chevrons, 

COUR (pron. coor, or coo-er), to bend or stoop down. ^*Coor 
doon, or ye'll get hitten." 

"They coure so over the coles, theyr eyes be bleared with smoke." — 
Gammer Gurton, in Nare's Gloss., under courb. 

"Virtue itself of vice must pardon beg, 
Yea courb and woo, for leave to do it good." 

Hamlet f act iii., sc. 4. 

COURSE, in coal mining, is the direction in which the mine is 
wrought. The broadways course is the direction in which the 
boards are wrought — the headways course is the direction at 
right angles. — Brockett, 3rd ed. 

COURSIN THE AIR, ** causing the air to circulate through 
every passage of the several workings of a pit. This was 
devised about 1760 by Mr. Spedding, of Whitehaven." — 
T. John Taylor, Archaology of the Coal Irade, p. 202. 

•* The system was first adopted on the Tyne at Walker Colliery about 
1763."— R. L. Galloway, History of the Coal Trade, 1882, pp. 106-7. 

COURTAIN, a yard belonging to farm buildings for enclosing 
cattle, sometimes called the **fad'* (fold). It will be remem- 
bered that cattle folds on the Border were generally arranged 
for purposes of defence ; the application, therefore, of a term 
in fortification to a cattle fold seems natural. See Cortaine. 

COUT, COWT, a colt. ** Wether, cowt, an' steer." (James 
Armstrong, Wanny Blossoms, 1879, p. 5.) Also a man of 
strength, stature, and activity. **The word, which ought 
rather to be spelled cowtj is understood in this sense in the 
neighbourhood of Keilder, as well as on the opposite Scottish 
Border.'* (Richardson, Table Book Leg. Div., vol. ij., p. 162.) 
** The Cout of Keilder is represented by tradition to have been a 
powerful chief of this district. Cout — that is, colt." (S. Oliver, 
Rambles in Northumberland, i^35» P- 161.) 

COUT- ALE, COWT- ALE, allowance to the blacksmith, 
when a young horse is first shod. See Colt-ale. 

COUTHER, to comfort. See Cooth. 


COUTHIELY, pleasantly, kindly, neighbourly. 

" Sae couthiely then they cried on me ben. ' 

James Armstrong, Wanny Blossoms, 1879, p. 134. 

COUTOR-LASHER, an effective check ; a blanking or 
disappointing stroke, as in playing a trump card. ** That's 
a couior 'lasher for ye, noo ! " 

COVE, a cavern, a cave. — Brockett, 

COVER, the roof of a coal seam. — BrockeH, 3rd ed. Also ** the 
strata between the seam (of coal) and the surface."— 
Nicholson, Gloss, of Coal Trade Terms, 1888. 

COW. Kow, or Cowy a local sprite. ** The Hedley KowJ^ See 

COW, to clip the hair, to trim. (Obs.) 

" I garr'd a Barber come to me, 
He Cow'd my Beard as you may see." 

G. Stuart, Joco-Serious Discourse, x686. 

CO'WAA, or CO*WAY, come away, get out of the way. Very 
commonly used as a colloquialism, and suggesting impatience 
and contempt when uttered abruptly. ** Co-way there ! wi'ye, 
what are ye stannin* starin' for ? " 

COWANS, clotted wool on sheep. 

COW-BAT, a blow given by one boy to another to provoke him 
to fight. "There's your challenge, and there's your cow-haC 

COW-BERRY, the red whortle-berry, Vaccinium vitis-idaa, L. 

COW-BLAKES, cow dung dried, used for fewel. — Ray's Gloss. 
Called also casins, (Obs.) 

COWEY, a hornless beast. A coweet-cow is a hornless cow. 
Compare Cow, to clip. 

COW-GAP, the time when cows are taken on or off for the 
grazing season. (Obs.) 

'• Spent at the Cow gapp with the grassmen, 7s. zdr—Gateshtad Church 
Books, 1672. 

" Every freeman and boroughman— pay at the cow gapp for this present 
year for every particular cow ^s.^—The same, 1677. 


COW-GRASS, a name among farmers for common purple 
clover, very good for cattle, but very noisome to witches. In 
the days when there were witches in the land, the leaf was 
worn by knight and by peasant, as a potent charm against 
their wiles ; and we can even yet trace this belief of its magic 
virtue in some not unobserved customs. — ^Johnson's Flora of 
Berwrck-upon-Tweedy p. 163. It is the Trifolium medium. Called 
also wild soohies and zig-zag. 

COW-JOCKEY, a beast }ohher. —Brockett, 3rd ed. (Obs.) 

COWK, or GOWK, to strain, to vomit. — HalliwelVs Did,, cowh, 

COW-KEEKS, the cow parsnip or hogweed, Heracleum 
sphondylium. Called also kelks, or kecks. 

COWLD, cold ; but more frequently caad. " It's a cowld day.*' 
"It's as caad as ice." 

COWLEADIN, the game of "follow your leader.*' A game in 
which the leader does the most difficult things he can, and 
which the others must do likewise. 

COWP, to upset. "That's cowp'd his apple cairt for him, noo." 

•• Cowpt corves i' the barroway." 

T. Wilson. Pitman's Pay, pt. ii., v. 55. 

COWP, COAP [W.-T.], to barter, to exchange. '' Kb^W cowp 
wi* ye — gi* the galloway for the mear an five pun to beut.'* 

" When the men (in a pit) exchange working places, they are said to 
couf.'* — Mining Gloss., Newcastle Terms, 1852. 

COWPIN-WORD, the last word. 

*' Thoull hae the cowpin-word thysel, 
Or tawk for everlastin twang." 

T. Wilson, Pitman's Pay, 1829, pt. iii., v. 39. 

COWP-UP-CAIRT, a tip cart ; a cart that can be cowped or 
tipped up, the shafts being attached to the body by a pin for 
the purpose. It is also called a " short cairt,'* to distinguish 
it from the " lang cairt ** which does not cowp. 

COWP-YOR-CREELS, that is, to turn completely over, head 
over heels; to turn a somersault. 

" Amang the rest aw cowp'd me creels, 
Egox! 'twas funny, varry. 

T. Thompson, d. x8i6, Jemmy Joneson's Wherry, 


COW-QUAKES, the common quake-grass, Briia media. Called 
also dotherin-dickSf tremlin-grass, quakin-grasSy and ladies'-hait, 

COWS, bare branches of whin or ling after their leaves are 
decayed or burnt off. — Hodgson MS. Compare Cow, 2. 

COWT-FWOAL, a young male horse whilst sucking. The 
female of the same age is 2l filly -fwoal. 

COX, an exclamation. The oath is now heard as Gock or Gox, 
" Aw waddent tyek the jaw fre the likes o* him, hegock / " ** By 
gox^ what a fyce ye*ve getten ! " Cock^ says Nares, is a vulgar 
corruption or purposed disguise of the name of God. Hence, 
by cock^ by cock and pycy and such softened oaths. 

" I's cox't if my words preuve no true." — Joco-Serious Discourse, New- 
castle, 1686, p. 26. 

" By cock, they are to blame." — Hamlet, act iv., sc. 5. 

Shallow: "By cock and fye, sir, you shall not away to night.**— 
Henry IV., pt. ii., act v., sc. i. 

COYSTRIL, a young fellow. [Kersey and Bailey.] Properly 
an inferior groom, or a lad employed by an esquire to carry 
the knights* arms or other necessaries. — N are's Gloss. A raw, 
inexperienced lad ; a contemptible young fellow. — Brockctt. 

COZY, a cover, like a thickly-padded cap, placed over a teapot, 
as a non-conductor of heat, to keep the tea hot on the table. 

COZY, COZEY [W.-T.] , a causeway, a footpath. 

CRAA, CRAW, the small lever used for drawing the linch- 
pin from carts. There is also a " shekkle craw'' used for 
drawing bolts from wood. 

CRAA, CRAW, speech; sometimes boastful speech. 

"It might suen stopp*d me craa.** 

''Geordy's Disaster:' 

Allan's Collection, 1863, P- i^- 

CRAA, CRAW, the rook, Corvus frugilegus. ** Black as a craa." 
*' He lyuks like a scare-rrflfl." " When you see the cloodslike 
craa-scraits an' fillies' tails, look oot for squalls " — often used 
in describing a peculiar aspect of the sky. 


CRAA, CRAW, a cock-crow, or to crow like a cock. 

"A cock crowing at a door is a sign of a visitor coming.'* — Rev. J. F. 
Bigge, Superstitions at Stamfordham . — Nat, Hist. Trans. , 1860-62, vol. v., 
p. 92. 

"The gorcock craws crouse." — J. Armstrong, Wanny Blossoms, 1879, 
p. 69. 

" A craain* hen and a whistlin* maiden's twee unsonsy things." — Newcastle 

** 'Mang cantrips, charms, as hurtfu' *een, 
And things unlucky to be seen, 

Plann*d by auld schemy clootie, 
A croonin' cow, a crawin' hen, 
A whistling maid, fu' weel ye ken, 
Are deemed aye unlucky. 

Cuddy had a crawin* hen, 

And muckle did it grieve him ; 
For what ane 'twas amang his ten 

That did of luck bereave him 

He kent na " 

L. Proudlock, 1820, song, Cuddieand his Crawin' Hen. 

CRAA, CRAW, an outcrop or crop of strata. ^*Craw coal" 
appears in sections of sinkings at Bannamoor pit, Eglingham. 
(George Tate, in Bwks, Nat. Club, vol. v., p. 285.) It there 
appears two feet in one section and four feet thick in another. 

"The crow-coal is a thin seam of coal worked in the South Tyne, 
obtained from grooves made in the craw, or crop of the strata." — Hodgson, 
Hist. 0/ Northumberland, vol. iii., pt. ii., p. 33. 

" The crow-coal at Mickley Colliery is 2 feet 4 inches thick. It bums 
like a candle and will bear a polish equal to glass. It is highly bituminous, 
resembling cannel coal." — Borings and Sinkings, L.R., p. 83. 

'* Crow-seams, thin coal seams of three or four inches thick." — Hugh 
Miller, Geology of Otterburn and Elsdon. — Memoir Geological Survey, 1887. 

CRAA-CROOK, the black crowberry, Empetrum nigrum. Called 
also the crow-berry and crake-berry. Craa-crook is an admirable 
example of the manner in which the burr is spoken. It has 
been described as sounding to Southern ears ** like the dying 
croak of an expiring raven." 

*' Everywhere common on heaths, ascending from Prestwick Carr to all 
the peaks, 850 yards on Cheviot." — Nat. Hist, Trans., vol. ii., new series, 
p. 244. 

CRAADENLY, cowardly. 

CRAADON, CRAWDON, CRADDIN, a coward. One boy 
refusing to fight another after a challenge will hear : ** Yo'r 
a crawdon.'* ** A craadon cock," a cowardly cock. A term 
used when cock-fighting was practised. [N.] Mr. George 
Thompson, in a note on this word, says ** he enquired of a 
Northumberland man if he knew what a crawdon was.'* 


** Aa've heerd it," replied his informant. " Aa once heerd a 
man tell another he wis a * crawdon hen.' *' " What did he 
mean by that?" ** Aa understeud him ti mean *at he wis 
like a hen 'at tries te craa like a cock." A crowing hen is 
considered a very unlucky thing about a house, and it can by 
no means be permitted to strut and fret with impunity. See 
Craa, 4. 

CRAAL, to crawl. 

CRAA-NEBS, or LADY'S-FINGERS, the plant Anihyllis 

CRAA- PEAS, the peas of the meadow vetchling, Lathyms 

CRAA-TAES, the common lotus, Lotus cornicuhtus. Also called 
cafs clover, 

CRAB, a capstan, for raising or lowering of pumps, &c., in a 
pumping pit. — Mining Gloss. Newcastle Terms , 1852. A lifting 

CRAB-ROPE, the rope used on a crab. 

CRABBY, crabbed, testy. ** He's a crabby aad chep.*' 

" The crabby awd dealers in ling, cod, and brats." 

T. Wilson, The Movement, 1839. 

CRACK, to gossip, to brag, to boast. 

*• God's benison light on your heart, 
We'll crack a bit before we part." 

Jf oca-Serious Discourse, Newcastle, 1686, p. 9. 
•* They laughed and cracked about the joke." 

W. Armstrong, d. 1833-4, S kipper* s Mistake. 
" Since the horse-couping he began. 
He had great cause to crack of wealth." 

Bernard Rumney, '* Eckys Mare." 
Bell's Rhymes, 1812. 
•* There will be Sam the quack doctor, 
Of skill and profession hell crack." 

Song. •• The Skipper's Wedding:* 
Bell's Rhymes, 1812. 
•' I had a few days' fishing, but nothing to crack on." 

J . Armstrong, Wanny Blossoms, 1879, p. 172. 

CRACK, light talk, conversation, boasting. 

"Bucclughe and the rest of the Scottes made some bragges and 
rrflfA«."— Letter of 1595 in Dr. Charlton's North Tynedale, p. 72. 

" He ne'er was slack 
To give the company all his crack:* 

Thomas Wilson, Charley. 


CRACK, an instant, a moment. 

" A highwayman fellow slip't round in a crack. 
And a thump o' the skull laid him flat on his back." 

W. Midford. d. 1851, Cappy, 

CRACK, super-excellent. " A crack tryst ** is a first-rate fair. 
The park keeper's house at Meldon, " a crack specimen of 
the architecture of the seventeenth century.'* — Hodgson, 
Hist, of Northumberland, pt. ij., vol. ii., p. 3. 

'• The crack o* whuslers i* maw day, 
Maw gew-gaw touch was te the life ; 
And at yentime 'could nearly play 
' God syev the King ' upon the fife ! " 

T. Wilson, Pitman's Pay, pt. iii., p. 38, 1843 ed. 

CRACKED, half-witted, mad. 

CRACKER, a small baking dish. — Grose's Gloss. Also a hard 

CRACKER, an explosive firework. Also the drop of glass 
known as ** Prince Rupert's drop,** which shivers to powder 
on being broken. 

CRACKET, a low seat without legs, as distinguished from a 

** The bonny pit laddie, the cannie pit laddie, 
The bonnie pit laddie for me, O ! 
He sits on his cracket, and hews in his jacket, 
And brings the white siller to me, 1 " 

•• The Bonny Pit Laddie." 

BeWs Rhymes, 1812. 
"They found old Goody smoking fast, 
Placed on a cracket near the fire." 

Ed. Chicken, The Colliers Wedding, 1778. 

CRACKETS, the game of cricket. 

CRACKIN-CROOSE, bold conMent.—Brockett, 3rd ed. 
Boastful talk. 

CRACKLINGS, tallow chandlers* refuse. 

CR ADD INS, to lead craddins, to play mischievous tricks. — 
Grose's Gloss,, 1739. (Obs.) Compare Craadon, Craadenly. 

CRADLE, CREDDLE, a suspended scaffold used in shafts. — 
Mining Gloss. Newcastle Terms, 1852. Or a cage swung upon 
gimbals. The tubs from the cage are run into a cradle, which 
tips up and turns them upside down so as to empty the coals 
on to the screen. 



CRAIG, the neck. 

** 'Twas sometime gane, they tuik our naigs, 
And left us eke an empty Byre 
I v/Sid the deil had had their craigs 
And a' things in a bleeze o' fire." 

The Fray o' Hauiwesull, 

" Ane gat a twist o* the craig.** 

Surtees. Ballad of FeatherstoHehaugh, 

" Some were sae keen upon the point, 
They danc'd their craigs quite out o' joint." 

G. Stuart, Joco-Serious Discourse, 1686. 


The same, p. 46. 

CRAIG, a crag. See under Dodd. 

" A craig is used both to signify a cliff and the precipitous side of a 
hill." — S. Oliver, Rambles in Northumberland, 1835, p. 87, note. 

CRAIG-CLAITH, a cravat. (Obs.) 

•* And syne I drew this craig-claith out." — Joco-Serious Discourse, Newcastle, 
1686, p. 15. 

CRAITCH, to complain peevishly and persistently. Same as 
Crake, 2. 

CRAKE [W.-T.] , to gossip, to boast. See Crack. 

" Monny oh them keept crakin oh the bajrm an tippin its cheeks."— 
Thomas Bewick, The Upgetting, ed. 1850, p. 13. 

CRAKE, to whimper, or plaintively ask for a thing over and 
over again. To ** herp *' for a thing or to ** yammer " for 
anything have much the same meanings as to crake. To croak. 
** What are ye crahin on there for — a-ah ? ** See Craitch. 

" The carrion craws about them flying 
Will keep a era iking/* 

G. Stuart. Joco-Serious Discourse, 1686, p. 47. 

CRAKEBERRY or CROWBERRY, the berry-bearing heath, 
Empetrum nigrum. See Craacrook. 

CRAME, a stall or stand on which any kind of merchandise, 
chiefly sweet-stuff or smallwares, is exposed at country fairs 
or hirings. The crattie is a jointed stall, easily taken to pieces 
and re-erected. 

•* Off to a crame-siand wi' a dash, 
An' boucht her sugar candy 
In lumps that day.'* 

The Fair, by David Walter Purdie, 1888. 


CRAME, to mend a vessel. China or earthenware is cranud 
by holing and wiring it at the broken edges. Wooden bowls 
are cramed in the same way, or more effectively by driving 
across the fracture a thin strip of iron shaped like an S. 

CRAMER, a tinker or mender of broken china, &c. (Obs.) 
See Mugger. 

CRAMLEY, shaking, or ** dothering," or weak in the legs. 
*• Hallo, there! Yo'r varry cramley i* the legs thi day*' — a 
morning salutation to one tottering in his gait. 

CRAMP, to wedge or jam up tightly. 

CRAMPER, an astounding lie. 

CRAMPET, a hook attached to the ends of the back-band in 
the gear of plough horses, from which the chains can be 
suspended. In pit language, a bracket. 

CRAMPLE, to crumple. " Aa say ! yor cramplin maa goon." 

CRAMP-RING, a ring made out of the handles of decayed 
coffins, and supposed to be a charm against the cramp. 
Hence the name. Formerly these rings were consecrated by 
the kings of England, who affected to cure the cramp, as well 
as the king's evil. — Brockctt^ 3rd ed. In Nans* Gloss, their 
supposed virtue in preventing the cramp is said to be 
conferred by solemn consecration on Good Friday, among 
the ceremonies of that great day. — Biand's Popular A ntiquitifs, 
4to ed., vol. i., p. 128. (Obs.) 

CRANCH, CRUNCH (often spoken as scranch or scrunch), to 
grind with a crackling noise between the teeth, as in eating a 
hard crust; or to grind the teeth themselves. ^*C ranching 
yor teeth." 

•• Sand thrown on the floor is said to cranch under the feet." — 
Hodgson MS. 

CRANE, the junction between the branch railways and the 

horse roads in a pit. Here they formerly used to hoist the 

corves of coal from the tram to the rolley ; the coals being 

"put" to this spot by the barrow-men from the working 

places. From the crane they were drawn by horses to the 

shaft. It is now called a "flat" or "station." 

••We commenced our survey at the crane, going up west." — Robert 
Scott, Ventilation of Coal Mines, p. 27, 1862. 

CRANEBOARD, a return air course in a pit, connected 
directly with the furnace. 


CRANEMAN, the lad in the pit who hoisted the corves of 
coals on to the rolleys with the crane. — Gloss, of Coal Trade 
Terms f 1849. 

CRANK, bent, shaky, as a machine out of repair ; hence 
probably applied to a person who is mentally wrong or 
eccentric. See Cranky, 2. 

CRANK, to make a harsh noise, to creak. 

•• The door cranks:*— Brockett. 

CRANKLE, weak, shattered.— Brochtt . 

CRANKS, a fireside contrivance consisting of two or more 
rows of iron crooks set in a frame and used for toasting 
bread. The frame stands on its own feet before the fire. 
This utensil is sometimes called **a branks." 

CRANKY, crank, tottering. Applied to a person, it means one 
whose mind is off the balance — a flighty person. " Crazy 
or cranky.** Or it means a person weak and poorly and almost 
tottering through illness. ** Aa's nobbut cranky-like thi day." 

CRANKY, checked, or of a zig-zag pattern, as "a cranky 
neckcloth," *^ sl cranky apron." When the pattern of a piece 
of cotton is made in bent figures it is a cranky article. See 
Crank, i, bent. 

CRANKY. The pitman formerly was called Cranky, or Bob 
Cranky, In his dress on a "gaady day" that old-world pit- 
man must have been impressive, for he says : — 

'* *A pat on my blue coat that shines se, 
My jacket wi' posies se fine see, 

My sark sic sma' threed, man, 

My pig-tail se greet, man, 
Od smash ! what a buck was Bob Cranky. 

Blue stockings, white clocks, and reed garters, 
Yellow breeks, and my shoon wi* lang quarters, 

A' myed wour bairns cry, 

Eh 1 sarties ! ni ! ni ! 
When they saw the smart, clever Bob Cranky.** 

Bob Cranky's *Sixe Sunday, 1804. 

The term cranky given by outsiders to the pitman was in later 
times replaced by ** Geordy.*' The men who went from the 
lower Tyneside to work at the pits in South Tynedale were 
always called "Geordies*' by the people there. Cranty 
probably comes from the checked pit flannel clothes much 
affected, when new and unsoiled, as a swagger costume. 
**Howky'* is another name for a pitman. See Cranky, 2. 


CRAP, or CRUP {p.t. of creep), crept ; p.p. cruppen or crup. 
" He'd cruppen oot *' — he had crept out. 

*' While Cappy's transactions with grief they talked o'er, 
He crap out o' the basket quite brisk on the floor." 

W. Midford, Cappy, 1818. 

CRATCH, a rack of any kind, a manger, a cradle. — HalliwelVs 
Diet. A manger, particularly that in which our Saviour was 
laid. — Nares' Gloss. "This opens to us," continues Nares, 
*'the meaning of a childish game, corruptly called scratch- 
cradle " (^af s-cradle in Northumberland, &c.), ** which consists 
in winding pack-thread double round the hands, into a rude 
representation of a manager, which is taken off by the other 
player on his hands, so as to assume a new form, and thus 
alternately for several times, always changing the appearance. 
But it clearly meant originally the cratch-craidle, the manger 
that held the Holy Infant as a cradle.'* 

CRAVE, to ask, to demand a claim or debt. To crave a person 
for a loan or debt before they are able spontaneously to pay 
it is an unpardonable insult, of which the offender never fails 
to hear on every available occasion. 

CRAW. See Craa and following words, also Crow-coal. 

CRAYER, a small sailing vessel. It is elsewhere called a 

•• Acrayeroi Newcastle, laden with malveysey, &c/* — Richard Welford. 
Hist. 0/ Newcastle XVI. Cent., under date 1513, p. 36. 

CRAZED, vexed. ** He wis that crazed wiv us ! " It also 
meant, formerly, a condition of bodily suffering. 

'* Beinge of perfect mind and memorie, thoughe verie craysed and sore 
wounded in his bodye." — Will of Wm. Clavering, of Duddoe, 1586. — 
D. D. Dixon. Vale of Whittingham, 1887, p. 40. 

CREANGE, to crackle, as thin ice does in breaking, or as 
woodwork when it is crushed. 

CREATUR, a creature. The t-ch sound is not used in the 
dialect in any case. ** The poor creatur was the pictur o* 

CREE, CREEVE, a pen or fold. *' A pig-cr^.'' The form is 
also criefsLud cruve^ as ** a swine-crw/*' or ** ^\g'Creeve.'* 

CREE, to crush, to husk wheat or barley in preparing it for 
boiling as fromerty. 


CREEIN-TROW, a stone trough, formerly in general use as a 
mortar, in which grain was creed , or pounded, till its husks 
came off. The grain was then boiled with milk. See 

CREEL, a kind of basket of wicker work in which hay is taken 
in stormy weather to sheep on the mountains. Its sides are 
stiff; its bottom supple. This is called a sheep-creel. Baskets 
and pins (pens) for poultry, and wicker utensils for various 
other purposes are called creels, — Hodgson MS, The creel of a 
Cullercoats fish- wife is a very fine example of basket-work, 
fitting to the back, and showing a most graceful form of 
construction throughout. In the days of toasts and sentiments 
the following rhyme was a common formula : — 

" Health, weahh, milk an' meal ; 
Here's tiv ivery thinkin chiel ; 
May the de'el rock him weel iv a creel. 
If he disna wish aall on us weel." 

CREEL, to put or pack in a creel. To throw the leg over the 
head of another person. This is generally practised by 
children, who say after doing it : ** There noo, aa've creeled 
thoo an thoo*ll nivver grou ne bigger." See Crile. Compare 


CREEP, ** a state of the mine produced by an insufficiency of 
coal left to support the roof, and which often forces the top 
and bottom of the mine together, and renders the pit unfit for 
further use." — Gloss, to Pitman's Pay, 1843. 

" A heaving up of the floor of the mine, occasioned by the weight of 
the superincumbent strata." — Mining Gloss. Newcastle Terms, 1852. 

•' An when life's last stook's tyen away, 
And nowse but wyest and ruin near ; 
When creep comes ower wor wrought-out clay, 
And all's laid in for ever here." 

T. Wilson, Pitman's Pay, 1829, pt. iii., v. 122. 

CREEPERS, the sensation of chill on the skin from cold, or the 
creeping of the flesh from some blood-curdling fright or fear. 

CREESER, a waggon greaser. 

CREESH, CREESE, to grease. — J. P. Robson, Gloss, to Bards 
of t lie Tyne, 1849. 

CREESHY, greasy. 

" see this Lown-like Lordan squeeze 

His chreeshy -bsiggs, and Laugh, and Fleer." 

G. Stuart, Joco-Scrious Discourse, 1686, p. 31. 


CREEVE, an enclosure. See Cree, i. 

CREEVE, CREUVE, a crab or lobster trap. A sort of case 
covered with net, weighted with a heavy stone and let down 
to the bottom. A hole at each end allows entrance but 
prevents egress. Creeves are made about two to three feet long 
by twelve to eighteen inches high. See Cruive. 

CREEVEL, crewel, fine worsted yarn. 

CREPT PILLARS, pillars of coal which have passed through 
the various stages of creep. — GreenwelL See Creep. 

CRIB, or CRIBBIN, the circle of wood wedged tight in a pit 
shaft, to make a foundation for walling when the strata are 
loose. — Mining Gloss. Newcastle Terms, 1852. Or the lining of 
wood or iron put round a pit shaft to dam back the water in 
water-bearing strata. A crib used as a foundation for metal 
tubbing or for walling is called a wedging crib. A walling crib 
is a hning of stone or firebricks made to the sweep of the 
shaft and built in where the strata are loose. A ring crib is 
an arrangement for catching water which would otherwise 
fall down the shaft. See Tubbing. 

CRIB, a boy small for his age. ** Wey, that bairn's a parfit 

CRIB, to line around 

" The sinking was cribbed, and backed, then walled." — Borings and 
Sinkings^ A.B., p. 10. 

*' A giblet pie, 
Cribb'd roun* wi* coils o' savoury pudden." 

T. Wilson, Pitman's Pay, 1827, pt. ii., v, 28. 

CRIBBAGE, CRIBBISH, one side or division of a stall in a 

CRIBLE, to cringe, to curry favour with a superior. " Aa's 
not gan to crible tiv him.*' ** He went away cW^/^rf" — '* He 
went away as if with his tail between his legs." 

CRIEF. See Cree, Creeve, Cruive. 

CRIKE, CRIKEY, an oath. Often becrike. 

CRILE, a poor and deformed person. Sometimes applied in 
contempt. ** Ye crile, ye ! " 

Creil, " a short stubbed dwarfish man." — Kay's Gloss. 
** To pass the leg over the head of a child is vulgarly supposed to crile 
or stop Its growth."— J3rofA^//, 3rd ed. 


CRINE, to pine in, to shrink or shrivel up. " Ye've had ower 
het a fire ; it's crined the meat." 

CRINEY, small and shrivelled. " The corn 'U be varry crine^ 
an' smaall this *eer.'* 

CRINGLE, a withe or rope for fastening a gate with. — Brockett. 

CRINGLE-CRANGLE, zig-zag, vtrixMe.— Brockett. 

CRIT, the smallest of a litter of pigs, &c. In metaphor — ^a 
small-sized person. ** Tom's the crit i' the femily." 

CROAK, to give up the ghost. 

" Baith often's wished the yen was croakin.*' 

J. P. Robson, "Betty Beesley^ 

Bards of the Tyne, p. 157. 

CROCKER, one outside of a trade mystery. (Obs.) 

" No brother shall be partner with any foreigners called crackers, on 
pain of forfeiting ;f 5." — Ordinary of the Butchers' Company, Newcastle, 
July 20, 1621. 

CROCKY, a little Scotch cow. — Grose's Gloss. 


" A small parcel of ground lying near the dwelling of the owner, but 
not necessarily adjoining it." — The Rev. Canon Greenwell, Gloss, to the 
Boldon Bufte. 

The Croft, in Newcastle, " a small field, bounded on the east side by 
the town wall, and on the west by the garden walls of the houses in 
Pilgrim Street. It formerly belonged to the family of Carlels, or Carliols, 
from whom it was called the Carle, or Carliol Croft." — Mackenzie, Hist, of 
Newcastle, p. 179. 

'• A house and a rig lying in the Croft, value 6s. 8d.** — Richard Welford, 
Hist, of Newcastle XVI. Cent., p. 87. 

" — This have I learnt 
Tending my flocks hard by i* th' hilly crofts 
That brow this bottom glade." 

Milton, Comus, 530, quoted by Nares. 

CROGGY, weak in the fore legs ; applied to a horse. 

CRONE, a toothless ewe ; an old woman. 

CROOD, a crowd ; to crowd. ** The hoose is crooded oot." 

CROOK. See Cruck. 

CROON, crown. ** He cam doon on the croon o' his heed." 
** Len's a half a croon.'' 


CROON, to bellow, to roar. Also to murmur softly. Croonin, 
the present participle, is applied to the roaring of a spoiled 
child, and to the continuous bellow of a beast in distress. 

" A croonin cow, a crawin hen, 
A whistling maid, fu' weel ye ken, 
Are deemed aye unlucky." 

L. Proudlock, song, Cuddle and his Crawin' Hen. 

CROONER, coroner. **The crooner's comin i' the morn aboot 
the bairn they fund i' the burn." 

CROOPY, hoarse. 

" When Hamlick stuck his daddle oot, 
To grip his feyther's paw, man, 
He gav a kind o' croopy shoot, 
To find the caud sty en wa', man." 

J. P. Robson, d. 1870, Hamlick, Prince u' Denton. 

CROOSE, GROUSE, brisk, lively, eager. Crackin-croose^ is, as 
we should say, " in great form,'* confident, talking big. 

**Crowse: brisk, budge, lively, jolly. *As crowse as a new washen 
louse.' *• — Ray's Gloss, 

" A cock's aye croose on his aan midden.'* — Newcastle proverb, 

*' An' croose we left oor canny toon 
I* Jimmy Joneson's whurry." 

T. Thompson, d. 1816, Jemmy Joneson's Wherry. 

*' Wor low-rope let, afield we set. 
The trappin trade quite crouse te lairn." 

T. Wilson, Pitman's Pay, pt. ii., v. 18. 

"It's ha' ye seen how crouse and gay 
The lads and lasses bent their way." 

•' Theatre in an Uproar.''' 

Bards of the Tyne, 1849, p. 183. 

" Gorcocks beck around Aid Crag 
Sae crousely and sae proud." 

James Armstrong, Wanny Blossoms, 1879, p. 4. 

CROOT, CRUT, to sprout, to grow. **The bairns crooted oot 
like young trees, man." (J. P. Robson, d. 1870, Boh Stacker's 
Secret.) To recover. ** She's been varry bad, poor body, but 
she'll syun croot oot agyen." 

CROP, the head or neck. ** A rope they fastened round maw 
cropy Q. P. Robson, M alleys Voyage ^ 1849.) To cut the 
hair. ** What a crop he's gien ye !" 

CROP, or CRAA, the basset, or outburst to the surface, of a 
• seam of coal or other stratum. This localism has passed into 

a scientific term in the form of outcrop, as applied to a stratum. 

See under word Day. 


CROP, to leave a portion of coal at the bottom of a seam 
in working. Also to ** set out *' a tub or corf of coals filled 
insufficiently, and consequently forfeited. — GrecnwelL 

CROPPEN, crept: the /./>. of creep. The verb occurs in the 
dialect with a strong past tense which has the variant forms 
of crap^ and crup, and crop. The past participle has also the 
variants croppen and cruppen. "We'd just croppen into bed 
agyen.*' *• We fund the beggar hed crupptn oot o* his hole." 
•* He's get ten sair croppen tc^ther " — bent ^-ith age. 

CROPPIN, the crop of a bird. "To set up the croppin'' is 

to give oneself an absurd air of importance, or to walk A\ith a 

strutting consequential gait. 

•* The clerk he soon set up his crcf^fins." 

Thomas Whittle, •* Tkt Miaford Galloways RambUr 
Btlis Rhymes, 1812, p. 175, 

CROSIL, to char small or dust coal in the fire so as to make 
cinders. A blacksmith crcsiis his fire by blowing slowly till 
the duff coal has become caked in small cinders, which he 
can use to get up a proper heat when he puts in his work. 

CROSS, across, ** 'Ctcss the floor " is used for across the floor. 
•• He cam Vrx^-w ower to meet me." 

** In the Side occe the bouses so nearly did meet. 
That folk could so triendlv shake haxids 'ctk^ss the street.** 


R. Gijchrist, 1S35. Scn^ cf Improvements. 

CROSSCUT, a passage driven at an angle with the fibres of 
the coal : ** in any direction between headways course and 
broadwa vs course." — G ufK^ell. 

CROSSING, an arch by which a current of air is carried 
across ONxrhcad in a pit. 

CROSS-THK-IHXKLE, to cross the arms in playing at 

bkipping-ropc, or the le^ in dancing. 

" Oah x^ jumr up and shcfle. 
An*'. ,f,\<.< r*.i-« :t/ />w«^;/ 
\\ bo« \* lUrof :be olixTer Fob Crankv," 

J Selku^k i. :nj5 " B.v Cr*ii*j''s Size Sunday.'' 

's C.w«-7ii-ii, p. 21S. 

OKOTI \\ CKrri.y, friAWe, crumby. When the land is in vv^r.vV.tK^n Aivi cuimKes as the plough turns over the 
lun\^^v u IS sAivi to bo ,n\\u Crw^Vhoofed, in a horse or 
Kws;, *.s when the hvXM cT;:n:Kc5>. A Aic^h temper is a quick 
trn^NrK ** Vhc aao, ir.aistcr hes a temper as crmiif as ewe- 


GROUSE, CROOSE, brisk, lively. See Croose. 

CROW. See Craa, &c. 

CROWBERRY, the berry-bearing heath, Empetrum nigrum. 
See Craacrook. 

CROW COAL, a seam of coal worked from a crow^ or outcrop. 
See Craa, 5. 

** The crow coal about a foot or less thick." 

The Com pleat Collhrt 1708. 

CROWDY, a Northumberland dish, made by filling a basin 

with oatmeal, and then pouring in boiling water. A vigorous 

stirring is required whilst the water is being poured ; and, 

when the two ingredients are thoroughly mixed, the ** hasty 

pudding" is ready. It is served with a little butter, dripping, 

or other flavouring, according to taste, or it is taken with 

milk. Crowdy is purely local, as applied to scalded oatmeal ; 

for what is called crowdy in Northumberland is in parts of 

Scotland "brose." In the island of Skye crowdy is applied 

to a peculiar cheese, which is made rich by the addition of 

butter, and eaten soft, like cream cheese. 

•• The crowdy is wor daily dish." 

T. Wilson, Pitman's Pay, pt. i., v. 56. 

CROWDY-MAIN, an uproarious crowd, a cock fight. The 
dalesmen of Rede and Coquet were accustomed to meet at 
Harehaugh ** for the purpose of fighting their cocks, and of 
having afterwards a sort of friendly crowdy-main among them- 
selves.'* — S. Oliver the Younger, Rambles in Northumberland, 

" Whei, whei, thinks aw, this caps the stack ; 
It was a crowdy-main man." 

J. P. Robson, Mally's Voyage, 1849. 

CROW-FISH, the spiney crab. [Holy Island.] 

CROW-GARLIC, the Allium vineale^ L., found in grassy places 
and somewhat rare. In Northumberland it grows at Bel ford 
and Gunnerton. 

CROWLEY'S CREW, the men formerly employed by Crowley 

and Co. in the historic ironworks at Winlaton, Swalwell, and 

Winlaton Mill. In comparison with other craftsmen it was 

asked : — 

*• Can they de ouse wi* Crowley's Crew, 
Frev a needle tiv a anchor, O !'* 

Such, indeed, was the variety of manufactures produced by 

these smiths, that the boast was scarcely an empty figure of 



CROWN, a term for the top part of anything. The crown in a 
pit is the highest level in it. 

CROWNTREE, the top balk used in supporting the roof in a 
coal pit ; it is the cross piece laid over two vertical props. 
See Gallows-timber. 

CRUCK, to crook, to bend. 

CRUCK, a crook, a hook, the hinge of agate. See Crank. 

•• One pair of croks:'—R. Welford, Hist, of Newcastle XVI. Cent., p. 389. 

'* Item p^ to John Marley for a new pann and a crouke to the Beacon, 
iSs.*^ — Gattskeai Church Books, 1645. 

CRUCK, a disease causing a twisted neck in sheep. 
CRUCK-YOR- ELBOW, write it down, put your name to it. 

CRUCK-YOR-HOUGH, that is, bend your hough (the hough is 
the back part of the knee) ; sit down. " Crook your hough I "— 
the friendly salutation of a pitman who wants you to sit dovm 
and *' have a crack.'* It means either to sit on a seat or on 
your hunkers; originally, in all probability, the latter.— 

** Wi. Ud ! what's set te here se Ijet ? 
Draw in a seat, an* crock tky kof.** 

T. Wilson, Piimmm*s Pey, 1S29, pt. iii., v. 25. 

** Wiv has V th* north, when aw*m wairsh i* my way, 
(Bnt te knaw wor warm hearts, ye ynrs^ come) 
Aw lift the first latch, and baith man and dame say. 
Cnuk wmr kcagk, canny man, for ye*re w<ek»me.*' 

T. Thompsofi. d. 1816, Grimy NewcsstU. 

CRUCK-YOR-THUMB. the instruction given as a charm 
against witchcraft. 

*' The fists are clenched, but the thumbs are doobled up inside the 
palms Th« nesasoo for this peculiarity may, no doubt, be found in ao 
old Northumbrian superstition." "Children/* says Hutchinson, "to 
axviii AKvrcviching danfcer. are tai^t to double the thumb within the 
hand. This was much practised while the t err o r s of witchcnit 
remained."— \V. W. Tcmlinson. Gaair /o SuftkmmitHm^ 1888, p. 64. 

CKUD. CRUDDLE, to curdle, 

CKl'PPLK, to crouch closely together. ••They wor flaid 0' 
the thunnor and «^r«ii>j in/' 

*- The hAnfU»:«vi youckers sst iwmiJutimf: 00 a heap roond a fire.*^ 


CRUDS, curds. ** The cruds and cream hoose " was formerly 
an institution in Newcastle. 

*' Off the ghost flew wiv a terrible scream : 
They ran into a hoose where they sell cruds an* cream.** 

R. Emery, d. 1871, Curds and Cream House Ghost. 

CRUIVE, a fish trap made by enclosing a space in a river. 
See Creeve. Compare Cree, i. 

" The * fish garth ' is called a cruive. It is made of wood, and has trafs, 
&c., into which the fish on ascending the river enter, and from which 
they cannot escape.'* — R. Weddell, Salmon Fishing in River Tweed. — 
Archaologia Mliana, 4to, vol. iv.. p. 305. 

CRULL, to work with worsted. — Brockett, ** Len us yor stottin 
baal and aa'U crulPd for ye" — that is, cover it with worsted in 
colours. A crulled'hdidl was a child's ball made of a ravelled- 
out old stocking having its surface worked with crewel. 

CRULLS, threads of coloured worsted. Compare Creevel. 

CRUMEL, to crumble. Words in modern English with a h 
before e, or Ic, all drop the h in the dialect : thus tumble, 
tumel; rumble, rumel ; iamble, fumel ; nimble, m/»^/ ; thimble, 
thifml ; humble, humel ; slumber, slumer ; timber, timer, &c. 

CRUMEL, a crumb. ** Dinna drop yor crutnels on the floor." 

CRUMMY, a favourite name for a cow with crooked horns. — 

CRUMMY, plump, in good condition ; applied to edibles. 

CRUMP, the cramp; out of temper. — Grose's Gloss. 

CRUN, to whine. See Croon. 

CRUNGE, to cringe. 

CRUNKLE, to rumple, to make a noise as in crumpling 

CRUNTLE, the front part of a pig's head above the eyes. 
Also applied to the human head familiarly. ** Aa'll gie ye a 
crack ower the cruntle ye noo." 

CRUP and CRUPPEN (variants of crap and croppen), crept. 
" He's sair cruppen doon." 


or series of steps placed near the door outside a house, and 
formerly used for mounting on horseback, or for the women 
who mounted on the pillion. See also Horse-stone, Horsin- 
STONE, Mount, and Pillion-styen. 

CRUPPY-DOW, a cake made of oatmeal and fish, much 
esteemed in Northumberland. 

** Dnnstan-steads for loggerheads. 
And Craster for crowdies. 
Spital>f(»d for cmfpy-iows. 
And EmbktOD tor howi^es." 

Old Sjjmg, taken down from the recitation 
of Mrs. Aynslej. of Embleton, 1891. 

CRUSH, a great quantity, a crush of wet, a crush of com.— 
Bnxhttty 3rd ed. 

CRUSH, the fiacture of coal pillars in a pit by the weight of 
the superincumbent strata. 

CRUT, a dwarf, anything curhtJ in its growth. — Brochett. 

CRUTLW firiable« easily crumbed. See Crotly. 

** The cbccse too sand iciist doc be a .-rkrrlr^ one. as they axe so bad 
for cttttix;!: into slices' ->I«s.r. Mazch. iSSSu 

CRUTTLE, a crumK 

•• To curdle ' — X.-rri*m*«fr:r«i --^i:A::.-aKW5 DKt. 

CfsY-COOK^ to giv^ in, to capitulate to an argument or 
aocu$^iioQ« See Ccv^k. 

CKYIN^aX^T* :hc t:n^.e of accoccbesxnt. It was made a 
^wiAi vXVA:?ioa fof :fce X55se:i:Ma»:e cf neighbcuis and gossipSi 
wh<^ii "* Kvceo hnwd '* aiid ** srrcjLnng-cbeese " were served up. 
*" IV xt^ he AT Vt shxvci^' : The oe"u s revenge. Thor*!! be 
\\v,c n^.A;: o' then: A3crc :he =>crrin /" A proverbial saying on 

OUl^V". vvr v^UiVLA. a shxn sct.c r«ar to the top of a furnace 
v.xN Asts a:x! Sxtv: ir.:v^ tbe scxift a few ^tbon^ below the 
>,.*,!AvV^ >8k:;*^ A >iiN5<: c>.:=rr^\ ;fi:T£Ctec ever it, rising thirty or 
:x^:\ :?^v: AKxt^ :>;r $c::yLci. It relieves tisc pit top from 
NiwXt'. v"a* ?v; aW a :,:N:* — J^warr-^ 


CUCKOO. See Gowk and following words. 

CUCKOO-FLOWER, the meadow bitterness, Carddmins 
pratcMsis. Called also pimks^ spinks^ bog-spimksj May-fUwir^ and 

CUCKOO-GRASS, the field woodnish, Luztda campestris. 
Called also pees-weep grass and black-caps. 

CUCKOO-MORNIN', **a holiday on hearing the cuckoo for 
the first time." — Gloss, to Pitman's Pay. (Obs.) 

** A ntckoo-mornin* give a lad, 
He values not his plagues a cherry." 

T. Wilson, Pitman's Pay, 1829, pt. iii., v. 64 

CUCKOO'S-MAIDEN, the wryneck— Firnjir /ar^*ii//a— which 
usually arrives here a few days before the cuckoo, and 
migrates in September. — Brockett. 

" It is £ar from common in Northumberland, but is more frequently 
seen in Durham." — John Hancock. Birds of Northumberland and Durham, 

CLOVER, the sorrel, Oxalis acetosella. 

CUCKOO'S-SPIT, the white froth which encloses the larva of 
the Cicada spumaris. 

CUCKOO'S TILLIN, the meadow pipit, Anthus pratensis. 
See Titlark. . 

CUDBERD, Cuthbert. See Cuddy and Culbert. 

CUD-BUSH, an esculent plant. (? Cud-weed,) 

" 1666. December 8. — Forster to Williamson [about a tumult in 
Sandgate, Newcastle, during collection of hearth-money] . ' They said 
they were willing [to pay] but had not bread to eat. Indeed, hundreds 
of them for weeks have lived only on oatmeal, water, and cudbush boiled 
together.* " — Calendar of State Papers. Domestic Series, 1666. 

CUDDY, a donkey, a stupid person. '* What are ye dcein 
that for, ye great cttddy ?" A half-wit. ** Cttddy Willy." 

" To let the folks see thou's a leydy, 
On a cuddy thou's ride to the toon." 

W. Midford, Pitman's Courtship, 1818. 

" For on the new line an awd cuddy, wiv ease, 
Will draw the mail coach, or even a waggon." 

T. Wilson, Stanzas on a Line of Intended Road, 1825. 


CUDDY, the common abbreviation of Cuthbert. The name of 
the saint is a very popular Christian name in Northern parts. 
The forms Cudhert and Culhert are still heard on the lips of old 
people. See Culbert. 

CUDDY- AN '-CREELS, a donkey with panniers. 

CUDDY'S-LEGS, herrings. Fishwives used to call herrings 
thus : *• There's yor cuddys-iegs an' lady's thighs." 

CUDDY'S-LUGS, the great mullein, Verhascum thapsus. 

CUFF, a simpleton. — Brocketi^ 3rd ed. See Cuif. 

CUFF-CUFF, the call for a pigeon. 

CUICK (pron. hi-yuk^ fy*^)i to cook. See Ceyuk. 

** Of a* the kinds of hollow meats 
That greasy {nicks se oft are speeten.*" 

T. WOson, Pitmsm's Pmy, 1827. pt. u.. v. 26. 

CUIF« a lout, an awkward fellow. 

CUIFF, to walk in an awkward manner; especially with large 
broad feel. — Brockttt. 

CriL, KEYUL, to cool. Sec Keel. 

CUKEXWORT, chickweed. Sec Clvckweed. 

CULBARD^ a cullish^ or stupid person. 

CILBERT. or CVDBERT. Cuthbert. Also the eider duck, 
v^«'i»4T/ri4 »i^Vi.$$tflM« which is faociliar in Northumberland and 
at the Fame Islands as the CmiNri, Cmihert^ or Cudbai's duck. 

*' KxY ceffiturMS tb«T ha\« been kaova as St. Cuthbert *s ducks. He 
Ux i«h«4 u|v« tb«i& 9f>ccial oarks d kindnrss and afcctioo. They Kcre 
tr^v^wfitK hi5 $o)e oooinutkies dccri^ the loog boors of his solitary 
nii^^i^ c)tt$tfnf^ Tvxsnd bus miwe be maicb cd and prayed on the rocks 
>Khvh $WTO«r^V«i b)$ bc4ae. Tber civi«id lus evenr mfd, and became 

^^ tAr^ atkI U«!^;li*r >KUh biza that tber moold allonr bim to approach 
th<«it At a)) t)iy)«» ^ii^tKxfit iwr. a^i caress tbes: witb bis band."— Tbe 
Krv lV^\\>«t O^^flwau. i4V<v'\S: c*;Lmv7. p Si. 


CULL, a cheat, a devil — Northumhitland, — Halliweirs Lief. 

CULL, a fond, stupid, simple fellow. " Cull Willy " was the 
name of a Newcastle half-wit of former days. 

" Had yor tongue, ye cvH,'* 

Song. Billy Oliver. 

" Cull cheps for his worm-cakes frae far an* near ride — 
Poor pitmen, an' farmers, an' keelmen, an' flonkies.** 

R. Emery, d. 1871, '* Pitman s Ramble." 

Bards of the Tyne^ p. 70. 

CULLISH, raw, clownish, stupid ; this and the adverbial form 
cullishly — from cull^ above. 

" To laugh at a prophet she thowt it was cullish." 

R. Emery, d. 1871, ''Mally and the Prophet.'" 

Bards of the Tyne, p. 254. 

** Declared in her breest greet consam it inspired 
That my Lord should se cullishly come by his deeth." 

John Shield, My Lord 'Size. 

CULLS, animals that are rejected from a herd of cattle, or 
flock of sheep. 

CUMBER, trouble, oppression. — Brockett, 3rd ed. (Obs.) 
*' A care, danger, or inconvenience." — Nares' Gloss. 

The outlaws of Liddesdale " kept him a great while in cumler." — Carey, 
Earl of Monmouth. — Hodgson, iii., 2., p. 120, note. 

•* Fleet foot on the correi 
Sage counsel in cumber, 
Red hand in the foray. 
How sound, is thy slumber." 

Lady of the Lake, cant, iii., 16. 

CUM'D, or CUMMEN, /./. of come. ** If ye'd ony ctinrd 
seunor, noo.*' ** He*d cummen in afore aa gat there mesel." 

CUMMINS, the sprouts from barley when in process of malting. 
They form a fine granular powder, and are sold by maltsters 
for cattle feeding purposes. Cummins is also applied to the 
mixture made from the dust adhering to the dried oat husks 
and water. Hence the saying ** Thick as cummins,'^ applied 
to muddy water. 

CUN, or CON, to learn, to know. — Brochett, 



CUNDY, a drain, a sewer, a conduit. *• A rummelki' cuniy " is 
a drain with loose, broken stone laid round to allow of 
percolation from the surface. •* A cundied corf" was a corf 
packed hollow to give an appearance of a greater bulk to 
the coals in it. When coals were paid by measure instead of 
by weight, this was a point for the keeker's observation. 

** Paide for a lb. of pepper, and a bag^. for the rente of the cuniitt 
withont Westi^te to Mr. Thomas Hilton, dae at Micklemas last, 4s."— 
Ntuxtistle Mmmcipml Accounts, 1593. 

** Aw'l inspect ivery cundv an* midden." 

J. P. Robson. CoUur's Farewell. 

CUNNIN-CYEK, a cake of ordinary appearance outwardly, 
but when cut revealing hidden fruit, currants, &c., in the centre. 

CUPOLA. See Cube. 

CUR (pron. cor), a cowardly man. '* Hit one yor size, ye greet 
mr, ye.'* 

** A cnrnsk worthless person.**— H«2/favU*s Diet. 
*' A ketty fMr,"* a very vile person. — BrocJutt. 

CURCHOR, a kerchief, as hsLU^curchor, neckcurckor — a handker- 
chief, neck-kerchief. The common sound of the word is 
kcrskor — thus, hanibc>rsA^r, neckorskcr, 

** Paide for a cumcMcr and a rale to vrind her. 2s." at the barial of a 
woman. — SeevmstU .Vvwin/vf/ AcaifMmts^ Amgusie, 1593. 

CURFEW-BELL, the evening bell, which was generally rung 
at eight o'clock for the object of ha\nng all fires and lights 
extinguished, a requisite precaution in olden times. The 
name and use is still retained at Newcastle. — HalliwelVs DicUy 
1S46. See Brand's Ohserv^tums cm Bounu's Antiquities^ chap. i. 

CURRENBERRIES, red currants, Ribes ruhrum. See Corn- 


Cl'KTAIN, the fold yard in the farm steading. The survival 
of this word is a most interesting relic of the times when every 
Northuml^erland fold \^rd was a fortified enclosure. In 
fv^rtitioaiion a Cs'^rtin or c^m^im is the wall or distance between 
the tUnks of two bastions. The local pronounciation is still 
»vrfnf. See Cor tain. 

CIS. CI ST, CUSSEN (sec Cassex). cast, applied to 
;uu ihiixg thrv^wn aside* •• He Ci;s^-oot '' means he quarrelled. 
Sri^ Casvoi'T. 

CrSUAl\ the riixg dove. C«vmiaa paUmbms. Called also, but 


CUSHION -DANCE, a country dance in which one person 
held a cushion whilst the rest of the company danced in a 
ring, singing :— 

*' The best bed. the feather bed, 
The best bed ov a'. 
The best bed i' wor hoose 
Is clean pea straw." 

At the end of the chant the cushion was laid at the feet of a 
favoured person and knelt on. The person thus saluted 
kissed the kneeling suppliant and then took up the cushion in 
turn and danced round with it as the first had done; all 
singing again and again the refrain. *' That dance of dances, 
the cushion-dance.'' 

CUSHY-COO, a pet name for a cow. Cushy-cows^ docken seed, 
the seed of broad-leaved dock, Rumex ohtusifolins. 

CUSHY-COO-LADY, the lady-bird beetle. 

CUSSEN (/./. of cast). " Cussen in a mould '* — cast in a mould. 
** Cussen down ** — cast down. 

CUSSEN, warped. ** Them dyels is aa cussen ** — those deals 
are all warped. 

CUT, an excavation through a hill. •* The New Cut,'' **The 
Cut Bank." 

CUT, a measure of yam— one-twelfth of a hark. 

CUT, a number of sheep on a large grazing farm. A " hirsel " 
is divided into several divisions called cutSy each keeping to 
its own range of pasture. 

CUT, to run quickly. *' Cut an* run," **Ck/ away noo, as fast 

as ye can,'* ** Cut yor stick," **Cut yor lucky," are commands 

to leave instantly. **To cut*' is to move in a step dance. 

" In the dance se sprightly, 
He'll cut and shuffle lightly." 

T. Thompson, d. 1816, New Keel Row. 

CUT, or CUTS. ''To stand your cuts*' — to maintain your 
position, to hold your own, 

CUT. ** The last cut.'* Before the introduction of the reaping 
machine, at the finish of the "white corn " harvest it was the 
custom for the young unmarried women to endeavour to get 
••the last f«/," thereby hoping to be the first to get married. 
The same practice prevails in Tiviotdale. See *• hinmost cut " 
in Jamieson. 


CUT A PURSE, the method of ascertaining the amount of 
fine to be imposed for an offence against the rules of the 
river Tyne. (Obs.) 

"Paide for two purses of lether which should have bene cntt in the 
Towne Chamber and was not, by a Frenchman, 8d." — Newcastle 
Municipal Accounts, Auguste, 1593. 

" It was a custom in Newcastle, as stated by Bourne, that a master of 
a ship who threw ballast into too shallow water at sea. if convicted, must 
pay a fine of £$ ; which was put into a purse, and the offender was 
required to cut the purse, by way of acknowledgment that he was no 
better than those ' cut purses ' who ripped a man's money from his 
girdle. Gardiner says the offender was to pay a fine of five pounds, or 
else to cut the purse which hangs up in the town-chamber with sand and 
money in it, and so much as is therein he must pay, or is sent to prison, 
and there to lye till he doth pay it." — Richard Welford. Hist, of Newcastle^ 
vol. iii., under date 1593. p. 82. 

" The ' cut-parse ' points te bygyen times, 
When truth was niver sowt in wells. 
When justice punish 'd captains* crimes. 
Without the fash o* weights an' skyells." 

T. Wilson, Glance at Polly -Technic, 1840. 

CUTBEARD, cudbear. A lichen that gives a purple dye. 
The Lecanora tartareay growing commonly on limestone 
rocks. — Ogilvie. 

CUTES (pron. kyuts), the feet, used derisively. 

" Did ivver mortals see sic brutes, 
Te order me to lift ma cutes." 

Geo. Cameron, song, The Pitman" s Revenge, 1804. 

CUTE-SKINS, CUTE-KINS, additional coverings for the 
legs during snowy weather, generally worsted stockings with 
the feet cut off; a sort of long gaiters. — Brockett. See 


CUTHBERPS BEADS, portions of the jointed stems of fossil 
encrinites common in the mountain limestone. They are 
found at Lindisfarne plentifully, and there, legend says : — 

" Saint Cuthbert sits, and toils to frame 
The sea-born beads that bear his name." 

" While at this task he is supposed to sit during the night upon a 
certain rock and use another as his anvil." — Note to Marmion. 

CUTHBERT'S DOWN, the down of the eider duck. See 
St. Cuthbert's Ducks and Culbert. 

*' In the list of articles belonging to the Feretory at Durham in 1417 
are two pairs of cushions, of which one is of Cuthbert's doume (Eyre)."— 
Rev. I'rov. Consitt, Life of St. Cuthbert, 1887, p. 82, note. 


CUTHBERT STONES; two mete or bounder stones which 
were let into the Old Tyne Bridge between Newcastle and 
Gateshead to mark the limit of the ancient boundary of the 
patrimony of St. Cuthbert, which extended from Gateshead 
along one-third of the length of the bridge. The bounder 
tstone was afterwards known as ** the blue stone,'' now preserved 
in the Old Castle at Newcastle. 

CUTS, lots. " To draw cutSj** to determine by lots. This is 
generally by straws cut into unequal lengths. The pilgrims 
in the Canterbury Tales " drew cuts " who should begin their 
tale. The lot fell on the Knight. 

CUTTEN, /./. of cut. "It waddent cutten''— it would not 
have cut. 

•• 'Twas cutteti up wi' heuks.*'— G. Chatt, Old Farmer, 1866. 

CUTTER, to fondle, to make love to. 

" Aw swagger 'd then ; for ma new suit 
Play'd £urlekin amang the lasses." 

" Amang them aw wad a*ways be, 
Aw cuttered, canny things, about 'em." 

T. Wilson, Pitman's Pay, 1829, pt. iii., v. 5-6. 

Cutterin is hence the sacred, affectionate talk of lovers, and 
the cooing of the pigeon. 

CUT-THROAT, the white-throat, Curruca cinerea. See Jenny- 


CUTTY, short. " He hes on his cutty coat." 

CUTTY, a short pipe. Cutty-gun, a familiar term for a short 
pipe. — Brockett, Compare Kotty. 

Aug. II, 1570. Will of Allan Dixon, of Newcastle, ropemaker: — "To 
John Hall, one cloak and one coot pipe.*' — Richard Welford., Hist, of 
Newcastle XVI. Cent., p. 439. 

'* She frae ma mouth the cuttie pons. 
When sleep owercomes ma weary clay." 

T. Wilson, Pitman's Pay, 1826, pt. i., v. 79. 

CUTTY, a Vmie.— Brockett. A short spoon. 

CUTTY-SOAMS, the name given to a malicious boggle who 
mysteriously haunted a pit in the neighbourhood of Calling- 
ton and cut the pitmen's soatns, or hauling ropes. See 
Monthly Chronicle, vol. i., p. 269. 

CUTWILLEY, a loop of iron, on each end and in the middle 
of a swingle tree, to which hooks and chains are attached. 


CWOAT [T.] , coat. 
CYEK, or KYEK, cake. 

" The hride-kyek neist, byetb sweet and short. 
Was loss'd in platefals ower the bride." 

T. Wilson. Pitman's Pay, 1829, pt. iii., v. 83. 

CYEK-TOASTER, a rack made in the form of the letter A, 
used to brown a cake before the fire. See Beaksticks. 

D is sometimes intrusive, especially among children in 
Northumberland, and the phrase "Gi' me-d-it" for give it 
me, is heard. " We ron by-tf-it," for we ran by it. D is 
a frequent abbreviation of it at the end of a word. For'rf» 
for it ; y/i'dy with it ; deunV, done it ; thraanW, thrown it ; 
blaanW, blown it; '*Stan* byW,** stand by it. "He wis oot 
i*tf,** he was out in it. '* Runnin inti'i,*' running into it. 
** Gan an by*i," go and buy it. ** They'll nivvor di*i agyen," 
do it again. " Did he deeW ?" — did he do it ? 

DAABER, DAUBER, a plasterer. (Obs.) The Rev. John 
Hodgson, in his MS, Dictionary ^ points out the passage : — 

"One bailt up a wall, and. lo, others daubed it with untempered 
mortar." — Ezekiel^ xiii., v. 10, and following verses. 

** The fraternity of bricklayers in Newcastle were anciently styled 
catUrs and daubers. The cat was a piece of soft clay moulded into the 
form of a mower's whetstone. This was thrust in between the laths, 
which were aften^ards daubed or plastered." — Brand. Hist, of Newcastle ^ 
vol. ij., p. 268, note. 

DAB, an adept. " He's a dah;' or " He's a tftfi-hand at it." 

" Sic a dabwais aw when young at readin." 

T. Wilson. Pitman s Pay, 1829, pt. iii,, v. 103. 

DAB, a sharp blow. "A dab of clarts" is a piece of mud 
thrown and stuck on where it has fallen. 

" Aa myeks a dab at the bit imp." — His Other Eye, 1880, p. 5. 

•• Starlings stun worms by a dab on the narrow end." — ^James Hardy, 
Hist, of Berwickshire Naturalists' Club, vol. vii., p. 295. 

DAB, to aim a blow. 

" Small boys may be seen — prone on their stomachs— craning over the 
edge of the quay, and, with harpoons, ingeniously manufactured, 
generally out of steel pronged forks, aabbing at the floating treasures."— 
R. J. Charlton, Newcastle Town^ 1885. p. 313. 

DABBER, a pointed retort. " That's a dahhcr for him." A 
*' hitchey dabber" is the piece of earthenware used in the game 
of "hitchey beds." 


DAB-CHICK, the little grebe. See Dob-chick. 

DAD, to strike with a heavy blow, but with something soft, as 
a pillow or a towel, &c. " Aa*ll dad yor jaa.*' ** He dadded his 
hide." Also to throw down heavily. '* Divvent dad it doon 
that way.** 

DAD, a heavy blow. •* He gat sic a dad as he'll not forget,*' 

'* He ga the noisy thing dads agyen the waal." 

James Horsley, Jim an' the Clocks 1883. 

DAD, a large piece, (Scarce.) 

*' An' lumps o' beef, an' dads o' duff, 
Was there for folks to dine." 

J. P. Robson, ''Pitman's Happy Times:' 
Bards of the Tyne, 1849, p. 77. 

DAD, to dash out a small fire of gas (in a pit), or a small 
accumulation of gas, with a jacket. — GreenwelL 

DADDIN, mixing firedamp in a pit with fresh air by duffing it 
with a jacket so as to dilute it and render it harmless. 

DADDLE, DAWDLE, to walk unsteadily, to waggle, to 

DADDLE, the hand. See also Meag, Pastie, Loop, Paw. 

" When Hamlick stuck his daddle oot, 
To grip his feyther's paw, man, 
He gav a kind o' croopy shoot 
To find the caud styen \va', man." 

J. P. Robson, Hamlick, Prince 0' Denton, pt. i. 
Bards of the Tyne^ 1848, p. 129. 

DADGE, DODGE, to walk in a vacillating way. Dade is 
used elsewhere. 

" As nade is related to waddle, so is dade to daddle." — Wedgwood. 
DADGE, a large piece. See Dad. 

DAE, or DEYE-NETTLE, the h^mi^ neiil^y Galeopsis tctrahit. 
It is often called the deed (dead) nettle. 

DAFF, to daunt.— i?a>/'5 Gloss. (Obs.) 

" Claudio : Away, I will not have to do with you. 
Leonato : Can'st thou so daffe me ?" 

Much Ado About Nothing , act v., sc. i. 
Quoted in Nares* Gloss. 


DAFFIN [N.l, merrymaking. 

" Yoa woa'd ha' burstne your heart wi' laaghing 
To^'e seen the gang sae full o' daffint[.*' 

G. Stuart. Joco-Serious Disrourse, 1686. p. 39. 

'• Baffin wi' the hunter callants." 

Jas. Armstrong. IVanny Blossoms, p. 20. 

DAFFLE, to be doting, to be forgetful. Persons growing old 
and in their dotage are said to daffle. The word means to 
betray loss of memory and mental faculty. — Hodgson MS. 
Maffle is a similar expression for the above. 

DAFFLIN, fooling, merriment. Probably a variant of daffin. 
See Daffin. 

DAFT, silly. 

" Can the silly djft Carles think we'll still be fools?" 

G. Stuart. Joco-Serious Discourse, 1686. 

" Thou'll drive me daft, aw often dreed." 

T. Wilson, Pitman's Pay, 1824, ed. 1872. p. 8. 

" Stupid, blockish, daunted : from the word daf. Also, mad.— 
Northumbfrlandr—Ray's Ghss., MS. njtt. 

DAFTY, a silly person. ** Ve'll hit somebody, ye dafty'' 

DAFT-LIKE, fond or silly. " That was a daft-like trick, noo." 

DAG, to rain, to drizzle. •• It's daggin on." •* It*s daggin 

DAG, a pistol. (Obs.) 

"To Francis Liddell, his rapier; to Thomas Liddell. brother of 
Francis, his dagg," — Will of \Vm. Anderson. Feb. i. 1568. — Richard 
Welford. Hist. o/SuzxastU and Gateshgjd XVI. Cent., p. 418. 

" My dag, with the case, and all things thereto belonging." — The seum, 

V 377- 

" The Maior of New-Castle with the Aldermen his Bretheren rid to 
visit on hors-back the colepits, as their office is to do every quartrer 
of yeer, where by the waye he was shot with a dt^ into the arme. which 
caused him to fall o£f his horse." — DoUfml Snrs from Edinburgh, 1641, 
quoted by Brockett. 

DAGGER-MONEY, a present made to the Judge of Assize as 
he left Newcastle by what is described in North's Life of ike 
iMri Ki$p^Guiifwd as ** the hideous road along by the Tyne." 
** BeCore leaving/' the biographer says, *' the Northumberland 
Sb^triff ffave us all arms ; that is, a dagger, knife, pen-knife, 

*her«'' The Mayor of Newcastle gave each 
» of gold. In 1 56 1 this is mentioned as 


the " reward of the judges, 30s.,** and in 1566 as **two old 
ryalls for their fee, 30s.,*' also los. to " the clerke of assis." 
In 1595 we find a payment for '*2 old spurr riolls geven to 
the judges of the assizes, yeirlie accustomde 15s. 6d. per 
peece, 31s.,** and, in 1659, the fee occurs under the form of 
•*two rose nobles'* of 42s. 6d. value. — G. B. Richardson, 
Note to Municipal Accounts, p. 1 19. The payment was continued 
until the route of the judges was altered a few years ago. 

DAGGY, DAGGLY, wet, drizzly. ** It's vdnry daggy thi' day." 
See Dag. 

DAINTIS, a delicacy, a dainty, a tit-bit ; a dish rarely cooked 
or served, but toothsome. *' It's quite a daintisJ' (Scarce.) 

DAIRN, to darn. '* Aa canna find me dairnin needle." 

DAIRNS, small, unmarketable fish. — Brockett, (? Obs.) 

DAKER-HEN, or DEAKER-HEN, the corncrake or landrail. 

DAL ! sometimes OD-DAL ! modified damn. One may hear 
Northumbrians speak thus: **Da// aa'll tell ye what!'* 
" Od'dal ! what a pity ! *' 

DALE, a valley, or vale. Tynedale, Allenrfa/^, Kidsdale^ &c. 
Dale occurs thirteen times in Northumberland. — Place-names 
in Northumberland, — Archaologia ^liana^ vol. ix., p. 61. 

DALE, a deal board. See Dyel, 2. 

DALL, to tire, as a horse with a long continuance of slow 
work. Applied also to people. ** It's a varry dallin job,** a 
common expression. 

DAMP, gas ; the dampf of the Germans. The word is applied 
to the gases generated in a coal pit, as hre-damp, or black- 
damp (stytke), and after-rfaw/, or choke-damp. 

" The German damp/ is explained by Adelung, * any thick smoke, mist, 
or vapour, especially when it is of sulphureous nature."' — Wedgwood's 

DAMSELS, the damson, or Damascene plum. (Obs.) 

** Paide for daymselUsy Jib., 2s." — Newcastle Municipal Accounts, October, 

DANDER, anger, passion. ** His dander's gettin' up." 


DANDER, DAUNDER, to walk leisurely. 

" Aw tuik a luik aboot the toon, 
And efter danderin up an doon, 
To see what folks war deein." 

T. Wilson, Openinj of Newcastle and Carlisle 
Railu'ay, 183S. 
*' He dandered sAsLnf^r 

Geordy^s Last, 1878, p. 9. 

We "far up Whyte Kielder did daunder.^'^JaLS, Armstrong, Wanny 
Blossoms, 1879, P- 132- 

DANDER, the slaggy cinders from a smithy or foundry. 

DANDY, Andrew. 

DANDY, fine, gay; hence** the dandy,'* the very thing. A 
fine carriage is called ** the dandy,'' 

" Hoo many men get thor heed torned wi* dandy words." 

His Other Eye, 1880. p. 4. 
" March to the Dandy Fish Market." 

W. Midford, song, *• The Netn Fish Markets 
Bards of the Tyne, 1849, p. 196. 
" Rosy ^ine, and nectar prime, 
For gods and men the dandvV 

T. Wilson, Carter's Well. 

Hence dandy-candy, gaily coloured or ornamental candy. 
Compare Candyman. Describing the old Tyne Bridge, Mr. 
J. P. Robson sings : — 

*' But, spite o' their ravish an' root, 
Blue-steyny is still to the fore, man ; 
The apple- wives on her still shout, 
Dandy candy's still sel'd in galore, man." 

J. P. Robson, " The High Level Bridget 
Bards of the Tyne, 1849, p. 429. 

DANDY-HORSE, the old velocipede, propelled by touching 
the ground with the feet ; now superseded by the ** cycles.*' 

DANG (/>./. of ding), struck with violence. **Deevil, deevil, 

dang ye, aa wish God may hang ye,*' is shouted in chorus by 

children to the robber of a bird's nest. 

" Ane tuik him on the heid and dang out all his hames" (brains).-— 
Letter, 1565, Rowland Fester from Wark, in Charlton's North TynedaU, 
p. 69. 

*' At last a great thrust dang him ower, 
He lay aw his lang length o' the flags." 

Wm. Midford, song, The Mayor of Bordeaux, 1818. 

" She withered about, and dang down all the gear." 

Sawney Ogilby's Duel. 
•• We shouted some, and seme dung down." 

J. Selkirk, Sualuell H of ping. 
" They dang wi* trees, and burst the door." 

The Ballad of Jamie Telfer. 


DANG, an expletive. Compare Dal. 

DANGER BOARD, a board fixed in a mine to give notice, at 
a sufficient distance, of danger to be apprehended by the 
presence of noxious or inflammable gas. 

DANT, DENT, soft, inferior, sooty coal, found at backs, and 

at the leaders of hitches and troubles. — GreenwelL 

•' Dent, or sandstone shale." — Prof. Geikie, Hist, of, Bwks. Nat. Club, 
vol. X., p. 147. 

Danty is applied to describe any stratum of this soft, sooty 
nature. ^^ Danty coal," ^^ Danty band.** Danty coal is also 
called **foul coal.** 

" BX^cVdanty metal mixed with coal." — Borings and Sinkings, F.K., p. 42. 

'* Coal, black, danty, good for nothing." — The same, p. 51. 

"Danty stuflf." — The same, p. 53. 

•• Danty swad." — The same, L.R., p. 148. 

DAR, to dare to, to challenge. ** Come near me, if ye day,'* 
" Aall dar ye de that agyen.*' " Aa da/d him ti the door,*' or 
" Aa dar'd him oot to fight." ** Aa dar say" is equivalent to 
'* I dare say,** or ** I suppose.'* See Dor. 

DARE, the dace, Cyprinus leuciseus, a small river fish, rather 
less than a herring. Also called a skclly. 

DARG, DARGUE, DORG, a day's work. **A day*s darg." 

At Halton the tenantry are required to give one day's labour 

on the estate in the year for which no payment is made. 

This is called "the bond darg" P'ood is supplied, with 

beer, on the occasion. In ancient terriers dagg is used as an 

equivalent for a certain quantity of land. Probably as much 

as can be ploughed in one day*s work ; or a day's work of 

mowing, as in the Elsdon terrier we have " 9 dorgs of meadow 

lying east ** and ** 4 dorgs in the Todholes Haugh.*' {Hodgson 

MS.) ** 13 rigs being 4 dorg.'' (Hodgson's Northumberland, 

pt. ij., vol. i., p. 92, note.) A darg is occasionally used to 

mean any set work. ** He went three darg'' — he went three 

journeys; not necessarily day's journeys. [S.] "A mow 

darg" is a day's mowing. " A shear darg'* is a day's reaping. 

(See examples under these words.) ** Each tenant is to 

perform yearly a mow dargue.** (Hodgson's Northumberland, 

vol. iii., pt. ii., p. 144, note p,) 

•Thou's often help'd te buss the tyup, 
And mun knaw a' the joy we fand ; 
When labour's yearly darg was up, 
An' lots o' gaudy days at hand." 

T. Wilson, Pitman's Pay, 2nd ed., pt. iii, 

Middleton H. Dand, Esq., of Acklington, writes: *' Darg, a 
day's work. A ploughman was formerly expected to plough 


an acre per day : hence the name of a field at Amble Moor- 
house (my property) * the four and twenty darg^^ consisting 
of twenty-four acres." A not uncommon sarcasm is to say 
to a lazy fellow : * Ay, yeVe deun a darg^ aa's sure.' " " In 
mining, davg is a fixed quantity of coal to be worked for a 
certain price. This word is seldom heard in Newcastle 
mines, but it is the general term in use about Berwick. It is 
equivalent to the hewing or score price of the Newcastle 
collieries.** {GreenwelL) 

DARK, blind ; ALMOST DARK, nearly blind ; QUITE 
DARK, stone blind. (Obs.) 

"Pity a quite dark man." — Brockett, 

DARK, to eaves-drop ; to watch for an opportunity of injuring 
others for one*s own benefit. — HalliweWs Did, (Obs.) 

DARKIN, eaves-dropping. (Obs.) 

DARKNIN*, twilight. " It v/as darknin* afore we gat hyem." 
** He waaked back i* the darknin',*' 

DARN. " To the South end of Pitt Moore butts, then up to a 
Darn road to the March stone." {Bounder of Old Beufick in 
Hist, of Bwks, Nat, Club, vol. v., p. 256.) A "dark way*' is 
mentioned in the previous paragraph. Darn and dark are 
I bus probably synonymous for obscure, secret. The word is 
found in the street called Darn Crook in Newcastle, which 
was formerly a cul-di-sac, "A tenement or burgage, vulgarly 
called the priest*s chamber, as it lies and is situate in a certain 
vennel called Darne cruke." (Deed of 1525, in R. Welford's 
Hist, of Newcastle, ii., p. 87.) Derne means secret, and a ^^denu 
street** is a street where concealment or hiding may be had. 

"They loked est, they loked west, 
They might no man see. 
But as they loked in Barnysdale, 

By a (Ume strete 
Then came there a knight rydynge, 
Full sone they gan him mete." 

"Geste o/Robyn Hode," 

The Ballad Book, Allingham, p. no. 

To derne is to hide oneself, to skulk. Associated with this is 
dearnly, in which, from secretly, the meaning passes to lonely, 
and so to mournfully, and in this way Spenser uses it, when 
Alcyon, ** breaking foorth at last, thus deamelie plained." 
(Spenser, Daphnaida, 1. 196.) And so also demly is used as 
secretly. "The lady dernly called unto her to abstain.** (Faery 
Quun^ iii,, xii., 34.) Derne in Old English was of course 


spoken as darn, as it is to this day in Northumberland, and no 
doubt the name of the street originates in this plain Old 
English word. A writer in Nature suggests the derivation of 
dam from Normandy and Brittany, where it means a piece, a 
portion, in the patois of those parts. (Jos. Lucas, Nature, 
vol. xxxvi. (1887^, p. 339.) But the home origin of the word 
is more reasonable. "Crook" is suggested to be connected 
with the bends of the Lort Burn, which flowed through Darn 
Crook. The "crooks" of Forth are famihar, a "crook" 
meaning " a bend in the water." 

DARN IT, DARNUT, durst not. See Darrent, 

"Aw darnit tell my brother." 

J. P. Robson, Lovesick Collier Lass^ 1848. 

" The cat's the pictur o* distress— 
The kittlens darnut play, 
Poor Pincher niver shows his fyece, 
Upon this dreary day." 

T. Wilson, The Washing Day. 

DARRAK, a set-piece of work. See Darg. 

DAR-SAY ! with a strong emphasis is **No, I wont!" See 

DARWENTWATTER, the pronunciation of name of the earl 
of that ilk. The tragic details of the history of James, Earl 
of Derwentwater, who was executed on 24th Feb., 17 16, for 
participation in the wretched "rising" of the time are 
sufficiently familiar to every Northumbrian. On the fateful 
night the " Deel's watter" at Dilston ran blood. "The red 
streamers of the north are recorded to have been seen** (says 
Mr. Forster in his History of Corhridge, p. i6o) " for the first 
time in this part of England, on the night of the fatal 24th 
Feb., 1 716, and are designated, * Lord Derwent water's 
lights.*'* This is still the common name for the Aurora 
Borealis in the district. 

DASED, benumbed. See Daze. 

DASHING AIR, in mining, mixing air and gas together, until, 
by being completely incorporated, the mixture ceases to be 
inflammable. This is done by giving the air, after its first 
union with the fire-damp, a considerable length of run or 
course. — GreenwelL Compare Daddin. 

DAUD [N.] , to abuse. Compare Dad. 

" Daud^ or gie him weel his souses, 

For ilk bad trick." 
PoemSf by F. Donaldson, Glanton, 1809, p. 13. 


DAUR [N.] , to dare, to forbid. Constantly used in Northum- 
berland. See Dor. 

DAVE, to assuage, to mitigate, to relieve. — Brochetty 3rd ed. 

DAVER, to stun with a blow, to stupefy. " He hat him sic a 
yark alang the jaa 'at it daverH him." " A davered aad man " 
is a superannuated or silly old man. 

** Was thor ivver sec a davered fuil ?'* 

Geordy's Last, 1878, p. 13. 

DAVER, a stunning blow. **A daver, a devesher agyen the 
metal pump " (Misfortunes of Roger and his Wife), A daveskn 
is a blow that has stunned or felled. 

DAVY, DEAVY, the familiar name for Sir Humphrey Davy's 
safety lamp. 

DAVY-MAN ; the man who trims and repairs the Dav}' 

DAW, DOW, to thrive. (Obs.) 

*• He neither dees nor daws," i.e., he neither dies nor mends." — Roy'i 
Gloss, f 1691. 

DAW, to dawn ; DAWIN, dawning. 

DAWB, to plaster. (Obs.) 

" Paid for spares, latts. nales and dawbing of a chimney in the Almes 
house, 8s. id. "^Gateshead Church Books, 1631. 

DAWBER, a plasterer. An ordinary of the incorporated 
company of slaters of Newcastle, dated March i6th, 16771 
separated them from the company of wallers, bricklayers, and 
dau'bers, alias plasterers. — Mackenzie, Hist, of Newcastle, p. 6g7' 
See Daaber. 

DAY, the surface of the ground, the top of a pit shaft, the 
" bank." A stratum is said at its outcrop to have ** cropped 
out to the day.'* 

•• Horses to draw your coals to bank (or day)." — The CompUat CoUitft 
1708, p. 32. 

" The corf is drawn up to the top (of the shaft), or to day^ as it is their 

DAY.FA', a pitfall. 


DAY HOLE, an adit or level working from the surface. Called 
also, day-drift and grove. 

DAY-SHIFT, when a concern is worked night and day, day 
men are called the day-shift, and night men night-shift . 

DAYS-MAN, an arbitrator; an umpire or judge. — Ray's Gloss. 
" An old word still in use among the farmers." — Brockett. 

D AY-STON ES, loose stones lying weathered upon the surface. — 
Hugh Miller, Geology of Otterburn aiid Elsdon. — Geological Survey 
Memoir f 1887. 

DAYTALE-MAN, a man employed by the day. 

" A labourer not engaged by a master for a certain time, but working 
for any person who will employ him by the day or by the week." — 
S. Oliver, the Younger, RambUs in Northumberland, 1835, p. 93, note. 

DAYTALIN, jobbing at odd day's works. 

DAY WATER, water which penetrates into the mine through 
some direct opening to the surface. — Mining Gloss. Newcastle 
Terms f 1852. 

DAZE, to stun. Dazed, stunned, stupefied. Dazed is applied 
also to ill-done bread or meat ; that is, when they have been 
too long at a slow fire and have in consequence lost flavour. 
The wood of a tree that has been allowed to lie too long with 
the bark on after it has been felled, and has been injured 
thereby, is termed ** corky " or dazed. Hence dazed-like, 
benumbed-like, as from cold or fright ; and dazedness, 
numbness, as from cold or exhaustion. " AaVe a dazedness V 
that left airm." See Deased, Deasy, and Dozzened. 

*' A dazed look, such as a person has when frighted." — Ray*s Gloss. 

** A dazed-egg is one in which the young has grown much, but is found 
to be dead at the time of hatching." — Hodgson MS. 

DE, do. Before a vowel de becomes div. ** Hoo div aa knaa ?" 
" To de wor turn *' means having enough to live upon. See 

" Thou hes a witching way o' myekin me de what thou will." — Pitman's 
Pay, 1826, p. 13. 

•• We a'ways had te de wor turn 
And something for a time o' need." 

T. Wilson, Pitman's Pay, pt. iii., v. 118. 

DEADS. See Deeds. 



DEAL, DALE, DOLE, to divide. " Acrerfn/^-lands" are 
lands divided in acre strips. A dole of land is a piece of land 
dealt or doled out, an allotment or apportionment. See Dvel. 
'■ From thence as heaven water dtals." — Discriplioii c/ a Bouaiary — 
Hodgson's NoiihainhtrUnd. pi, iii„ 2, p, 24. 

DEALT-AN'-DEUN, served out and finished. 
■'After a' Ynadtall aa' dm'ii," 

T. Wilson, Prlmax's Pty. iSig, pt. lii,. v. 95. 

DEAN, a deep wooded valley. See Dene. 

DEAR KNAAS! An exclamation equivalent to "I do not 
know,"' or " Nobody knows," " Hes he been yit?" "Doit 
kiiaas." "Dear kiiaas what aa's Ran te dee?" "He's been 
dear kiiaas hoo lang away." "What the poUis wantit dtar 

DEARN, lonely, solitary, far from neighbours. — Ray's Gloss, 
See Darn. (Obs.) 

DEAS, DEIS, a stone bench at the door of a cottage, some- 
times covered with sods. The deis was "the principal table 
in a hall, or the raised part of the floor on which it was 
placed. Also, the principal seat at this table. There were 
sometimes more than the one, the high deis being the principal 
deis in a royal hall." (Halliwell's Did.) Mr. Wedgwood 
shows its derivation from French dais or daiz, a cloth of 
estate, canopy — old French dais, deis, a table, from discus. 
The name was then transferred to the raised step on which 
the high table was placed, or the canopy over it. In Raine's 
History of North Durham, in an inventory of goods in the 
Faren Islands in 1436. there is an entry of a •' Piece of 
blood -coloured tapestry for the desse." See Dess. 

DEASED, wanting the life principle, as a dried up plant, or 
wood that has lost its sap, Wlicn bread has been baked ia 
a siow oven and not thoroughly " soaked," it is said to be deased. 
Wood beginning to rot is dcased. A man in a deased condition 
is one utterly dispirited and depressed. See Da/e and 


DEASY, dull, spiritless, depressed. As applied to the weather, 
"a deasy day" is a dull, damp, cheerless day. 

DEAVE, to deafen, to stupefy with noise. 

■* Wi' llior hair reet on end. and ihor blud like to freeie, 
Myest diavtd v.\' greet yells ; tiley dropped doon on Ihor knees." 


DEAZIL, a deazil is a walk round by the sun. " Withershirs" 
is to go contrary to the sun's course. 

DEBATABLE LANDS, lands between the boundaries of 
England and Scotland where the demarcation of each 
kingdom had not been set out. These lands will be seen 
on maps down to recent times, and in A New Map of 
Northumberland^ by John Gary, 1828, they are called ** disputed 
grounds.** They had a bad name in former days. These 
territories are also called battable and threap-lands. 

" This degraded land gave rise to that celebrated joke upon King 
James's favourite Cotf, which he brought from Scotland when he acceded 
to the crown. She. having no taste for English manners, silently 
retreated without even a farewell to the monarch, and was the only 
personage in his whole train that ever returned to Scotland. When the 
courtiers expressed their surprise how she could find the way, as she 
could speak neither Scotch nor English, the King replied, that did not 
excite his wonder so much as how she could travel over the dehatahle 
ground without being stolen." — Hist, of the Roman Wall, W. Hutton, 1802. 

DECK, the platform of a cage in a pit upon which the tubs 
stand. — GreenwelL 

DECLINE, DECLININ, consumption. " He's in a declinin'* 

DEE, DE, to do—/./, deed ; p.p. deen (heard at Wooler) ; and 
deeun^ or deughn. 

•• He hes eneough to de to get it o* deughn." — Thos. Bewick, The Howdy , 
&c., ed. 1850, p. II. 

" Three o' the bullies lap oot. 

An' left nyen but the little Pee Dee. 
He ran aboot stamping and crying. 
* How, smash I skipper, what mun aw dee ?' " 

Song, '* Little Pee Dee." 

A llan 's Collection .p. 194 . 

Dee, to die. 

" If thou '11 have me. faith I'll have thee, 
And love thee till the day I dee." 

Ed. Chicken, The Collier's Wedding, 1735. 

Deeifif dying ; /./. dee-en. " He'd dee-en afore ma time." 

" Deiand ai and never ded."— Cursor Mundi. 

I^EED, died. The pJ. and /./. of dee. 

** Paide for the chairge of buringe Dorathie Ogle, which deed in the 
Newiate," &c. — Newcastle Municipal Accounts, July, 1565. 

" Noo. Cuddy Willy's deed an' gyen, 
Aw's sure ye'll a* be sorry." 

J. G. Bagnall, Cuddy Willy's Deeth. 


DEED, death. The use is common in such expressions as 

" Tewed to dud;' " Flaid to dud;' " Done to dud^' "Worked 

to deed;' " Deed thraw "—death throe. 

" Alle manere of ioyes er in that stede, 
Thare es ay ly£e withouten iedt.*^ 

Hampole. d. 1349. Prickt ofConsdenee, 
Morris, line 7,8x3. 

DEED, stagnant. An unventilated place in a pit is said to be 

DEED, indeed. " Deed, will aa not ! "— •* Indeed, I will not ! " 
"Geud deed!** occurs as an exclamation in a Jfaco-Serious 
Discourse, 1686, by G. Stuart. Deed is used so emphatically 
as to express more than a mere shortening of indeed. It 
is probably an abbreviation of " geud deed" 

DEED-HOOSE, a mortuary house. 

DEED-KNOCK, a supposed warning of death, a mysterious 
noise. — HalliwelVs Diet. 

DEEDLY, deadly. 

He " tried to shun the deedly blast." 

T. Wilson, Pitman^s Pay, 1827, pt. ii., v. 53. 

DEEDLY-FEADE, a blood feud. 

" If the (Tynedale or Redesdale) theaf be of any great somame or 
kyndred. and be lawfully executed by order of justice, the rest of his 
kynne or surname beare as much mallice, which they call deadly fmdi, 
against such as followe the lawe against their oossen the thoif, as though 
he had unlawfully kylled hym with a sword, and Mrill by all means they 
can seeke revenge there uppon." — Sir Robert Bowes*: Report, 155 1. 

" If any two be displeased, they expect no law. but bang it out bravely, 
one and his kindred against the other and his. This fighting they call 
iheixfeides or deadly feides.*' — Gray, Chorographiat 1649. 

DEED-MAN, a dead man. It is remarkable that so many 
attributes of the dead are repeated in the local common 
names of plants. 

DEED-MAN'S BELLOWS, the red rattle, Pedicularis /niltistris. 
Also the creeping bugle, Ajuga reptans. 

DEED-MEN'S BELLS, the purple foxglove, Digitalis /mrpurea. 

DEED-MAN'S BONES, the great starwort, Stellaria kolcstea. 

DEED-MEN'S FING-ERS, the marsh orchis, Orchis laiifolia. 
Called also DeiTs foot, Adam and Eve, Cain and Ahd, and 
cock*$ kames. 


DEED-MAN'S GRIEF, the Silene mariUma. 

DEED-MAN'S HAND, the spotted orchis, Orchis maculata. 
Known also as hen's kames and adder grass. 

DEED-MAN'S THUMB, the early orchis. Orchis mascula (or 
AarofCs heard). 

DEED-MAN'S OATMEAL, the seeds of hemlock, Conium 
maculatum. Called also bad-man's oatmeal. 

DEED-NIP, a blue mark on the body, ascribed to necromancy. — 
Brockett. (Obs.) 

DEED-PIG. A deed'pig signifies that it is all over with 
anything. <' Noo, noo, canny judge, play the reet caird, and 
it's a deed'pig " — said by a mayor of Newcastle when playing 
whist with Judge Buller. 

DEEDS, DEADS, the small stones, spoil, or refuse from a 
quarry, or an excavation. Compare Red. 

" The heaps of deeds, or earth dug; from the ditch of the murui.** — 
Hodgson's Northumberland, iii.. 2, p. 282. 

" No. I Pit for the drawing of the deads from the Iron Mines." — 
Borings and Sinkings, A.B.. p. 84. 

DEED-SMAAL, the finest coal dust. 

DEED-SWEERS, very lazy, very unwilling. — Brockett, 3rd. ed. 

DEED-THRAA, death throe, the pangs of death. See Deed. 

" A man, when he first borne es, 
Bygynnes towarde the dede to drawe, 
And feles here many a dede thraw. 
Als sere yvels and angers when thai byfalle, 
That men may the dede thraws calls." 

Hampole, d. 1349. Pricke of Conscience, 
M orris t line, 2097. 

DEEP, deaf. 

DEEP, barren, useless, decayed. A deef nut is a nut with an 
empty or decayed kernel. 

•• Twou'd vex a man to th* very Guts, 
To sit seaven year cracking ^a/Nuts.'* 

G. Stuart, Joco-Seriovs Discourse^ 1686 p. 42. 

Deef earth, barren soil. Deef corn, blasted com. A deef pap is 
the teat of a cow that does not render milk. 


DEEF-STENT, DEFE-STENT, a payment of money to a 
hind in lieu of cowgrass. Hinds were sometimes paid in 
kind by farm produce. In this was included the pasturage 
of a cow, but for the period in which the cow gave no milk, 
before the time of calving, a money equivalent was paid 
called the duf-stent. This was often as much as £2^ ^^^ 
it was the only cash payment received for wages, except the 
" bondager*s " wage, which was generally lod. per day in 
harvest time. 

DEEFY, an empty thing, as a nut without a kernel — Whence a 
worthless thing with an outwardly good appearance. A deaf 

DEEP-SITTEN, eggs in which the young birds are almost 
ready to hatch out. " She hes fower eggs dcep-sitten.'' 

DEER'S-HAIR, the tufted scirpus, orscaley stalked clubmoss, 
Scirpus ccespitosus, 

DEER-STREET, DEOR-STREET, the name given to a 
Roman road at West Glanton. It is also the ancient name 
in the county of Durham. 

DEET, to set in order, to tidy, to clean. See Dight. 

DEETH-HE ARSE, death-hearse ; when the death-hiarse, drawn 
by headless horses, and driven by a headless driver, is seen 
about midnight proceeding rapidly, but without noise, towards 
the churchyard, the death of some considerable person in the 
parish is sure to happen at no distant period. — S. Oliver, 
Rambles in Northumberland, 1835, p. 96. 

DEG, to drizzle. See Dag. 

DEHYIM, DEEYEM, a dame, a matron. See Devem. 

DEIL, DEEL, DEEVIL, or DIVIL. This word plays an 
important part in the ''strange oaths *' formerly prevalent. 
It was used as an expression of impatience or contempt in 
manifold combination, such as *' Deel tyek ye ! " ** Ded smash 
ye ! " " Dul brust ye ! " " Deel stop oot thee een ! " And even 
m such remarkable invocations as *' Deel fetch't ! " *' Deel 
scart yor nether part ! " " Deel rive ma sark ! " 

DEIL*S*DARNIN-NEEDLE, Venus's comb, or shepherd^s 
iieedle» ScmdU pedm-venms. Called also witch's needle and 

"*T htM noeotly heard it called elskims, U. awls; and the M's 
**— |UMS Haray, Bc^. Nat. CM, vol. vi^ 1869-72. p. 159. 


DEIL*S-FOOT, the marsh orchis, Orchis latifolia. Called also 
Cocks kameSy deed men^s fingers^ Adam and Eve, and Cain and Abel, 

DEIL'S-LINGELS, knot-grass, Polygonum aviculare. Called 
also swine^s grass, 

DELFS, small pits, which the country people call delfs, no doubt 
from delving or digging. These places are invariably attended 
with a stratum of ironstone not far from the surface. — Rev. J. 
Hodgson, Archaologia ^ liana, vol. i, p. 120. 

DELIVERY DRIFT, a drift from low ground into a pit shaft 
into which water is delivered from the pump. Called also 
off 'take drift. — GreenwelL 

DELL, a little dale, or narrow valley. Still used in the North. — 
HdliwelVs Diet. 

DELVEN, delved, p.p. of delve. " He might he' delcen the side 


DEM, to dam back water. 

DEMEAN, to lower oneself. " Aa waddent demean mesel to de 
sic a thing.*' 

DEN, the place where the scythe is laid into the sued. To 
den is to fit a scythe to the sned or handle. " Git that scythe 
denn'd as sune as ivvor ye can." 

DEN, the point or place in boys' chase games from which they 
set out and on regaining cannot be taken. 

DENCH, DENCK, squeamish, dainty. (Rare.) 

DENE, DEAN, DEN, a valley through which a burn flows. 
The Lort burn, crossed by the High Bridge and the Low 
Bridge, flowed down what is now Dean Street in Newcastle. 
Pandon Dean was once a thing of beauty, as old pictures show. 
In *• a song published in September, 1776," on Pandon Dean, 
the poetess describes a distant view of 

" Antique walls which join the scene, 
And make more lovely Pandon Dean.** 

" A dene is a wooded valley — a very narrow opening crowded with 
wood.'* — W. Morley Egglestone, Weardale Names, p. 57. 

There are twenty -seven places with dean and twenty-three with den 
on the one inch ordnance map of Northumberland. — Archueologia 
JEliana, vol. ix., p. 64. 

In the county of Durham appear twenty deans and twenty-two 
dens. — Place-Names, County Durham. — Archaologia Mliana, vol. x., p. 174 


DEPLOID, a cloak. (Obs.) 

" To Launcelot Metcalfe, a deploid and 5s. in silver." — Will of Wm. 
Bone, 1501. — Richard Welford, Hist, of NewMstU in XVI. Cent., p. 3. 


"The man who lays the plates and sets the timber for the hewers, 
and has charge of a district of the mine." — Mining Gloss. Newcastlt Terms, 

*' The deputies go to work an hour before the hewers. Their work 
consists of supporting the roof with props of wood, removing props from 
old workings, changing the air currents when necessary, and clearing 
away any sudden eruption of gas or fall of stone that might impede the 
work of the hewer.' — Dr. R. Wilson, Coal Miners of Durham and 
Northnmberland. — Trans, of Tyneside Naturalists' Club, vol. vi., p. 203. 

" On descending to work, each hewer proceeds ' in by,' to a place 
appointed, to meet the diputy. The deputy examines each man's lamp, 
and if found safe, returns it locked to the owner. Each man then 
finding from the deputy that his place is right, proceeds onwards to bis 
kyevel.** — The same, p. 204. 

'* Aw gat, at furst, a shifter's place. 
And then a deputy was myed." 

T. Wilson. PitwMn*s Pay, 1829, pt. iii., v. 99. 

DERN, dismal, dreary. See Darn. 

DESARVE, to deserve. 

DESS, DESSE, to lay close together, to (Usse wool, straw, &c.— 
Ray^s Ghss.f 1691. 

DESS, that portion of a haystack which is in process of being 
cut and used as required. "A d^ss of hay." In a round 
stack the centre, len after it had been tUsstd, was called a 
«* gowk/* 

** Ling, diest hassocks, flaggs, straw, sedge, &c."— Harrison's England, 

DESS, a step or raised place, a bench. See Dkas. 

DEULL, DOLE, DOOL, grief, woe. 

** The soiow and dnte that thai sal make.**— Hampole, d. 1549, Pri^hi of 

DEULFOW, doleful. 

** What garr*b the a iniifofr i6*ke complain ?"--G. Stoart. Joco-Serious 

D£UMS. WIT, uncommoDly. " Demms slaw," or " dry," or any 

% lequiies dmm to give it great effect, is very 


DEUN-OWER, overdone with exertion. 

" When wbeit dyun ower the fiddlers went." 

J . Selkirk. Swalwill Hopping. 

"Then Geordy did caper till myestly dtnn ower.** 

Song, Newcastle Wonders. 

DEVALD, to cease. 

•* It's rained the hyel day an* ne'er devaUed." — Roihbury. 

DEVEL, to beat, to maul. " He's getten hissel sair devcllcd** 
It is more applicable to a person who has come out injured in 
a meUe, than to one who has been beaten in a personal 

DEVESHER, a heavy fall, a crash. This word occurs in the 
song of The Misfortunes of Roger and his Wife. The wife fell a 
devesher against the pump — ^that is, fell with a crashing blow. 

DEVIL'S CAUSEY, a branch from the Roman way— Watling 
Street — which goes off at Bewclayin a north-eastern direction, 
crossing the Tweed about a mile north of West Ord. It is 
also called Cobb*s causey. 

DEVIL'S GUTS, the creeping ranunculus, Ranunculus repens. 
Also the field convolvulus, Convolvulus arvensis, 

DEYEM, DYEM [T.] , a dame, a matron. «• The aad dyem 
sat aside the fire." 

DEY-NETTLE, the hedge sylvatica, Stachys sylvatica. This is 
quite distinct from the dae-nettle. 

DEYUK, DYUK [T.], Duke. **The D)uk o' Newcastle." 
•• The Deyuk o* Northumberland." 

DEYUK, DYUK [T.] , a duck. 

*' Paide John Belman for carying a flale to avoyd dukes out of the 
street, 6d." — Newcastle Municipal Accounts, 1594. 

DEYUN, DEUN, or DYUN [T.], done. DEYUN'D, done 
it. See Deun-ower. 

DHAEL, a funeral. (Obs.) Compare Deull. 

" They spak o' the great Swire's deeth — and the number oh fwoak that 
went to his dhael.*' — Thomas Bewick, The Upgetting, ed. 1850, p. 13. 

" She spack a deal about the deeth of the swire and his dhael." " His 
mother grat mair at the dhael than ony body that was there." — The sanu, 
p. 14. 


DIALING, surveying. — W.E.T^icholsoTiyCoalTradeGloss., 1888. 

DIBBOARD, the dip or inclination of a seam of coal. See 

DICKY, the head. " Aa'll naap your dicky"— 'TIL thump 
your head." Dicky, a louse. 

DICKY. «* It's aall dicky / " ** It's aal dicky win him ! " means it 
is all over with a person, or he is completely ruined. ** Up to 
dick,'' on the other hand, means absolutely perfect, either in 
dress or in the performance of a thing. " He had on his 
Sunday claes, an* wis up to dick, aa can tell ye ! ** " The 
dinner was up to dick, noo ! " 

DICKY-BIRD, a small bird. • The term is always applied 
endearingly. The Dicky-Bird Society, a society of young 
people, founded in connection with the Newcastle Weekly 
Chronicle, by Mr. W. E. Adams. The members are pledged 
to be kind to all living things, to protect them to the utmost 
of their power, to feed the birds in the winter time, and never 
take or destroy a nest. 

DI'D, do it. «* Aa wis a fyul to di'dr " Aa didn' di'd, did 
aa ? "— " I didn't do it, did I ? " 

DIDDER, to quiver with cold.— Ray's Gloss. " To dodder," 
adds the Rev. J. Hodgson. See Dother. 
•• To shiver, to tremble."— Ha//iif«//'s Did. 

DIDDER, a confused noise or bother. — Brockett, 3rd ed. 

DIE-SAND. See Dye-sand. 

DIFFICULTER, the comparative of difficult — more difficult. 
The quantity is laid on the second syllable in difficult, 
difficulties, and difficulter, 

DIGHT, DEET, DITE, to make ready, to prepare. In early 
writers it is used as a past part, in the sense of prepared. 
Thus it is applied to a hard-boiled egg : **an egge hard dight," 
(Hampole, d. 1349, Pricke of Conscience, — Morris, line 6,455.) 
And, m the same writer, " The kingdom that is prepared 
for you" is rendered "The kyngdom that til yhow es dight,'' 
{The same, line 6,149.) In this poem it also means decked: 
and the rightfeous in heaven sit in glory "rychely dight. 
(Line 8,532.) So, too, in Chaucer : — 

'* £r it was day, as sche was wont to do, 
Sche was arisen, and al redy dight ; 
For May will have no sloggard yea night." 

Knighte*s Tale, line 1.042. 


And in Milton : — 

" The high embowed roof, 
With antick pillar massy proof, 
And storied windows richly dight." 

II penserosOt line 157. 

To prepare is thus seen passing^ into the sense of decking and 
of dressing. Hence to dight off is to undress. 

''The ploughman he comes home fu' late, 
When he wi* wark is weary ; 
Digkts off his shirt, that is se wet ; 
And supper makes him cheery." 

Song, " The Ploughman:'— BelVs Rhymes^ 1812. 

The word becomes most frequently used in the dialect, how- 
ever, in the sense of tidying, setting in order, and, so, of 

" Item, paid to Robert Thompson for dyghting the Cayll Croose (Cail 
Cross) this quarter, i2d." — Newcastle Municipal Accounts, November, 1561. 

*' Paid for dighting the Merchants' hall and the court against the feste, 
6d." — The same, October, 1595. 

" Dighting the fore-street, and carrying away the rubbish, il. 6s. 8d." — 
Gateshead Accounts, February, 1637. 

" No armourer of the said town shall from henseforth take any dagger 
to dight, or make clean, except the same dagger be made of a sword- 
blade."— Orrf^r 0/ Mayor of Newcastle, July 2, 1579. — R. Welf6rd, Hist. 0/ 
Newcastle in XVI. Cent., p. 512. 

" Your dirty sleeves away will dight 
The slobber of tobacco-brown." 

Song, Newcastle Swineherd's Proclamation, 1822. 

^* Dight yor eyes" means wipe your eyes ; and so '^ Dight the 
chair," wipe the chair, or dust it. ** Stop till aa dite me 
hands." The word appears to be obsolescent. 

DIGHTER, a winnower of corn. Also a winnowing machine. 

DIKE, DYKE, a fence. The word is applied alike to a hedge, 

a ditch, an earthen or a stone wall when used as a fence. 

•* Aa seed him sittin* in a dike back " — that is, in the shelter 

or hollow of the dike. The goosegrass (Galium aparine) is 

called Robin-run'the-dike, from its habit of clinging and running 

over a hedge with its long sprays. A dike slower is a hedge 


" When I was young and lusty, 
I could loup a dyke." 

Song, Sair FaiVd Hinny. 

" Dike, a ditch. This is only a variety of dialect. Though it seems 
dyke and ssugh, or sough, are distinguished in the North ; a dyke being a 
ditch to a dry hedge, either of trees or earth, as in arable lands, where 
the ditch is usually dry all summer ; but a sough, or ditch brimful ot 


water, as in meadows or sowbrows, are DOt above half a yard in beigfat.*' — 
TowUinson, quoted in Ray's Gloss. Ray adds : '* A sough is a sabterraDcao 
vault or diannel, cut through a hill, to lay coal mines or any other mines 

Dikes were also frequently trackways; and there are many 
earthworks of ancient date which are commonly called dikes. 
One such is known as the *' Black-i>'^," which is said to 
extend from the head of North Tyne to the seaside east of 
Morpeth. Another, '* Black-i/y^,*' ran north and south, 
crossing the Roman Wall at Busy Gap. There are also 
several Grime's dikes, or Graham's dikes, on the Borders. 
The entrenchments which surrounded the walls of Newcastle 
were formerly called •* The King's Dyke.** 

DIKE. A depot for coals at the staith was called a dike. It 
means a jetty or pier by the river side. 

** Every time the keelmen load a ked of coals from the staith, or dyki, 
they get a " can." — ScwtJUm Thbmut, 1S54, vol. i., p. 210. 

** A pier, or dike, mn oat at the north entrance'* at Blyth harbour.^ 
Mackenzie. Hist, cf ScrlkmadtritmJ, vol. ij.. 1S25, p. 425. 

DIKE, a fault in a stratum, caused by a crack, a slip, or by the 
intrusion of an igneous rock, familiarly known to the pitman 
as a ** trouble." •• The Ninety Fathom Dike" which passes 
seaward at Cullercoats, is a familiar instance of a dike on a 
colossal scale. Here a "slip'* of five hundred feet brings the 
magnesian limestone down against a £aice of earlier strata and 
presents the dislocation known as a dike. When basalt is 
mtrudevi, as at T\'nemouth Pier, it is called a whin dike. A 
stone Jikif in a pit is an ancient *^wash" which has filled 
up a valley, cutting through the denuded seam of coal, **in 
carboniferous times* before or during the deposition of the 
o\ erlying beds," ^ Professor Lebour, M. A., Geology ofNortkum- 
h^*Umi jmJ Durijtm. 2nd ed.. iN>6, p. ^y) Clay dikes are most 
frev^uent* and are often impenneahle to water. Rubbish dikes 
are tilled with sand* clay« and rounded stCMies. Slip dikes 
usually contain fragments of the adjacent strata. When 
the vlike interrupts the working of a seam of coal it is called 
a downcast Ji.^ if the continuation of the seam of coal lies 
at a low^^r leveU and an upcast Mkr if it is continued at a 
higher leveL ** l\v>n thraa/* az»l ^'up-thraa" are terms for 
the same* Cv>tnpare H:tx^h, 

PIKK LOVPEKS. transgressocs.— FwArf^, 3rd ed. 

DIK£K a (MOl^ifif or ditcher : a hedge-spoLrrow. 


DIKE-SEAM, DYKE-SEAM, a seam worked nearly on end.— 
Hugh Miller, Geology of OtUrhurn and Elsdon, — Geological Survey 
Memoir^ 1887, p. 59. 

DIKE-STOWER, a hedge-stake. See Dike, i. 

DILCE, DULSE, a seaweed, Rhodomenia palmata, 

DILL, to dull (Hodgson MS,), to soothe, to blunt, to silence 
pain or sound. 

DILLER. The phrase ** A diller, a doller, a ten o'clock 
scholar ** is applied to a dull, dilatory schoolboy, ** creeping, 
like snail, unwillingly to school.*' 

DILLY. The old engine on the Wylam railway was commonly 
called •* Puffing Billy," or "the Wylam dilly^ Dilly, says 
Mr. Halliwell, is a small public carriage, corrupted from 
French diligence. The counter-balance mounted upon two 
pairs of tram wheels, by means of which the empty tubs in a 
pit are carried up an incline, is called a dilly, 

DINDOM, a great noise or uproar. See Durdom. 

DING, to strike, to bang, to knock with violence. Past tense 
dang ; past participle, dungen or dung, 

** Thus salle thai dyng on tham ever-mare. 
With gret glowand hamers, and nane spare.*' 

Haropole d. 1349. Priche of Conscience, 
Morris, line 7,031. 

•• He bad 

That thai suld tak kobille (cobble) stanes, 
And ding his teth out al at anes ; 
And when thai with the stanes him dang. 
He stode ay lagh and them omang." 

The same. — Morris, p. 288. 

The word is frequently used in the dialect in the compound 
form, as ding-doon and ding-ov^er, ** Stand oot o* the road or 
aaUl ding ye ower " — knock you over. To ding also means to 
deafen, to repeat noisily : — 

*' So. if ye please, aw'U myek an end. 
My song ne farther dingin.*' 

R. Gilchrist, Blind Willie Singing, 1824. 

DING, used for damn. 

DINGLY, deep cut like a ravine. 

'* The steep, wild, and woody bank of Stonecroft burn which joins the 
dingly channel of the brook." — Hodgson. Hist, of Northumberland, iii. a, 

p. 393 


DINMONT, DINMOND, a ten month. A lamb is called a 
hog in autumn, and after the first shearing of the new year a 
dinmont if it is a male sheep, and a gimmer if it is an ewe. 

** Male sheep from the time of weaning to the first time of dipping are 
called hogs, hoggerels, or lamb-hogs; then they take the name of shearing, 
shearling, shear-iiog, or dinmomd-Ui^ or rams." — George Culley, Liw 
Stock, 1 801, p. 18. 

DINNA, DINNET, DI VENT, do not. All these words are 
used with the same meaning, but euphony suggests their 
selection. This is an example of the richness of the dialect 
which may well be noted : — 

" Aw dinna mean te brag o' this." 

T. Wilson. Pitman's Pay, pt. ii.. v. 198. 

" Dinna let it gan, Mr. Mayor." 

Quayside Ditty, 1816. 

'* O. iinnet clash the door. 
Divent dee'd ne mair." 

DINNEL, to tingle, as from a blow, or in the return of 
circulation after intense cold. <* Aa felt me fing-er ends 
dinnel agyen." 

DINNY, dingy, dun coloured. See Dunny. 

" We tread aw Sheels, se dinny" 

T. Thompson, d. 1816, Jemmy Jonesons Wherry, 

DINT, as much land as there is mown in one direction at a 
sharpening of the scythe. 

DIP, deep. 

*' She's as dip as the deevil, or onv draw-well." 

J. P. Robson, •• Wonderful Wifer 

Bards of the Tyne^ 1849, p. 107. 

DIP, the downward inclination of strata. 

" There is a Rise, or Ascent, for a Colliery under Ground, and so by 
Consequence the contrary way a Dip or Settling."— J. C, Compleat Collier, 
1708, p. 40. 

DIP-HITCH, a hitch, or slip, in a bed of coal which casts 
down the seam below the level at which the hitch is found. — 
GreenwelL It is also called a doon-thraa^ or doon-cast, or dipper. 

DI FN ESS, depth. " The well's nee dipnessr 

DIPPER, or DOWNCAST, a fault in strata by which the 
coal is thrown down to a lower level. 


DIPPER, a very shallow wooden dish which floats on the 
water in a tub, or " skeel/' and so prevents splashing over 
when the vessel is borne on the head. A flat piece of wood, 
called a " stiller," is also used for the purpose. 

DIPPER, the water ouzel, Hydrohata cinclus. Also called the 
water plot and water crow, 

DIP-SIDE, the low side. — W. E. Nicholson, Coal Trade Gloss,, 

coal on the other side is thrown down. — The same, 

Noise and excitement, a confusion, a hurly-burly, needless 
stir or noise, din. 

" For aw their Dirdom, and their Dinn, 
It was but little they did winn." 

G. Stuart, Joco-Smous Discourse, 1686, p. 70. 

" Syke dirdom 'tween thy pipes and thee." 

The same, p. 44. 

* " The dirdum now there's nowse can beat, 

Hawd, Dicky, till aw get a chow ! 
Here, aw say, Willy, gie's a leet ! 
Dick, damn ye, hand about a low !" 

T. Wilson, Pitman's Pay, 1827, pt. ii., v. 32. 

" It raised such a durdem. 
The stones and the brick-bats flew up like a cloud." 

Song, Newcastle in an Uproar, 1821. 

DIREC, direct. When used for «« instantly," it is often «« the 

DIRL, to produce a deafening or a painful vibration. •« Hear 
hoo the win's dorlin,'* To *^dirl the elbow" is to strike the 
sensitive bone of that part — the "funny bone," as it is 

" Thy tongue runs like wor pully wheel, 
And dirls my lug like wor smith's hammer.** 

T. Wilson, Pitman's Pay, 1826, ed. 1872, p. 8. 

DIRT, DIRTY, applied to the weather in heavy rain. " Dirty 
weather." "A dirty night" is a wet and "clarty " condition 
of things. It is also used to express foul-air or firedamp in a 
pit ; also rubbish mixed with coal. 


DIRT-BIRD, the skua gull. Several species of small birds 
are confounded under the not over-complimentary title of 
dirt 'birds, because they sing on the approach of rain. — 
W. Brockie, Legends and Superstitions, p. 136. Mr. Brockie 
mentions the woodpecker, the plover, and the peacock as 
rain birds. But in the case of the skua the term dirt-bird is 
applied to it for an obvious and very different reason. 

DIS, DIZ, dost, or does. "Dw thoo hear me?" "He dis 
nowt aall day.'* 

DISANNUL, to injure, to incommode, to contradict, to 
controvert, to dispossess, to remove. — HalliwelVs Did, The 
word is still in common use. 

** I ne\*er disannulled thy cow.** — Brockitt. 

DISGEST, to digest. "He hes a bad disgestin." It is still 
common in Northumberland. 

"This is a very common hirm of the word in early writers. "^ 
HallimtlVs Diet. 

DISH, the length or portion of an underground engine plane 
nearest to the pit bottom, upon which the empty set stands 
before being drawn " in-bye." 

DISHALAGIE, or DISHYLAGIE, the colt's foot, or foals 
foot, as it is often called. Tussilago farfara^ Linn. A 
mispronunciation of the Latin name apparently. 

DISHCLOOT, dishcloth. 

*' For iui.vv.* serves her apron jinik/* 

T. Wilson, Pitwuu's Pay, 1826, p. 11. 

DISHEARKEN, to dishearten. 

DISHED, fudviled« overcome with fatigue or drink. 

*' Htfff« Dickr's tOQ^ciie mad de ne mair. 
His v^ Was oil'd comptecehr : 
Acd expert drctciby czoc«t there 
Was ^2S>t'i xetd d^iXL cp neadT.** 

T Wu9C«. (Vm'V- Di:ky's Wig, i8a6. v. 68. 

DISHEK, a luristT of wvcden bowis or dishes. Within the 
mcmor\* v>f son*,* still livir^ \:5c?c' there was a diskn working 
*l Mittord. v^^^' 

DISH FYKOED, hc^.owfAc^!. 


DISH-PLATES, in mining, plates or rails dished to receive 
the fore wheels of a tub, to facilitate the teeming. — W. E. 
Nicholson, Coal Trade Gloss,, 1888. 

DISHT, or DEESHT [S.] , just that. 

DISNT, DIZN'T, does not. ** He disn't knaa nowt." 

DISPORSE, to disburse ; DISPORSEMENT, disbursement. 

DISTA, dost thou. A common colloquialism, as '< Dista ken 
the heed o* the Side ? " Hesta, hast thou ; wasta, wert thou ; 
ista, art thou ; cansta, canst thou, &c., are examples of similar 

DITARMIN, to determine. " Aa wis ditarmin'd to di'd." 

DITE, to sprinkle flour. 

" She forgat to dtte the girdle, an' there's the kyek sittin* on." — 
J. L. Luckley, Alnwick Language. 

DITHER, to shake, to tingle. ** Ma fing'rs is ditherin wi' the 
caad." See Didder and Dother, 

DITHERY-DOTHER, the grass Briza Media. Known also as 
dotherin dicks, ladies* hands, cow quakes, and quakin or tremlin grass. 

DITING, a very small quantity of meal or flour. — Brockett, 3rd 
ed. Probably from the sweeping up of flour on the board 
after it had been used ; the dighting. •* Thor wis oney a bit 
deeiin on*t.'* See Dight. 

DITTEN, DITTANY, broad-leaved pepperwort, Lepidium 
latifolium, L. 

"There is an herbe whiche hath leaves like ashe leaves, calld DiV/fii. 
I have found it at Tinmouth Castle, where plentie doe growe upon the 
rockes." — Dr. Wm. Bullein, Book of Simples, London, 1564. — Quoted in 
S. Oliver's Rambles in Northumberland , 1835, p. 29. 

"Now destroyed at Tynemouth." — A New Flora of Northumberland and 
Durham. — Natural History Transactions, vol. ii., 1867, p. 124. 

DIV, do. This form is used when the word precedes a vowel 
or an A mute : before a consonant, de is used. ^*Div aa not 
de'd ivvory day ? " ** Aw wad div owt aa could.*' 

•• Thor'll be a most wonderful change if we div."—R, Elliott, Pitman*s 

DIVAA, do I ? or I do. ** D'ye hear us ? "—"Aye, divaa.** 


DIVART, to amuse. A person is always said "to be divarUd" 
never "to be amused." Divarsion, amusement. 

DIVENT, DIV'NT, do not. See also Dinna, Dinnet. 

DIVIL, devil. See Deil. 

DIVOT, turf; a sod. See Duffit. 

"Jack Peel was a pitmaD. and also a tbeaker, a business of some note 
when the cottages on the Fell were all covered with divots." — T. Wilson, 
Note to Pitman's Pay, ed. 1843. 

DIVUS, shy, retiring, moody, melancholy. "She's a varry 
divus bairn.'* 

DIZ, does. See Disn't. 

DIZEN, to dress, to bedizen. Dizett'd dressed. 

•' Day dissens the skies."— J. P. Robson. Tiptop Wife, 1870. 

DO AG [N.],dog. 

DOBBY, a fool, a simpleton ; a silly old man. — Ray. 

DOB-CHICK, the little grebe, the smallest bird of the grebe 
tribe. It is called doh, or dab-chick^ from its habit of constantly 
"dabbing" or bobbing imder water. — Wedgwood. It is also 
called dcucker^ dipper y or didapper. In Nates' Gloss, also dive- 

DOCKAN, or DOCKEN, the plant Rutnex ohtusifolius, or the 
Rumex Crisptts. The seeding stems are called "Cushy-coos" 
by children, who strip off the ripe seeds in imitation of the 
milking of a cow. The leaves are accounted an antidote for 
the pricking of a stinging nettle. Children rub the sting with 
a docken leaf, repeating the words, " Nettle oot ; doc)un in." 
Soor-docken is the Rumex acteosa. The flcwery-dochen is the 
Ckenopodium bonus Henricus. 

DOCTOR, a hymenopterous insect that emits a dark brown 
fluid firom its mouth when caught. This fluid is supposed by 
diildren to heal sores. 

DOD, to lop, to cut ofll Specially applied to the trimming of 
wool from the hind parts of a sheep. 

DOD! an exclamation of wonder. "Do^/ but yor a queer 


DODD, a blunt hill, or butt end of a hill. Its occurrence is 
noted thirteen times in place-names in Northumberland. — 
J. V. Gregory, Archaologia ^liana, vol. ix., p. 64. The 
truncated chimney or ventilator of a malt-kiln is called the 

•* Sand and gravel dodds." — Professor G. A. Lebour, M.A., Geology of 
Northumberland and Durham, 2nd ed., p. 24. 

" Pike, crag, law, head, know, dod, edge, rig, predominate in the 
nomenclature of the Redesdale eminences." — Dr. James Hardy. Hist, of 
Bwks. Nat. Club, vol. ix., p. 452. 

DODD, a fox. This is the family name of one of the old 
** grains" of North Tynedale, who have been located here 
from Saxon times. Reginald of Durham, writing about a.d. 
1 150, gives the history of their progenitor, one Eilaf, who 
with his companions bore the body of St. Cuthbert in the 
flight from Lindisfarne. Being changed into the shape of a 
fox, his fellow monks prayed to God and St. Cuthbert to 
restore him to his human shape. And from that day all the 
race of Eilaf bore the name of Tod [Dodd] , which, in the 
mother tongue, signifies a fox. — Dr. Charlton, North Tynedale 
aftd its Four Surnames , p. 9. 

DODDED, hornless. Dodded corn, is corn without beards. 
" Dodded sheep, that is sheep without horns." — Ray*s Gloss. 

DODDER, to trim or clean sheep. See Dother, 2. 

DODDER, to shake. See Dother, Didder, Dither. 

DODDERED, confused, shattered, infirm. — HalliweWs Diet. 

DODDERIN'-DICKS, the quivering heads of the hriza, or 
quaking grass. 

DODDINS, the fore parts of a fleece of wool. — HalliweiVs Did. 

DODEY, George. " Here's aad Dodey comin*," 

DOD-LIP, or DOG-LIP, or PET-LIP, a projected lower lip 
indicating a pet or pout, ** Dinna hang a dog-lip that way." 

DOFF, to put oflf, or divest of anything. ** Doffsmd don one's 
clothes, contracted from do-off and do-on,'' to put oflf and on. — 
Ray's Gloss., 1691. 

DOG, a chock or block ; anything used to hold back. Dogs, 
pieces of wood at the bottom of an air door. The part of tlie 
chain which is fastened to the rope. (Mining Gloss. Newcastle 


TermSf 1852.) The nails with a hooked head used for holding 
down tram rails. See Bitchhail. Dog^ used in timber work, 
is an iron bolt, made up to about a foot in length, with iron 
pointed ends. These ends are bent at right angles to the 
bolt, and are driven into the timber which they are required 
to hold together. 

" A wooden utensil in the rude form of a dog, with iron teeth for 
toasting bread." — Brockett. 

" Clamps — irons at the ends of fires, to keep up the fewel. In other 
places called creepers, or dogs.** — Ray*s Gloss., 1691. 

DOG-CRAB, the shore crab. 

DOG-DAISY, the ox eye daisy. — Chrysanthemun leucanthcmum, 

DOG-HEAD, the hammer of a gun lock. 

DOG-HIPS, the fruit of the dog rose, &c. — Rosa canina, &c. 
Dog'hips and cat-haws are commonly associated by children. 
Cat'haws are hawthorn berries. 

DOG-LOUP, a narrow slip of ground between two houses, 
only wide enough for a dog to pass. ** Dog-loup Stairs," a 
street name in Newcastle. 

"The narrow space allowed for eaves droppings, between houses, is 
known as a 'dog-loup ' (dog leap or jump)." — ^John Nicholson. Folk-Speech 
of East Yorkshire, 1889, p. 5. 

DOGS, the dog-fish. [Holy Island.] 

DOG-SHORES, in ship launching, are the last shores to be 
knocked away. They hold back the vessel on the ways. 

DOITER, to be silly, like an old man. *' He doitered on aboot it." 

DOITERED, imbecile, silly. " Yor like a doitered aad fule." 

DOLE, a dole of land is a strip dealt out or allotted, or a strip 
of pasture left between furrows of ploughed lands. See 

DOLLUP, a lump or large piece. •' The hyel dollup:' 

DOLLY, a clothes washing stick, made with feet, but otherwise 
like a poss-stick. 

DOLLY, a contrivance attached to a chainmaker*s anvil for 
pressing the link after it is welded. A machine for punching 

" A pttnching doll^, 16} cwis.**— Inventory of Wallsend CollUry, 1848. 


DOLPHIN, a mooring post in a river. 

DON, in place-names, a hill ; sometimes den, as 'WaLrdcn-la.w, 
where law has been added pleonastically. Don occurs upwards 
of fifty-seven times in Northumberland place-names. 

DON, to put on, or " do on." Donned^ dressed. See Doff, 

•• She's ready donned, like Willy Ho's (Hall's) dog."— OW Saying. 

DONCH, fastidious, over-nice, squeamish, especially applied to 
one who has been drunk over night. — Halliwcirs Diet. See 

DONCY, DONSY, fat, puffed up, important, unlucky. (Scarce.) 

•• That donsU laddie, Billie Brown." 

Poems t F. Donaldson, Glanton, p. 4. 

DONK, dank, moist, humid. 

humidity rising in the evening in the hollow parts of 
meadows. A raw mist on the water. It is difficult to explain 
this peculiar word ; but a key to its meaning is possibly found 
in " down come," a very common expression for a sudden fall 
of rain. Dyel is to divide, to part asunder, just as a sudden 
fog would shut out the view. 

" Swasodanly he sal doun come.*' — Hampole,d. 1349, Pricke of Conscience ^ 
line 4,821. 

a wild, purposeless, wanton one. Donnat (dow naught), that 
is, thrive not. Daw or Dow, to thrive. ** He neither dees 
nor daws,'' that is, he neither dies nor mends. ** He'll never 
dow,'' that is, he will never be good. — Ray's Gloss., 1691. It 
is often applied to one with want of perception ; naturally 
stupid. *• She's a poor, silly, donnert body." 

'* Wor awdist lass, Jinny, the slee witchin donnit, 
Had coaxed her aud minnie te buy her new stays." 

W. H. D., " The Pitman's Tickor." 

Allans Collection t 1863, p. 352. 

"Janet thoo donot, I'll lay my best bonnet 
Thou gets a new gude man afore it be night." 

Robert Surtees, Death of Featherstonehaugh. 

DOO, a little cake, often made in shape like a child. " A 
yull doo." " Comey doos.*' " A cruppy-dow." 

DOOK, a bathe. " He ye had a dock yit ? " 


DOOK, to dip or to duck overhead in water, to dive. Also to 
duck the head to avoid a missle. Compare Jook. 

** Payd for the doukinge stoull 12s." (ducking stool). — Gatsshiod Church 
BookSf 1628. 

" Aw'd dook her in wor engine powen," 

T. Wilson, Pitman's Pay, 1826, pt. i., v. 64. 

DOOL, a cramp pin. See Dowell. 

DOOL, DOLE, DEUL, grief, woe. Sometimes used as an 
interjection. See Deull. 

" God shilde you from all doole and shem." — W. Ballein, Redesdale 
Biggar. 1564. 

•" O doolt* quo he, ' how can I thrive !' " 

James Proudlock, CuddU and his Crawin* Hen. 

DOON, DOWN, to throw down. 

** We down'd byeth him and Davy-o.*' 

J. Selkirk, d. 1843, Swalwell Hopping. 

DOON, down. See note on ow, under Coo. 

** Ho ! lizzen. aw ye neighbors roun, 
Yor clappers baud and pipes lay doon ; 
I've had a swagger through the toon.'* 

W. Midford, Pitman's RambU, 1818. 

DOON-BY, along, or near by. " Will ye be doon-hy thi neet ?" 
** Aa*s gaan doon-by.'" 

DOONCAST, DOWNCAST, in a downward direction.— 
W. E. Nicholson, Coal Trade Ghss.y 1888, under downcast. 

DOONCAST, or DO\VNCAST SHAFT, the shaft by which 
the air enters the mine, as the '* upcast " is that by which 
return air is discharged. 

DOONCAST, DOWNCAST, a "trouble," or dyke, or dis- 
location of the strata or " £ault " by which a seam of coal 
and its associated beds are cast down to a lower level. See 


DOON COME, DOWNCOME, a descent. Generally applied 
to nxluct^ circumstances. " He*s had a sair doon-come, poor 
Uxly/ .\lso a hea\y fall of rmin or snow. " It*s sic a doon- 
\ymf as aa nivxxx sam T me life.*' The down pipe for rain- 
water in a house (root. 

DOON-DADi a puflfof snK>ke coming into the room from the 


DOON-I-THE-MOOT, deprcGsed or out of sorts, like a bird in 
the moult. " What's the maiter wi' Tom ? He's sair 

DOON-LYIN, a lying in. 

DOONPOOR, a downpour, a heavy rain. ** It com on a parfit 

DOON-SITTIN, a location, a home, especially applied to a 
place likely to prove of permanent comfort. ** He*s getten a 
canny doon-sittin" Brockett, under down-sUtingy describes it 
as ** a comfortable settlement, especially in marriage. " Ah, 
hlnnies, she wed him just for a down-sitting'' [Newcastle] — 
said of a handsome young girl who marries a rich old man, 
where it is obvious that the lady loves the house and furniture 
as dearly as she does her husband. 

DOONTHRAA, DOWNTHROW, the dip or low side of a 
hitch or dyke. — W. E. Nicholson, Coal Trade Gloss,, 1888, 
under downthrow, 

DOON-THRUSSEN, thrust down, put down by force. 
DOO-OR, door. A frequent pronunciation. 

DOOR-CHEEK, the side posts of the doorway. 

** To shew them we deal wi' Newcassel, 
Twee Blackeys sal mense the dor-cheek." 

W. Midford, Pitman's Courtship, 1818. 

DOORS, used underground in a pit, where, unless a passage 
were occasionally required, " stoppings '* would be necessary. 
They are usually placed in pairs, one being at a few yards 
distance from the other, so that when one is open the other 
may be closed. Several different descriptions of doors are 
employed, of which are the following : — Frame-doors, man- 
doors, fly-doors or swing-doors, bearing or main doors, sheth- 
doors, &c. — W. E. Nicholson, Coal Trade Gloss., 1888. 

DOOR-STEED, the doorway. ** Set the skeel i'the door-steed.'* 

DOOR-STYEN, the threshold. ** She's nivver crossed wor 
door-styen sin a twelmonth past." 

DOOSE, DOUSE, comely, comfortable. 

" Shem bin ye, says I, ye should keep the king douse.'* 

T. Thompson, d. 1816, Canny Newcastle. 

" The duke e'er has been byeth wor glory and pride, 
For dousely he fills up his station." 

T. Wilson. Northumberland Free 0* Newcastle, 1824 


DOOSE, DOWSE, to beat, to slap, to flap. " Aa'U doose yor 
jacket for ye " — I will thrash you soundly. ** She gav him a 
reglur doostn.'' 

DOOSEY-CAP, the punishment inflicted in a boys' game, 
where the victim is compelled to run the gauntlet through two 
ranks, each boy in which stands ready, cap in hand, to give 
a ** bat *' with it as the object of the game runs past. 

DOOT, doubt. 

" Thor*s mony a voice that is welcome, nee doot. 
But the bonniest soond that aa knaa is ' Lowp oot.' *' 

Song, Howdon for Jarrow. 

DOOTIN, doubting. 

DOR, fear, numbness as the result of trepidation. ** Aw was iv 
a parfit dor at the time " — I was in a perfect state of fear, or 
paralyzed with fear. 

DOR [T.] , dare, a variant of dar, " Aa dor bet ye owt it will, 

DORDUM, DIRDUM, a great noise, uproar. See Dirdum. 

DORG, a day's work. See Darg. 

DORL, to shake, to vibrate. See Dirl. 

DOR-LINE, the line used for catching mackerel. 

DORMANT, the large beam lying across a room, a joist.— 
UiilUwdVs out. 

•* For renewing our iormjmd, 20s." — Trinity Houu Accounts, 1550.— 
K WVlfonl. lltst. o/Settx^stli AT/. Cent., p. 273. 

** S^Mnotimcs called a sleeper." — Todd, 
PORN l^T. dare not. 

■' \a dot^ft gan hyem for me life." — ^James Horsley, Geordy an' tkt 

PvU\SNl\ dare not. 

' Iv^lU »iV»v/x: SAY vnvt liv him.'* — Ed. Corvan, Fin on tkt Quay, 1854. 

IHU\S l\ vluisl. ** Lot him come to me if he dorst, noo." 
1>^.>K 1\ Jill* ** He s aal ower muck an' dort." 


DORTY, dirty, conceited, contemptible. ** Hor, an hor dorty 
pride 1 " ** She's a doriy body." Also wet and stormy, 
applied to the weather. " It*s a dorty neet.'* 

" The hearth is a' wi' cinders strewn, 
The floor wi' dorty duds." 

T. Wilson, The Washing Day. 

DOSOME, healthy, with promise of improvement in it, as a 
** dosome beast " — a beast likely to turn out well. 

DOSSY, dull, not bright ; applied to seeds. Soft, not crisp. — 
Brockett. Compare Deased. 

quiver, to tremble with age, to shake with cold. 

" Ham's mother dothered like a duck." 

J. P. Robson, d. 1870, Hamlick, Prince 0' Denton. 

DOTHER, to clean away the dirty wool from near the tails of 
sheep. See Dod, i, and Dodder, i. 

DOTHERIN-DICKS, common quaking grass, Briza media, 

DOTHERS, the Spcrgula arvensis. Called also jdtt/r. 

DOTHERY, shaky. ** Aa canna write; me hand's se dothery 
thi day." 

DOTTLE, the tobacco left at the bottom of a pipe after 
smoking. In refilling a pipe, where twist is smoked, a 
common practice is to save the dottle and put it on the top of 
the new-filled pipe. ** Aw like a baccy dottle to leet wiv." 

DOUBLE-CHUCKERS, two of a kind ; twins. 

DOUBLE-DUTCH, unintelligible talk. *' Ye tSLakdoubU-Dutch, 
coiled agyen the sun " — said of a child or of any one speaking 
indistinctly. Compare Galic. 

DOUBLE-HANDED GEAR, heavy drilling tools which 
require two men to use them. — Mining Gloss. Newcastle Terms^ 
1852. ^ 

DOUBLER, a platter, a large dish, plate, or bowl. (Obs.) 
See Dubbler. 

DOUBLE-TRAM, a tram in a pit when worked by a **heed*s- 
man and foaleys *' — that is, by more that a single putter. 


DOUBLE- WORKING, in a pit, where more than one man is 
put to work in any one working place. — Mining Gloss. Newcastle 
Terms J 1852. 

DOUBTSOME, doubtful. •* She may pull through ; but aa's 
varry dootsome/' 

DOUF, DOUFEY, low-spirited. ** He wis varry doufeyr The 
latter word is sounded as douf-vey. See Dowf. 

DOUFY, damp, humid, wet. 

DOUP, the buttocks. 

•• Yor canny dowf is fat and roond."— R. Nunn, d. 1853, Sandgaie Wifi's 
Nurse Song, 

DOUP, to dump, or thump, especially on the hinder part. 
** Here, lads, let's doup him.** 

DOUPIN, a thrashing. " Aall gi* ye a good doupin" 

DOUR, hard, sour-looking. " That*s a dour lookin* chep." 

" Dinnet leuk dour it us." 

J. P. Robson, d. 1870, Sang 0' SohmoHf ch. i., v. 6. 

DOUSE-THE-ODD-UN, the game of French tag. 

DOVER, the water in which a salmon has been boiled, served 
up as sauce for the fish. [Berwick.] 

DOVER, to go lightly to sleep, to fall into a dose. " She's just 
dover'd, silly thing." ** Dinna scranch on the floor ; yor fethor's 
just dove/ty ** Aa dovered ower." 

DOW, dear. Used in affectionate address. (Obs.) 

•* My Dow, quo she, the're wond'rous bonny I 
My Dow (quo she), it's very strange." 

G. Stuart, Joco-Serious Discourse, 1686, pp. 24, 26. 

DOW, to be able to. (Scarce.) 

" As mickle as four o' their braid backs dow bear " — Johnie Armstrang. 

DOWELL, DOO-EL, an iron or wooden cramping or fastening 

bolt. The wooden pins that connect the fellies in a cart 

wheel are termed, by carpenters, dooled. Duelled is also applied 

to a pin used by coopers to keep the edges of the staves from 


'* A Doul — a nail sharpened at each end ; a wooden pin or plug to fasten 
planks with."— Halliwdl's Diet. 

"In mining, an iron bolt sometimes used in putting main brattice 
together ; a portion of the bolt being let into the under plank, and the 
remainder passing into a hole in the upper plank." — Greenwell. 


DOWF, dull, spiritless. '' Dowf and blunkit "— dull and 


" Lord Dacre fain would see the bride, 
He sought her bower alane ; 
But dowf and blunkit grew his look 
When Lady Jean was gane." 

Robert White, Lady Jean, 1842. 

DOWIE, DOWY, dull, depressed. " It wis a dowk day when 
the lad went away.'* *' Cheer up, hinny, dinna leuk dowie like 

DOWK, a broken mass of shale. — Hugh Miller, Geology of 
Otterhurn and Elsdon, — Geological SuvveyMemoity 1887. 

DOWLY, doleful, miserable, lonely, darksome, awe inspiring. 

Of a far-away, lone country house, it is said, ** It's a dowly 

pleyce i* the wunter time." A Hexhamshire rhyme says : — 

" Dowly Dotland stands on the hill, 
Hungry Yareesh (Yarridge) looks at it still ; 
Barker's House a little below, 
There's mokes i' the cairn at Hamburn Ho." 

^^ Mokes f the cairn'* — maggots in the churn. Ho is the 

Hexhamshire pronunciation of hall. 

" We'll moralise, for dowly thowts are mair wor friends than foes, 
For death, like when the tankard's out, brings a* things tiv a close." 

R. Gilchrist, Lamentation 0/ Bold Archy, 1824. 

•' Ma dowly cavel " — (my doleful lot). 

T. Wilson, Pitman's Pay, 1826, pt. i., v. 48. 

•• This dowly lot's been Nelly's." 

The same J pt. iii., v. 52. 

" The Quay, just like some dowly place, 
Wi' troubled spurrits haunted." 

T. Wilson, Captains and the Quayside. 

DOWN. See Doon and following words. 

DOWNA, unable to. See Dow, 2. (Scarce.) 

" Up and down I dow no' ride." [In margin, dow no' — am not able.] 

G. Stuart, Joco-Serious Discourse^ 1686, p. 62. 

DO WNDER, a repast. " Make your downder " — that is, take a 
good hearty meal. " Your downder' s ready." 

DOWN-HOUSE, the back VixizYien.—Brochett. 

DOWP, the carrion crow. 

DOWP, the buttocks. See Doup. 

" Some hardly fligged ower the dowp." 

T. Thompson, d. 1816, Canny Newcastle, 


DOWPY, the youngest child, the youngest of a hatching of 

" A dowpy wife " (that is, a lady in the family way). 

J. P. Robson, ** Pawnshop in a BUeii.'' 
Bards of the Tyne, 1849, p. 340. 

DOWSE. See Doose, 2. 

DOWTOR, daughter. 

« *' Like a lily 'mang thorns is maw love amang the dowtors.** 

]. P. Robson, d. 1870,, Sang 0' Solomon, Northumberland 

version, ch. ii., v. 2. 

DOXY, a sweetheart, in an innocent sense. — HaUiwell. 

DOZEN, a galloway's load of pollings of birch and alder, varying 
from ten to a hundred in number. — Bailey's View of Agriculiun 
in County of Durham. 

DOZZENED, without spirit or energy; dazed. The word 
has much the same meaning as dazed^ which is, benumbed, as 
from cold or fright, a condition in which the spirit, or life, or 
sap has gone out of a person or thing. Compare Daze, 
Deased, and Deasy. 

•• The joiners a' pin'd in wi* drouth, 
Shrunk up to spelks, and dozzen'd.'* 

T. Wilson, The Oilin' o' DUkys Wig, 1826. 

DOZZLE, the tobacco left at the bottom of a pipe and put on 
the top of the next fill. *' Neebody can smoke twist without 
a dozzle'* See Dottle. 

DOZZLE, a paste flower on top of a pie cover — the straw 
ornament on top of a stack. 

DRAA, to wind coal either along the workings or in the shaft. 
Also to remove props in a pit. 

" Draa me to the shaft, it's time to gan hyem." 

Old Song, The CoUUt*s Rant. 

DRAAS, drawers. " A kist o' draas " — a chest of drawers. 

DRAA-TO, or DRAWTS, a home in want. 

'* My father, poor man, has little of this world's gear, but his house is 
a kind drawts tor his bairns when they stand in need of a home.'*— 


DRAAIN A JUD, bringing down the face of coal, previously 
set free to fall, by withdrawing the sprags after kirving. " In 
mining parlance, *draain a jud' also means the removal of 
the timber or props after the coal has been taken away in 
what is termed a broken lift, and is a dangerous, if not the 
most dangerous work that a deputy is called upon to do in 
his daily duties in the pit or mine.** — ** Northumbrian," in 
Weekly Chronicle^ Aug. lo, 1889. 

DRAAK, DRAK, DRAUK [N.] , DROAK [W.-T.] , to saturate. 
Also to absorb any liquid or dry it up with a dry medium. 
** Put a bit o* whitenin on the oil an' draak *t up.** 

•• Me heed's dracht wi* weet." — ^J. P. RobsoOt d. 1870, Sang of Solomon, 
Northumberland version, ch. v., v. 2. 

** A finer kind of barley meal, called, by way of distinction, flour, is 
sometimes draukei with milk, and made into thin, crisp cakes or 
biscuits." — S. Oliver, Rambles in Northumberland, 1835, p. z6o. 

DRAFT-NET, a salmon net for river fishing. See Drift- 

DRAG, a rake for drawing out litter from cattle lairs and other 
places. See Hack. 

DRAG, the scent left by an otter on his track over the land. 

DRAG, a sprag of wood thrust between the spokes of a wheel 
to act as a brake. 

DRAG, in mining, the friction of the air on the surface of the 
passages in which it travels. — W. E. Nicholson, Coal Trade 
Gloss., 1888. 

DRAK, or DRUCK, drank, the p.t. oi drink. 

DRAP, a drop. 

*' When Cheviot tap puts on his cap, 
O* rain we'll he' a wee bit drap." 

North Northumberland Proverb. 

DRAPE, a farrow cow, or cow whose milk is dried up. Drape 
sheep, the refuse sheep of a flock. — Ray's Collection, 1691. 
(Obs.) See Eild and Geld. 

DRAUGHT, the worst sheep " drawn,** or culled out from a 
flock. ^^ Draught ewes.'* In parts of England these are called 

DRAW. See Draa. 


DRAWD-N AIL, a flat-pointed nail. [Winlaton term.] (Obs.) 
DREAP, DREEP, to drip. 

•• Maa's heed's drupin wi dew." — ^J. P. Robson, d. 1870, Sang 0* 
Solomon^ Newcastle version, ch. v., v. 2. 

** Draping pannes." — Inventory of Sir William Reade. — Raine's North 
Durham, p. 178. 

DREDGE-SUMP, a settling hole, through which water is 
passed on its way to a pump, in which grit, &c., is lodged, 
and so prevented nrom entering the pump. 

DREE, a sledge or cart without wheels. On the authority of 
the Rev. John Hodgson, it appears {Hodgson MS.) that drees 
continued in use in Northumberland till as late as 1760-70. 

DREE, to suffer, to bear, to endure. 

" Whatever may be her punishment in the next world, she certainly 
dreed a heavy penance in this." — Richardson's Table Book, Legendary Div.^ 
vol. i., 1842, p. 36. 

** He lughe never, ne made blythe chere, 
For drede of dede that he most efte dreghe.'* 

Hampole, d. 1349, Pricke 0/ Conscience, I. 6,522. 

" Nor ever shall I wed but her 

That's done and dree'd so much for me.*' 

Lord Beicham. 

DREE, DRIE, dread, to dread. 

" Alas ! he'll doe you drie and teene." 

Ballad, Northumberland Betrayed by Douglas. 

" The English louns may hear, and dree." 

Jock 0* the Side. 

" YeMl dree the deeth ye*ll niwer dee.*' 

Northumberland Proverb. 

DREE, long, seeming tedious beyond expectation, spoken of a 
way. A hard bargainer, spoken of a person. — Ray, 1691. 

DREED, to dread. ** Aa*s dreedin the warst, hinney.*' 

DREED, dread, fear. •• Aa've a parfit dreed on*t." 

••The day ol drede.'* 

Hampole, d. 1349, Pricke of Conscience. 

•• Weive thy lusts, and let thy ghost thee lede, 
And trouth thee shall deliver, it is no drede.** 

Chau cer, Good Counsail. 

DREEDFUL, dreadful. 

DREEP, to drop, to drip. •* Dreepin wet " — dripping wet. See 


DREEPY, spiritless. ** She's but a poor drcepy creetur." 

DREEVE, to fly-blow. ** It's fly dreeven:* 

DREEVEN, driven. ** White as drcevcn snaws.*' 

DREIGH, deceiving. A piece of ground is said to be dreigh 
when there is more of it than there appears to be. — Brockett^ 
3rd ed. Compare Dree, 4, above. 

DRIDDLE, to loiter, to be slow in doing an3rthing. " What 
are ye driddlin on there at ?'* 

DRIE, dread. See Dreed and Dree, 3. 

DRIFT. A drift is a place driven to explore or reach the 
coal. A " stone-inyU ** is one driven through sandstone or 
strata other than coal. 

'* Oh ! marrow, oh ! marrow, where hast thou been ? 
Driving the drift from the low seam." 

Old song, The Collier's Rant. 

** We have carried our headways drift about eight or ten yards from 
the pit shaft." — Compleat Collier, 1708, p. 42. 

'* Drift, a horizontal passage underground." — Bainbridge, Treatise on 
Law of Mines, 1856. 

" Drift, an inlet for the emission of water in a mine." — Brockett, 3rd ed. 

" A head driven on the strike of the coal seam." — Gresley*s Gloss., 1883 

*' In coal, an exploring place ; usually a pair of companion drifts are 
driven simultaneously for ventilation. Drifts (called stone-drifts) are 
mostly single. In stone they are driven sometimes for the purpose of 
exploration, but more frequently rendered necessary by the occurrence 
of dislocations in the strata." — Greenwell, 

DRIFT-NET, a salmon net used in the sea. " Drift-net fisher- 
men " are the sea salmon fishers. " Draft-net fishermen " are 
the river fishers. Compare Draft-net. 

DRIFT- WAY, a trackway or road used by drovers. 

DRILLER, one who minds a drilling machine. 

" The amalgamated society of horizontal drillers" — Trades union notice. 

DRIP, a stalactite. — Brockett, 3rd ed. 

DRITE, to speak thickly and indistinctly. — HalliweWs Diet. 
•• To void excrement. — Brockett, 3rd ed. 

DRIVE, to dig, to excavate in a pit. The pitman drives in as 
he digs, or hews his way, or gets the coal. See Drift. 


DROOK, DROUK, to drench with water. *« He wis cot iv aa 
that rain an' gat drooked ti the skin." Compare Dook, 2, and 

** Droukt to drench, to soak, to besmear."— BrofA^/^ 

DROOND, to drown {p.t. drund). Droonded is also a common 
form of the past tense. 

DROONEDOOT, applied to a colliery that has become filled 
with water. 

DROOT, drought ; DROOTY, droughty. See Drooth. 

DROOTH, thirst. 

" We'll not wyest ower drams and drouth.*' 

Pitman* s Pay, pt. iii., v. 60. 

DROOTHY, thirsty. 

DROP, the arrangement at a coal staith by which a waggon is 
let down to the level of a ship's hatchway. 

DROP, used in the imperative mood for stop. ^^ Drop that" is 
the usual peremptory order to stop doing anything. 

•• Ye cripple ! just drop yor fond gob." 

J. P. Robson, d. 1870, Maw Wonderful Wife. 

DROP, a trick, a surprise. "What a drop I" — that is, what a 
surprise. A reduction of wages. ** Thor gan in at the drop" 

DROP-DRY, water-tight, said of a building well secured in the 
roof. — Brockett. 

DROPPY, showery. ** It's fair yenoo, but still droppy like." 

DROPS, the common name for fuchsia. 

DROP-STAPLE, a staple (shaft) down which coals are lowered 
from one seam to another. 

DROUK, to drench, to soak. See Draak. 

DROVEN, driven, as with force of circumstances. " She's been 
fair droven to deeth, poor body." Droven or druven is used as the 
p.p. of drive. ** Mony a day nev aa droven the gin-gan." 

DROVE- WORK, the manner of facing building stones with a 
chisel, as distinguished from broached work. 


DRUBBY, muddy. — Northumberland. — Halliwell^ eleventh ed. 
See Druvy. 

DRUCK, or DRAK, p.t. of drink ; p.p. drucken. " He druck half 
a gallon at a sittin." 

DRUMLY, muddy, thick. JumnUcy or jungly is used in exactly 
the same sense. 

" For right or wrang he made nae matter, 
So he could fish in drumly watter." 

G. Stuart, Joco-Serious Disconrse, 1686. 

DRUMMOCK, meal and water mixed. — Brockett. 

DRUND,/./. of droum. 

" Al thai drund in the se." 

Cursor Mundi — Visit of the Wise Men. 

DRUNKARD'S CLOAK, a tub with holes in the sides for the 
arms to pass through, the head appearing through a hole 
made in the end, which rested on the shoulders. It was thus 
in former times used in Newcastle for the punishment of 
drunkards and others, who were led through the streets in 
this strange guise. 

DRUV, p.t. of drive; p. p, druven, ** He druv us ower iv his gig." 
" She's been ower hard druven,*' 

DRUVY, dirty ; literally, troubled as water is troubled. Drovy^ 
or troubled water, is spoken of by Chaucer. 

*• Ayont yon dark an* druvy river." 

T. Wilson, PitmatCs Pay, 1829, pt. iii., v. 123. 

DRY, not diluted ; genuine, unadulterated. 

DRY, a division in a quarry or stone where it can be parted. 

DRY-ASK, a lizard, or a water newt when found in a dry place. 
See Ask. 

*• Dry-asks an' tyeds she churish'd.'* 

J. P. Robson, Hamlick, Prince 0* Denton, pt. ii., 1849. 

DRY DIKE, a stone fence, built without lime — that is, with 
dry stones only. 

DUB, a dirty pool. Also a still, deep place in a stream. ** He 
floondered amang the dubs " — that is, he splashed and stumbled 
in the puddles. In Whittle Dene there is a deep pool called 
" the whorl dub." 


DUBBIN, the dregs of fish oil, used for softening leather. An 
angler's bait. 

DUBBLER, or DUBLER, a large dish. 

*• Two pewter dubUrs, two copper basins, and a pottle pot." — Will of 
H. Yowton, 1581.— Richard Welford, Hist, of Newcastle, vol. iii., p. 9. 

" The platters, dubblers, and the delf.** 

Old song, Description ofSandgate. 

DUB-SKELPER, a bog trotter. 

" Like a dub-skelpet he trotted." 

T. Whittle, •• The Midford Galloways Ramble." 
Bell's Rhymes, 1812, p. 175. 

DUCCOT, or PIGEON-DUCCOT, a dovecot. 

'* A waste called a duckett lying within the castle of Newcastle.**— 
R. Welford. Hist, of NeuxastU in XVI. Cent., p. 498. 

DUCK-AND-DRAKE, the game of throwing flat stones on 
water which tip the surface in their flight. From this game 
probably originated the phrase of malang ducks and drakes of 
one*s money — that is, spending it foolishly. — HalliwdTs Did. 

DITCKEY, a drink ; generally used in child talk. *' Dis thoo 
want a dtickey^ hinny ? " 

DUCK-STONE, a game pla3*ed with smooth water-worn 
stones, called ducks. 

DUDS, clothes ; applied generally to working clothes. 

** Dmdds^ A rag ; clothing of an iniienor kind.** — Rev. Canoo Gieenwdl, 
GUiSS. Uf the BMcm Bmki 

** The dmds thrawn on, the breakfut tyen. 
They're ready for another start.** 

T. Wilson. PUmum's Psj. pi. it, ▼. 17. 

•* Clad in hanl labour's h5«cilj imisr 

T. Wikoo, Demtk efOmfy. 

DUDDIN, an outfit of clothes; a suit of ckiches. 

'* I pacted up all mr iwUni." 

' R. Giklirist, jI T^mi^ULemim. 1S24. 

** My fiaiuid imiim doBnel, thrioe o'er. 
My birds are kxsaed, aikd tben 
I mitb a mlkisUe shift tbe door 
I may Dot cpeiisisL^* 

DUDDY, ncged. **A AMy Uddy'' is a nggedboy. "He 



DUERGAR, a goblin race of beings known on the Border and 
characterised as **the worst and most malicious order of 
Fairies." Brownies, rather than fairies, they should be called, 
for a duergar is a brown elf, and the apparition of **the 
Brown Man o* the Moors" has "flayed" many a herd lad in 
the solitudes of Northumberland. 

DUFF, dough. The guttural sound is still preserved in many 
words which in modern English are softened, as dougk is to 
" doe." See Pleuff, Thruff, used still for plough and 
through — " thruff styen." 

•* 'Twas ne use then to teyk the huff— 
Aw wesh'd the currans, mey'd the duff." 

J. P. Robson, Wor Mally Tomed Bloomer. 

DUFF, to sprinkle over with flour or fine powder, as in dredging 
or puffing a burn or sore place. ** Duffin* the bairn." 

DUFF, coal dust or smaller coals, after separation of the nuts. 

DUFFIT, a sod. " JDr/^Z-theaked *'— thatched with sods. 

" Wor canny houses, ^M^Mheek'd." 

T. Wilson, The Oilin' 0' Dickys Wig, 1826. 

DULBART, DULBARD, DULBERT, a dullard, a dull person, 
a thickhead. 

" A feat that dulberts cudent de." 

T. Wilson, Pitman's Pay, pt. iii., v. 104. 

" To learn your exercise be quick, 
An' dinna be a dulbard," 

Poems, T. Donaldson, Glanton, 1809, p. 45. 

DULL. ** Dull o' hearin ''—hard of hearing. 

DUMB-DRIFT, in mining, a drift by which the return air is 
carried into the upcast shaft without passing over the 
furnace. — W. E. Nicholson, Coal Trade Gloss,, 1888. 

DUMB-SCREEN, a screen through which the small coals will 
not pass. — W. E. Nicholson, Coal Trade Gloss., 1888. 

DUMMY, a dumb or silent person ; a blank or make-believe. 
A dummy tram was one moved by two boys, or by a man and 
a boy. 

•• She's nobbut a dummy eye." 

His Other Eye, 1880, p. 3. 

DUMPLIN, pudding of flour and suet or similar ingredient. 
Pudding is the intestines, and is never used for the above 
except for something foreign, as Yorkshire pudding. 



DUMPY, sullen, discontented, in the dumps. 

DUN, a yellowish brown colour. " A dun horse," ** a dun mare," 
•* a dun cow." 

" John Read, charged with the stealing of one Dunn mare.*' — Calendar 
of Prisoners at Newcastle , 1627. 

DUNCH, to knock against ; to nudge. 

** To dunch people off is most rascally mean.** 

" Simpson's Failure " — MarskalVs Songs, 1827, P- 182. 

** Somebody dun eked his airm." 

Geordy's Last, 1878, p. 9. 

DUNDERHEED, a blockhead; a simpleton. "What's the 
dunderkted m^^ed on*t ? " 

DUNGEN, DUNG (the/./, of ding), driven or knocked about 
with violence. See Ding. 

** Giff ony be tane u-ith the loaf of a halpenny in bargh. he aw throo 
the toun to be dum^'m. And for a halpenny to iiij penys worth, he aw 
to be mar fayrly dun^yn,*" — Frig. Vet., quoted by Dr. Murray, Scottish 
Dutit<:tSs p 32. 

•• They'd dnm^ my puer hams out." — G. Stuart, Joco-Serious Discourse, 
1686, p. 35. 

** Aa thowt he'd a d*Kifu doon the door ; he cam wi sic bats on't." 

DUNGEON ABLE. A dumgeonjbU bodj-; a shrew^d person; 
or« as the vul^rar express it, a divelish fellow. As Tartarus 
signit\e$ holU and a juji^rfOJi ; so dungeon is applied to both. — 

DUNG-TK A/KR. the Arctic skua gull. 5^tfj Icngicaudus^ Brisson, 

DUNK* dAtup« dank. Seit Doxk and Doxkixdale. 

DUN NY* dArk-cx>lourt\l. smoke-heclouded, and, so, of a dun- 

** TViws*.^ ««E<d clad ^iv bcGST ba's. 

T T>vvsp5ce, i r5:6, }emmj Jcmescn's IVkeny. 

" Ooe» :h3ci =i£ht. 
VxN*. ^\a" t^^e if, the ^«iir.c $s>c«e ci heU." 

Mjici^k, i.. 5. 

DrNSrANUv>Kvn\^.H DIAMOND, a name popularly given 
t\^ tho \t\>;A's \\VAS^o:'tA*.Iy fcer^i rear Dunstanborough 
TAstK^ xv,\ tV.o vNws; . a:^x: Ar;vievi rrcverbially to the younger 
biAUx^»>^^ \^t t<^^v.AU's l>ccvX'^:r.j: :." ihat locality. — M. A. 
^VwhA^^>* ,^ A^^i^v /• »W; i4:wwic^wtw\ cV,. iS35i, p. 44. 


DUNT, to strike or give a blow on the backside. This was a 
favourite custom among schoolboys, who held up the victim 
by legs and aims and struck the nether part of the person 
against a stone. 

DUNT, bad coal, mineral charcoal; any imperfection in the 
quality of a seam of coal. — Brockett, 

DUNT-ABOOT, a person ill-used, made a convenience of, or 
knocked about. ** Aye, poor thing, she's a fair dunt-aloot.'' — 

DUNTER, a porpoise. 

DURANCE, very strong, enduring material. (Obs.) 

" An upper body of durance, pair of new black hose, and a new apron of 
durance.*' — Will of William Grey, Miller, Newcastle. — Richard Welford, 
Hist. 0/ Newcastle, vol. iii., p. 32. 

DU RKE, to laugh— Northumberland.— Hailiweir 5 Diet. (Obs.) 

DURR, numh.— Brockett. 

DUSH, to thrust, to strike. (Obs.) 

" For thare sal be swylk raryng and ruschyng. 
And rawmpyng of deeveles and dynggyng and duschyng." 

Hampole. MS. Bowes, p. 214. 

DUSTIN, a thrashing, a hiding. " Aa'll gi' ye sic a dustin as'll 
gar ye scart where it*s not yucky." Compare with Dush. 

DUSTY-MILLER, a humble bee that leaves on the hand, 
when taken hold of, a light dust. The plant Auricula. 

DUZZY, dizzy, giddy, foolish. " Ye duzzy beggor, what are 
ye deein ?** ** Me heed wis quite duzzy."* 

DWALM, a slight illness, a faint fit. " He tyuk a kind o* 
dwaniy like.** 

DWALM-OFF, to doze off to sleep, to go off into a faint. 
•• Ah dwalmed oflf to sleep."— Dr. EmhUton MS. 

DWAMY, faint. 

" Bet torned dwamy, like to fall." 

J. P. Robson, d. 1870, Betty Beesley. 

DWINE, to pine away, to dwindle. 

" Cattle dwining SLV/Siy under the power of witchcraft." — T. Wilson, 
Note to Newcastle and Carlisle Railway, 1838. 
" A flour, that es fay re to se 
Than son aftir that it es forth broght, 
Welkes and duynes til it be noght," 

Hampole, d. 1349, Pricke 0/ Conscience {Morris)^ 1. 704. 


DWINEY, sickly, ill-thriven, dwindling through illness. 

" There was dwiney little Peg. not se nimmel i' the leg." 

W. Midford. Pitman's Skellyscope, 1818. 

" Men are se dwiney noo-a-days.** 

W. Oliver, d. 1848, The Lament. 

DWININ, a decline, a consumptive state, from dwine. "She 
tyuk a dwinin, poor thing." 

DYEL, DEAL, DALE, DOLE, to divide, to apportion. 
^^Dyel smaal an' sarve aal." Hence a dyel of land is a 
portion divided, allotted, or dealt out to the occupier. 

" The tan bad dele the child in tua."— Hampole, d. 1349, Priche of 

DYEL, DALE, a deal board. See Thill. 

" But heavy puttin's now forgotten, 
Sic as we had i* former days, 
Ower holey thill and dyels a' spletten. 
Trams now a' run on metal ways." 

T. Wilson, Pitman s Pay, pt. ii., v. 67. 

DYEM, dame. 

" Will wakened up the drowsy dyem" 

T. Wilson, Pitman's Pay, pt. iii., v. 129. 

DYE-SAND, ochraceous sand produced by pulverizing a soft 
sandstone. Its bright colour makes it a favourite article for 
washing over stone floors or steps. 

DYKE. See Dike. 

DYUN, done {p.t. oido). Often given as duin. '* Dyun up" — 
done up, or exhausted. In Northumberland, generally, the 
word is sounded as de-yun ; on Tyneside as dyun. 

" Aw wonder when they will be duin.** 

T. Wilson, Pitman* s Pay, pt. iii., v. 28. 

DYVOUS, moody, melancholy. See Divus. 

EACH, an adze. See Edge. 

EALD, old, also Sige.—Halliweirs Did. (Obs.) 

EALDREN, elderly. (Obs.) 


EALE, an island. " Eales '* is the name of a hamlet on the 
Tyne, at Knarsdale, and of a portion of the haugh at 
Corbridge. There is a place called Wyden Eels in Halt- 
whistle. Wide-^^/s and Bridge-^^/s are places on the East 
Allen. On North Tyne there are the Ecls^ near Wark, 
Bellingham Eels^ and Eels in the parish of Grey stead, and 
£^/5-bridge on the Derwent. — Hodgson, Northumberland, pt. ij., 
vol. i., p. 86, note. These eales, or eels, are low grounds liable 
to river floods. 

EANY. *^ Eany and light," a term applied to bread when the 
interior has a glazed appearance and is full of holes. 

EAR, year. It is both singular and plural. ** Power ear come 

EAR, or NEAR, a kidney. 

EARFE, fearful, timorous. See Arf. 

EARTH-FAST. An earth fast, or an insulated stone enclosed 
in a bed of earth, is supposed to possess peculiar properties. 
It is frequently applied to strains and bruises and used to 
dissipate swellings, but its blow is reckoned uncommonly 
severe. — Richardson's Table-book, Legend, Div,, vol. ij., p. 164, 
note. The stones thus specially venerated were wrought 
flints, or stone axe-hammers. Compare Holey-stone. 

EASING-DROPS, the drops of water from the eaves of houses 
after rain. — HalliwelL The word occurs in *^ evesyng-bord,'' 
the board at the eaves of the house, in account for repair of 
the Heron-pit, at the Black Gate, Newcastle, 1358. 

EASINGS, the projection of the roof of a house; the eaves. — 
Hodgson MS. Also the projection of the covering of a stack 
of corn or hay. 

esculent (still common in meadow ground in the neighbour- 
hood of old castles, villages, and monasteries). Polygonum 
Bisiorta of Linnaius. — Rev. John Hodgson, on Wardley, 
Archaologia ^ liana, vol. i., p. 117. 

EATHE, easy. See Eeth. 

" The uttermost walles were eathe to win." 

Ballad, The Rising in the Norths 1569. 


EAT-OUT. This expression is applied when a level coal- 
drift is turned to the dip, in order to take advantage of (or 
eat-cut) a rise hitch. — GrtenwelL 

EBB, shallow; an expression referring both to the depth of 
shafts and strata. 

"The coal lies very ebb.**— Ho^rh Miller, Geohgy of OtUrbum and 
Eisdou. — Geologicjl Surrey Memoir, 1SS7. 

ECKY, sorry. •* Aw wad be ecky" — Brockett^ third edition. 

EDDER, an adder. See Ether. 

EDDLE, money earned. EDDLE, to earn. See Addle. 

" Savin's good eddJe.'*— Proverb. 
EDDLE, putrid water — Sorthumb€rland. — Halliweirs Did. 

EDGE, a ridge, or rim of ground, generally an escarpment. — 
Hugh Miller, Gtolof^y of OtUrbum and Elsdon, — Geological 
Survey Memoir^ 1887. There are twenty-one place-names in 
Northumberland into which edge enters (Biddleston-ri^^, 
&c.) — ^J. V. Gregory, Arckaologia j^liana^ vol. ix., p. 64. See 
under Dodd. 

EDGE, EADS, an adze. 

EDIE, or EDOM, Adam. 

•• Edom o* Gordon.**— -P^o Ballads. 

NEEDLE, the Scandtx pecten veneris. Called also WitcKs 
nudle, and DeiPs darnin needle. 

EE, eye. EEN, eyes. 

" Come to me. ma little lammy, 
Come, thoa apple o'ma #*/.'* 

Thomas Wilson. Pitman's Pay, 1S26. pt. i., v. 92. 

Ee is also applied to an orifice, such as the hole in a pick or 
hammer, or a grindstone. The mill-ee, the orifice in the 
casing of mill-stones where the flour is conveyed into the 
•pout; or the channel hole by which water passes on to 
the wheel of a water mill. 

•• The mousey she cam to the Mill r/, to the Mill ie, to the Mill a : 
The mousey she cam to the Mill u. 

Cuddy alone an' me. 
The mousey she cam to the Mill ee, there the froggy for to see. 
Kick m* leary. cowden dan. Cuddy alone an* me." 

Old Northumberland Rhyme. 


Well-ee^ the mouth of a well. Kiln-ee, the orifice in a 

lime kiln from which the lime is drawn. The pronunciation 

is generally ee-uh, ee-ih; plural, ee-yen. See also Eye. 

" That sight he sal se with gastly eghe.'* 

Hampole, d. 1349, PricUe of Conscience. 
Morris^ line 2,234. 

£E ! an expression of delight or wonderment. 

EE, you. " It wis ee *at did it " — It was you who did it. 

EE-BREE, the eyebrow. 

" I would the faem were ower my face, 
Or the mools on my ee-bree," 

A. C. Swinburne, Tyncside Widow, 1888. 

EECHY, itchy. 

EEL. See Eale. 

EEL-BEDS, the water crowfoot, Ranunculus aquatilis, 

EELD, to yield. ** Hoo much is the coo eeldin ?" 

ATOR, various names for a small eel. A boy who puts off 
his clothes, but fears to bathe, is contemptuously called an 

" Eely-eely-ator, cast your tail in a knot 
And I'll thraw ye into the waitor." 

Juvenile Rhyme. 

EEL-WARE, the plant Ranunculus fluitans. Compare Eel- 

EEN, eyes. 

EER, year. 

EERAND, an errand, a journey. ** He went ance eerand 
for'd " — he went a special journey or errand for it. 

EET [S.] , it. ** Aa seed eet mesel." 

EETH, easy — Northumherland. — Halliwell's Diet. 

" Where ease abownds yt's eath tu doe amis." 

Spenser, Faerie Queene, ii., iii., 40. 

EEZ, a form of his. So sounded in such sentences as ** Him 
an* eez new fangles." When it occurs, however, as in the 
phrase, ** If he comes here agyen wi' hccz new fangles,*' the 
aspirate is strongly marked. 


EFA, a small, diminutive person. " He's nowt but an </«." 
EFTER, after. 
EIDENT, industrious. 

EIGHT, eighth. Frounced eit. 

•• This is the seevent or eight/' — Thomas Bewick, The Howdy, ed. 1S50, 
p. II. 

EIGH-WYE, equivalent to *• Well-you-know." A colloquial 
expression sometimes used to express indifference or regret. 
** Eigk'Wye ! it canna be helped." ^^Eigh-wye! tyek yor aan 
way wi d. 

EILD, without milk. " Eild gimmers, eild ewes." — Auctioneer's 
advertisement, Newcastle Daily yournal, April 23, 1887. The 
term is applied to a barren ewe, or to one that has missed 
having a lamb ; but more frequently to a cow after she has 
ceased to give milk, ranging from four months till the time of 
calving. See Geld, 2 and 3. 

EIT, eight. 

EKE, an addition to a building, an added piece. An '* eke " is 
also the addition to a beehive. 

EKE, EEKE, the dressing or oil in woollen cloth. "The 
eeke's no' oot." 

ELD-FATHER, father-in-law. (Obs.) 

Nicholas Rayne wills that he be buried in the Church of St. Nicholas. 
Newcastle, "as near my eld-father as possible may be." — Richard 
Welford, History of Newcastle ^ vol. iii., p. 329. 

ELDIN, the butter-burr, Petasiles vulgaris. See Ell Docken. 

" Called in Northumberland an eldin, in Cambridgeshire a butterbur*'— 
Turner's Herbal, 1562, ij., 83. 

ELDIN, rubbish, or brushwood, for fuel. 

•• Elding, or fire-elding, fuel, such as turf, peat, or wood." — Hodgson MS. 

ELDRITCH, ghastly, frightful. See Ellerish. 

•• Screachin out an eldritch sound." — Lewis Proudlock, Cuddie and his 
Crawin' Hen. 

ELF-SHOTS, ELF-ARROWS, stone arrow-heads. 
ELICK, Alexander. *^ Elick's Lonnin' " in Newcastle. 


ELL-DOCKEN, ELDIN - DOCKEN, the butter- burr, 
Petasites vulgaris. See Eldin, i. 

ELLEMS, the bars of a gate. Sometimes called sehns. 

ELLER, the alder, Alnus glutinosa, L. See Aller and Oller. 

ELLERISH, dismal, frightful. Halliwell spells it elriche, 
giving it as a Durham word. The form is sometimes heard 
aLsyellerish. It is often written eldritch, 

*\ An ellerish cry" — a fearful, dismal cry. — Brockett, third edition. 

plant ragwort, Senecio yacohoca. Known also as yellow-top- 
ragwort^ or yellow -weed, 

EL-MOTHER, a stepmother. (Obs.) 

ELM-WYCH, the wych-elm, also called the Scotch-elm, Ulmus 

ELSE, already. " Hoo quick ye*ve been ! He* ye been there 
else ?*' It is also used for ** in the meantime." ** There noo ; 
that'll dee, else,^^ But frequently as we use " eh ?" when an 
interrogative is meant. ** Wait ye war there, else ?'* is 
thus, " Is it not a fact that you were there, eh ?'* 

ELSHINS, the plant Scaiidix pecten veneris^ L, See Deil's- 


ELSIE, or AILSIE, Alice. " Do ye ken Elsie Marley, hinny ?** 
ELSON, ELSKIN, ELSHIN, ELSEEN, a shoemaker's awl. 

•• 600 elsone blades." — Appraisement of the goods of Thomas Liddell. — 
R. Welford, History of Newcastle ^ XVI. Century, p. 490. 

ELSPITH, ELSPETH. A woman's Christian name, 
Elizabeth. It is not used as an abbreviation of Elizabeth, 
but as a distinct name. 

ELWAYSEES [S.] , in every way. " Aa've tried ect elwaysees, 
an* it winna gan." 

EME, an uncle by the mother's side. — BaiUys Diet, Earn is 
more proper, on account of the etymology, but erne is perhaps 
more common. 

'• Henry Hotspur and his eame. 
The Earl of Wor'ster." 

Drayton, Polyolbion, 22, p. 1,070. 
Nare's Glossary. 

*' Still (1824) used in Northumberland." — Hodgson MS. 


EMPY, empty. 

ENCIENT, ENNCIENT, the pronunciatioaof amri^w/. Ancient 
means in old forms a standard and a standard bearer. In the 
following entry from St. Nicholas' parish register, Newcastle, 
it is used for ** colour-sergeant '* : — •'1644, Will. Wayre, 
Enncient to Coronell Arishin, bur. 4 Jan." — ^J. R. Boyle, 
Cathedral Church of St. Nicholas^ p. 88. ** Yours is a very old 
town, Mr. Mayor," said a distmguished guest to the chief 
magistrate of Newcastle. ** Yis, sor," replied the mayor, ** it 
always was an encUnt pleyce." 

END, to set upright, to set on end. Upend is often used 
similarly, and **^«irt up," or ** up end it," are indifferently 
spoken with the same meaning. 

END-ON, having the end towards the spectator. Hence 
conveying the meaning of an advancing body. ** The waggons 
wis comin* eud-on.'' 

ENDWEDGE, a fire-brick, gin. long by 4jin. wide, made 2\\n. 
thick at one end, diminishing to i^in. at the other. 

ENDWIS, ENDWAYS, forward, on end. ** Co' bye, let me 
get endms wi' me wark." ** Even endways " — in an even, 
continuous flow. "He taaked even endms.'* 

ENDY. An endy fellow is one who is always trj'ing to control 
matters for his own emolument. 

ENEUGH, ENEW, ENOW, enough. 

ENGAGE, to attract. The word is used in the dialect with 
the early meaning which is still present in its form o( engaging — 
attractive — in the literary dialect. 

" Maw bed wad engage ony duchess." 

J. P. Robson. •• Nanny Jackson^s Letter,*' 
Bards of the Tyne, 1S49, p. 237. 

ENGINE-BANK, an inclined plane at a colliery where waggons 
arc hauled by a rope and stationary engine. 

ENGINE-PIT, the shaft of a colliery in which the pumps are 

KNGINE-PLANE. At a colliery, a level main road, "a road 
on which the tubs are hauled a^ong by ropes from a stationary 
enj:ine.*' — W. E. Nicholson, Glcssary of Coal Trade Terms, 1888. 


ENGINE-SEAM, the name of a seam of coal on Tyneside. 
In 1649 Gray wrote : ** Master Beaumont, a gentleman of 
great ingenuity and rare parts, adventured into our mines, 
who brought with him many rare engines not known then in 
these parts." The memory of these •* rare engines'* survives 
in the name of the seam which he appears to have discovered, 
still called the engine seam or " Beaumont.'* 

ENOO, YENOO, shortly, anon. ** Aa*ll be there jr«a(?.** 

ENTRY, a passage way ; a narrow lane, like a chare. There 
were in Newcastle, formerly, the Bakers* Entry, doggers' 
Entry, Fenv/ick's Entry, Mackford's Entry, Joint Stock Entry, 
Dowie's Entry, Mill Entry, Johnson's Entry, Wrangham*s 
Entry, Spencer's Entry, Scott's Entry, Wood Entry, White- 
boar Entry, &c. In Newcastle the word is pronounced as a 
trisyllable — en-ter-ee. The narrow lanes in the suburb of 
Sandgate were nearly all called entries, whilst those on the 
Quayside were generally known as chares. The passage- 
way of a house. ** Leave yor dorty shoes i* the entry " — leave 
them in the passage. 

" Such sighs and soft wishes, from lads and from lasses, 
Who tell their fond tales at an entrv-cnd." 

W. Stephenson, senr.. Newcastle on Saturday Night. 

EQUAL-AQUAL, equally balanced. 

ERDSREW, ARD-SREW, the common shrew mouse. 

ERLES, earnest money ; pronounced arles, which see. 

ESH, the ash- tree, Fraxinus excelsior. ** An even esh *' is an ash 
leaf in which the terminal leaflet is wanting, and the pairs of 
leaflets are consequently even. It is considered as lucky to 
find an " even esh ** as to find a four-leaved clover. 

ESK, a newt. See Ask. 

ESP, the aspen tree, Popiilns tremula, or trembling poplar. 
ESS, ashes. See Ass. 
ESS-HWOLE, an ash bin. 

ESTOVER, a hedge stake. Compare Stower. 

ETHER, EDDER, an adder. In Northumberland the dragon- 
fly is called ** hull ether,'' or ^^ fleein ether,'' flying adder. 


ETHER, NETHER, to blast, as by frost or cold wind. See 

ETHERISH, keen, cold, biting. ** It's an etherish mornin'." 

ETTIN, or YETUN, a boggle. 

" The peple ther say that ther dwelled yn it one Yotun, whom they 
fable to have been a Gygant." — Leyland, on Corbridge, Itinerary, third 
edition, vol. v. 

ETTLE, to intend, to endeavour, to foresee, to contrive by 
forethought, and, so, to appoint, to arrange ; always meaning 
some action that has been thought out beforehand. " Aa'D 
ettlc to be there, noo, if I can." 

" A galvanic machine 'at aa ettUd .to myek mesel." — Geordy's Last, 
1878, p. 10. 

ETTLEMENT, intention. That which is set aside or 
intended for one. 

EVENDOON, straight down, straightforwardly, An evendoon 
rain is a steady downpour. Evendoon thump is a blunt, 
straightforward statement. 

EWE-DAISY, the plant Poieniilla tormentilla. Known also as 
sh(ph^rd*s knot J jiesh-and-biood, or blood-root, 

E\VE-DYKE. See Ewe-huxg. 


** The Daisy in North Tindale. GomiJi is any flower of a golden 
cv^lour. and then figurati\-ely a flower.*' — Hod^scns MS. 

EWE-HUXG, a dyke set with hazel or willow bows on the 
top, to keep sheep from leaping over ; or a row of short stakes 
stuck in a sod hedge with a rope drawn along their tops 
through a hole in each. — Hcdgson's MS, 

EWER, an udder, 

E XC LAM A T I OX S. Most of these are nowadays used without 
any thought whatc>*er of their original meaning. They are 
sjx^ken as "idle words'*: but some of them enter so frequently 
into the common speech that to omit them wotild be to leave 
.1 bUvnk ir. trie colltxnion of Xorthumberland words. Aa's 
Cv^\t\l ! Avi *s j;oxcvi ! Ad smash ! Aehy ! Assay ! Ay-di- 
::h^ ! l^aa ! l^aa sang ! l^i blisi I Bi* cavers ! Bi crike! 
l>i V tikcy ! Bi g^ll ! Bi gocks ! Bi golly ! Bi gxmi ! Bi jingi 
Bi ;irks ! Bi maa truly I Bi maa jiokers ! Bi me sow! 1 

xoiTHriCrZii-ixr Trrxr^, r-v: 

Bi the gowky ! Bliss =* ! t'iss :i5 ! S*.r~ n^a rics ! Bl.^u 
ye! BoodyaEkers ! Bdczt Nick ! FuzTj.-'. Fy eye ! By 
Goshen ! Carties I Crike ! CrJces '. Crlkev '. Dil ! Di^c ! 
Dang it! Dash! Dash^eirU:: Dash =:e b^-.:c=<: I>eane 
me! Dear knaas ! Deed ! Deil rin '. De "il :e:ch": ! Deil 
ken ! De'il me ksn ! DeC rive thcr sark ! De:l scan \-e ! 
De'il smash! De'il stop cut tha esi:! Deuce :yek ye! 
Deums ! Di bon ! Di zze rartle ! D:=g ! Doi ! Dooi ! 
Drab it ! Eee ! Egccks ! Eh ! Eb what a ! Eh wow ! 
Eigh wye ! Faiks ! For-a-sykes ! Gad sar.ash ! Gad sn^ash 
me sark ! Gan ti Hecklebarzy ! Geh ! Ge: oot ! Get away I 
Geud deed ! Go ! Go bon ! Go cab ir.^a luc ! Gcxi geyhd 
us ! God's wuns ! Go set ! Gosh cab ! Gox ! Hadaway ! 
Heigh how ! Hinny how ! Hooi ! Hours I How ! How 
marra ! How there ! I'iaiks ! I'faikics ! Kaa ! Kid awa}* 
man ! Kiver awav ! Leuk a dav ! Lillv leuds ! Lilly wuns ! 
Lilly wunters ! Loaky rr.e ! Losh ! Losh a daisy ! Losh 
man ! Losh marcy ! Losh me ! Lucka ! Lucksta ! Luck 
ye, see ye ! Maa ! Maa canies ! Maa conscience ! Maa 
faith ! Maa patience ! Maa sang ! Maa santies ! Manalive ! 
Marcy on us ! Mv Joes ! Od ! Od bin ye ! Od dal ! Od 
man! Odool! Od'sbobs! Od's fish ! Od's hefi ! Od*s 
marcy ! Od smash ! Od smon the* ! Od swell ye ! Od 
swite ! Od's wunners ! Od's wunnerful ! Od zounds ! 
Bankers ! Sarties ! Seesta ! See ye ! Shem a ma I Shem bin 
ye ! Sink ! Sink me ! Sink me heart I Sink me sowl I Smash ! 
Smash man ! Smash marra ! Smash me ! Smash me crop ! 
Smash me hoggers ! Smash me sark ! Syeks man ! Sykes 
alive ! Ye boozy alley ! Wae's me ! Wally ! Weelet o* the 
fellow ! Well aa nivvor ! Welladay ! Wei la way ! What 
cheer! Wow! Wuks! Wuns! Wuntersful ! Wye, wye! 
Ye buzzy ! Ye buzzy-alley ! Zoons ! 

In the foregoing it will be seen that Od and Dod are thin 
disgtiises. It is not so apparent that gosh, gox, golly, gocks and 
cocks are also corruptions of the same name. But such is the 
case, as the oath in Hamlet — ** By cocke they are to Manic '' — 
shows us. It is yet more difficult to see how these words have 
acquired the verbal form " to be goxed," or ** to be coxed." 
The oath ** Boodyankers " is ingeniously suggested to be 
*^hody and croix " (or cross) ; and *♦ sankers" is also said to be 
a disguised form of saint croix (holy cross), "Crike" and 
** Crikey '* are a veiled form of Christ. ** Smash " may also 
be mess, or <* by the mass,*' and ** Ad smash," or ** Od smash," 
would thus mean ** God's Mass." ** Baa Sang " may 
similarly mean, " by the Sangrail *' — that is, by the holy dish. 
The Saviour's passion is referred to in the ** Od swite," or 


* Come and fadge with me * is as much as saying * Come and 
break bread with me and taste wine, in token that bygones 
shall be bygones.' " — The Rev. J. W. Dunn, on Warkworth, 
History of Berwickshire Naturalists Club, 1863, vol. v., p. 56. 

FADGY, a thick-set, fat little man. 

FADGYAN, a very fat child. It is spoken as Fadgy Ann, 

FADOM, FATHOM, a fathom, an arm's stretch, or six feet. 
A huge ash tree having ten trunks, ** each more than I can 
fathoni " — that is, stretch round. (Raine's Life of Hodgson, 
vol. i., p. 65.) A fathom of rope is measured off by seizing 
the end in the rignt hand and passing it through the left 
across the chest. The stretch by an average man is six feet, 
and ropes are in this way measured off most rapidly and with 
great accuracy. Like the "foot," the "hand," and the inch 
(French pouce, a thumb's breadth), standard measures of 
length, the fadom is a part of the natural man. 

FADOM, FADDOM, a proper use or feeling. ** I hae ne 
faddom i' my legs. 

FAFF, fallow land. 

FAFFLE, to stutter, or stammer ; to saunter ; to trifle ; to 
{umhle.—Halliweirs Diet. Brockett adds, " to faddle,'* 

FAG, the fresh water fish, the loach. Colitis harhatula. 

FAGGIT, a term of contempt. ** Ye impitent faggit" 

FAHREN, the pronunciation of the word Fame in Fame Islands 
and in Lindisfarne. The a soft as in Fair -en, ** Fairen 
Islands." The word fern is also pronounced in the same 

FAIKES, an exclamation, meaning "i' faith !" See Faix. 

FAIL, soil or turf as used in the North in a/rti7 dyke. Perhaps 
it may originally have had the same origin as vail, a sod 
wall ; and it is remarkable that the great German Wall, from 
the Danube to the Rhine, was called the Pfahl or Stakes, 
from the materials that composed it. — Hodgson MS, 

" In behint yon auld/a// dyke, 
I wot there lies a new-slain knight." 

The Twa Corbies. 


FAIR, FOR FAIR, or FOR FAIRS, in reality, in earnest— 
1.^., seriously, in opposition to jocosely, playfully. ** Nyen o' 
yor shamin ; gan on for fairs this time !'* 

" Aw myest could wish, for his dear sake, 
That aw'd been drowned /or /«/>." 

R. Gilchrist, d. 1844, Bold Archy. 

•'That's nobbut lees ; come, speak /or /a/rs.*' 

Ed. Corvan. Bull Dog 0' Shields^ 1853. 

FAIR, FAIRIN, a present from a fair. " What '11 ye buy is 
for me fair ?" ** If ye gan, bring'z Sifairin hyem, mind !'* 

FAIR, quite. See Fairly. 

" Aa's/a/> sick o* love." 

J. P. Robson, Sang o' Solomon, 
Northumberland version, ch. v., p. 8. 

FAIR, exactly, straight. ** He hit him fair on the heed." " Fair 
V the middle." 

FAIR-DAYS, the goose grass, Potentilla anserina, 

FAIR-FALL-YOU, fair befall you; a common benediction — a 
blessing attend you. — Brochett. 

FAIRLY, used to express the sense of quite, or thoroughly. 
** Ye can see the poor beast is fairly deun." **Sair deun " 
means very much done ; but "/ajV deun " means completely 
done. See Fair, 2. 

" ' Fairly on to the bottom/ is a call from banksman to brakesman to 
lower the cage in a pit gently on to the bottom." — W. E. Nicholson, 
Coal Trade Glossary^ 1888. 

the face or hands. 

FAIRY. The superstitions concerning fairies still linger in 
such names as follow : — 

Fairy-butter^ a fungous excrescence, sometimes found about 
the roots of old trees, or a species of iremella^ found on furze 
and broom. — HalliwelVs Dictionary, When found in houses it 
is reckoned lucky. — Brockett. 

F airy 'lint t fairy flax, Linum cat hart icum. 

Fairy-money f treasure-trove ; also the seed spores of a cup- 
shaped fungus. 

Fairy-pipes, small old tobacco pipes. Some of these have 
been made to hold a piece of tobacco, or other narcotic, about 
the size of a pill. See Pipe-stopple. 



Fairy-ringSy the circular windings of the spawn or roots of 
mushrooms, or some other fungi. — Hodgson's MS. Fairy rings 
are connected in some way with the special mode of growth 
of Agaricus oreades and A . gambosm. The green " sour grass " is 
not, however, always in a circle, for it may be sometimes seen 
running in a wavy line, interrupted irregularly. — ^Johnston, 
Botany of the Eastern Borders, p. 273. 

Fairy -tickles, freckles. See Fairney-tickles. 

FAKISH, FAKED-UP, dressed up, made up. 

FALL. See Faa. 

FALL, the falling down of the roof or stone in a pit. 

FALL, a rope. A ** block /«//," or a ** taickle fall,'* is the rope 
for a set of blocks. In a pumping pit a fall is used for lifting 
portions of the pumping arrangements during repairs. A fall 
is also '* the bucket or clack-/a// in a pump, which opens and 
shuts to allow the passage of water." — Mining Glossary, New- 
castle Terms, 1852. 

FALLS, the division of a large arable held attached to a 
village. — HalliweWs Diet. See Fa'-and-fa-about. 

FALSE-BEDDING, oblique lamination in a stratum of stone. 

FALT, fault. This word illustrates a characteristic sound in 
the Northumberland dialect, the a being short, as in the 
a in French a la mode. The words fait, fnalt, salt, are all 
pronounced thus. The contrast between the short sharp a 
and the au sound, in the speech of the Hterary dialect, is very 

" O base mault, 
Thou did'st the fault, 
And into Tyne thou shalt." 

In North Northumberland the I is elided in fault and salt, 
and they are spoken fat and sat. Malt retains the /, however. 

FAMILIOUS, adj\, family. " A familions complaint." 


The Fell is " quite /atmish for rearin' young bairns." 

T. Wilson, Stanzas on a Line of InUnded Road, 1825. 

FAMP, clayey shale.— Hugh Miller, Geology of Otterhum and 

Elsdon. — Geological Survey Memoir, 1887. 


FANCICLE. fanciful, capricious. 

FANCY, variegated, particoloured, out of the common. " He's 
getten ^ fancy neckercher." 

FAND {p,t. oifind)^ found ; p.p. funden (pronounced funnen), or 
fund. " He hadn't funnen'd when aa left the place." ** He 
should ^fund it oot bi this time.** See Fun. 

FANG, to shoot down; to capture. Compare Infangentheof. 

FANKIT, stuck hard and fast. In the ballad of Parcy Reed a 
description is given of the treachery of " the fause-hearted 
Haa's," who 

" fixed his sword within the sheath, 

That out again it winna come." 

In this plight he was suddenly attacked by the Croziers ; and 
the story says 

'* Brave Parcv raised \nsfankit sword, 
And felled the foremost to the ground. " 

To fang, is to seize, to gripe, to clutch. 

*' Destruction /dff^ mankind.'* 

Shakspeare, Timon. 

Fangedf or fankit^ is therefore seized, and, so, stuck fast. (Obs.) 

FANNY-GRASS, couch grass, Triticum repens. Called also 
quicken grass and rack. 

FANTOME, or FANTOOM CORN, oats which have the 
shells empty, or so nearly empty that they are blown over the 
tail-board of the ** fanners " in the process of winnowing. 

FAR AND, used in composition for advancing towards, or being 

ready. Fighting farand^ ready for fighting; farand man, 

2l traveller or itinerant merchant. This usage is probably 

from fare, to go. Farand also means fashion, manner, and 

countenance, p>erhaps from faring ; so well or ill-farand, good or 

bad looking. — Halliweirs Diet. (Obs.) 

*' Farani is used in composition: zs fighting-farand, i.e., in a fighting 
humour. (See Atid/arand.)" — Ray*s Gloss. 

FARANTLY, orderly, handsome, comely, good-natured, 
respectable, neat. — Halliweirs Diet. 

" Fair znd/arantfyt fair and handsome.*' 

Ray's Gloss. 

FARD, or FAURD, favoured. " IW-fard;' " weel-fard "—that 
is, ill-looking or good-looking. 


FARDIN, a farthing. '' \ fardin candle "—the small candle, 
fonnerly in much use. 

FARDIN-PANT, a fountain, pant^ or stand at which water 
was sold for a farthing a skeelful. These were common 
in Newcastle in the times of the early Water Company. 
Eklward Corvan absurdly tells us about "The Phantom 
Skeel ; a tale of a Fardin Pant.** 

FARE, to near, or approach. 

" The cow fans a-calving." — Brockett. 

FARL, a term of contempt. *' Gid away, ye aad farl /" 

FARL, or FARREL, an oatcake — Northumberland. — HaHiwclVs 
Diet. Or the fourth part of a round cake, as '* a farl o* short- 

FARLEY, a wonder, a strange thing. To "spy fatleys** is 
equivalent to seeing strange and wonderful matters in common- 
place things. 

FARM, the pronunciation oi firm. 

FAR-OWER, by much too. " Far-ower cunnin." " Yor far- 
owcr late a comin." ^* Far-ower far." 

FARRAW, a milch cow not with calf. 

FARREL, the fourth part of a circular oatcake, the division 
being made by a cross." — HalUwelVs Diet. Bui farrel is simply 
the broad pronunciation of farl. 

FASAN, a pheasant. Very common. So spoken by old people. 
FASHION, to grow in resemblance. 

" If it fashions like its dad." 

J. P. Robson. b. 1808, d. 1870, Betty BeesUy. 

FASHOUS, troublesome. " AaVe hed a fashous job on't, aa 
can tell ye." 

FASTENS, or EASTERNS EEN, or EVEN, Shrove or Pan- 
cake Tuesday ; the eve of Ash Wednesday, on which begins 
the Lenten fast. See Pancake-Tuesday. 

FAST-HAUD, the occurrence of " the * set ' getting off the 
road, and the tubs jammed fast (in a pit), or the cage getting 
fast in the shaft." — Nicholson, Gloss, of Coal Trade Terms, 1888. 


bordways plai 

I up the 

a pit without 

FAST-JENKIN (in mining), 
middle of a pillar. 

FAST-SIDE, the side next the solid coal. 

FAST-SHOT, a charge of powder exploded 1 
the desired effect. Called also slannin bobby. 

FAST-WALL, a sheth wall in a pit ; the wall in which, at the 
top or bottom of an air course, the bearing-up or bearing- 
down stopping is placed. — GrunnjiU, 

FAT-COAL, an old term for blacksmiths' coal, a caking coal, 
highly bitumenous and free from sulphur. 

FAT-CROWDY, a ■' crowdy " made from the skimming off the 
pot which contained meat and broth. When the pot 
containing the meat and broth for the Sunday's dinner was 
boiling, the upper stratum of water wilh the fat floating 
thereon was used to mix with the oatmeal of the crowdy, and 
thus called a. fat-crou^dy. See Crowdy. 

FAT-HEN, the Chenopodium album, a weed, common in richly 
cultivated ground, which is occasionally cooked and eaten. 
It is also known as goose fool, muck a'ted, and mties. Fat-ben is 
also a name in North Northumberland for the AtripUx pattila, L. 

FATTY, a fat person. " What a falty he is." 

FAURD, favoured, as " weel faurd" or "ill faurd" — wel 
favoured, ill favoured. See Fard. 


FEADE, an enemy. The word has come down lo us in Iht 
" deedly ftadt " of the Border. Compare Feid. 

FEAK, to be restless. See Fvke. 

" And Iruly, sir, it burnl my leg, 
And garr'd me//ek like Hen wilh Egg." 

G. Stuart, Joca-Seriem DiscDHtu, 1686, p. 18. 
"They/eak and cannot keep 3 seal." 

Ed. Chicken, Tht CoUier'i Wtdding, 1735. 

FEAL, to hide. 

" Ho iiM feats can find." — Proverb. 

FEAR, to put in dread, lo frighten. 


FEARDLIKE, frightened, afraid. 

FEARDY, a frightened or terrified person. ** He's a fcardy'' 

FEARENTLY, in fear of, afraid of. 

FEARSOME, dreadful-looking. 

FEAT, neat, clever, dexterous, elegant. — Hdliweirs Diet. 

FEATHER, the thin side of a plough sock — that is to say, the 
far side from near the point to the "little heen," or heel. 
See also Stook and Feathers. 

FEATHER-FUL, FEATHER-FOOLY, the feverfew, Pyrcth- 
rum parthenium. Feather fool is apparently fever futile, 

FEATLY, neatly, dexterously. 

FECK, FYEK, a quantity, an abundance. He' ye ony feck ?'* 
— Have you any quantity of it ? ** Aa he* nee fyek V me 
hands '* — I have no great quantity on hand. 

FECKFUL, resourceful. 

FECKLE, to entangle. — Brockett, third edition. 

FECKLESS, one without resource. **A feckless body " is one 
unable to make any effective effort. A weak or incapable 
person. This word is much more common than its opposite, 

FECKLY, FEEKLY, chiefly, mostly. " It's feckly his aan dein." 

FEDER, father; also FETHER, FITHOR, FADHOR, and 

FEE, wages. 

•• Ye shall nev'r crave twice ot me 
The smallest penny of your/rr." 

G. Stuart, Joco-Strious Discourse, 1S86, p. 26. 

To this line the Newcastle author adds a marginal note for 
the Southern reader, ^^ fee — wages." And again, •* He pays 
us fu and finds us cleathing,'* p. 32. 

FEED, to serve in a game. The lad who throws a ball, or 
"cat,** towards the batter, or striker, in a game is said to 
fttdf and he is called the fuder. 



FEEDER, one who " serves " in a game. Also that part of the 
machinery where cereals are/fi into a mill. 

FEEDER, a spring, or inrush of water in a pit. 

" All which water we suppose to come from the sea, and so being fed 
by that inexhaustible fountain, we call it by the name of a feeder y— 
The CompUat Collier, 1708, p. 25. 

FEEDER-IN, the person v/ho feeds or supplies a machine with 
material to be worked or dressed. The man who passes in 
corn to a thrashing or to a winnowing machine is thus called. 

FEEDING-STORM, a continuous snowstorm. 

FEEL, to perceive. " Can ye feel a smell ?'* is a very common 

FEEL, FEELY, soft, smooth, downy, velvety. 

FEEMY, the Christian name Euphemia. 

FEERY-FARY, a noise, a tumult. ^^ Feery-fary " is explained 
in the margin of the jfoco-Sefious Discourse as **coil kept.*' 
** Now what needs aw this feery-fary ? '* p. 12. (Obs.) 

FEG, a fig ; a valueless thing. " *Tisn't worth a feg.*' Also the 
droppings of a donkey. 

FEID, a deadly feud ; the ancient blood feud common on the 
Border in former times. 

FELL, a lofty brown hill ; a mountain, or open, untilled ground; 
broad wettish moors covered much with heath, rushes, and 
sparts. — Hodgson MS. Fell enters into combination with 
about fifty-six place-names in Northumberland, and into 
some twenty-eight place-names in Durham county. Examples : 
Carter Fell, Gateshead Fell, Throckley Fell. 

" The western part of Northumberland was bounded by Norwegian 
settlements in Cumberland and Liddesdale, and most of the names in -fell 
are in the hill country bordering on Cumberland and Scotland." — 
J. V. Gregory, Archalogia JEliana, vol. ix., p. 41. 

FELL, to stun with a blow. 

" We didna want to hurt them, so we just felUd them an' flang them 
oot." — S. Oliver, Rambles in Northumberland, 1835, p. 156. 


FELL, FELLON, sharp, clever, crafty, brave, enduring; 
descriptive of work done under difficulty. ** She's a little fell 
*un" — said in complimenting a servant girl, not robust, who 
had done more than could have been reasonably expected. 
** He'd a fell job on't " — that is, the work took more doing 
than was anticipated. The word is very common. ** A fell 
bit callant " — a brave, enduring little body. 

FELL, to sew down on the inside the edges of two pieces of 
any article sewn together. 

FELLIN, FELLON, an eruption on the skin ; a rash ; aboil; 
a whitlow. Also a disease in cows. 

FELLY, to plough a ridge towards the ** reen " (rean), in 
contradistinction to gathering up towards the " mid-rig." 

FELTERED, unkempt, shaggy, neglected. 

•• It*s hard to say \vhat a raggy lad an* a feltered foal may turn to."— 
Northumberland Proverb. 

FELTY, or FELTY-FARE, the fieldfare, Turdus pilaris. It is 
called also the fendy and feiidy-fare» 

FEMMER, weak, slight, frail, cranky, tender. " She's nobbut 
f emmet ^ poor body." ** Mind hoo ye gan ; that brig's nobbut 

FENCE, a word in place-names, as Heckley Fence, 

FEND, to struggle in obtaining a livelihood. 

FEND, FEN, a struggle for a livelihood, an attempt at doing 
a thing. Few has much the same meaning. 

'• Still, we have myed a decent /rwrf, 
And niver fyel'd to pay wor way." 

T. Wilson, The Shifting Day, 1852. 

FEND, to defend, to ward off a blow. Hence the fender used 
on board ship. ^^Fend off that keel." 

FENDY, resourceful, good at managing. "He's a. fendy body." 
Fensome is used in the same sense. 

FENDY, FENDFARE, the fieldfare, Turdus pilaris. See also 

•• An abundant winter visitant." — John Hancock, Birds 0/ Northumber- 
land and Durham. 


FENKLE, a bend, or comer, or elbow, as of a street or river. 
Finchale probably derives its name from the corner or elbow 
of the river on which it is situated. Most of our old towns 
possess a fenklc or corner street. Fcnhle streets are found in 
Newcastle, Alnwick, &c. 

FENSOME, resourceful. See Fend, Fendy. 

FERACIOUS, ferocious, dangerous, furious. 

FERLY (pronounced /ar/^y), to wonder, a wonder, wonderfully, 
wonderful, strange. 

FESH, fish. [Holy Island, and the coast generally.] 

FESSEN, to fasten. 

FEST, bound. Fest, or bound apprentice. 

FEST, a mooring place. 

•• There keelmen, just landed, swear may they be stranded 
If they're not shaved first, while their keel's at the/?5/." 

The Quayside Shaver. 

FESTEND, FESSEND, fastened. 

FESTIN-PENNY, the " arles," or binding money. 

FETCH, the distance required, by a body put in motion, to 
acquire velocity ; as the waves of the sea acquire a great 
fetch when the wind blows from a far unsheltered direction. 

FETHER, father. It is sometimes father (the a short) and 
faithor. See Faithor, Fader, &c. 

" Feder amd/ethor are the common Northumbrian ways of speaking the 
Anglo-Saxon word fader, fadther, or father." — Hodgson's Northumberland^ 
iii» 2, p. 353, note. 

FETTLE, to put in order, to sharpen or repair tools, to get 
ready. ** The lock wants /?////«." ''Fettle the scythe." 

FETTLE, condition, working order. " What fettls ? " " That 
horse is i' grand fettle, 

FETTLE, ale warmed and spiced. 

FEUS, to turn into fibres, as the head of a chisel does by 
repeated strokes of the hammer. 

FEUSOME, handsome. 


FEW, an effort, a struggle. "He made a good /?w on't, any- 
way." ** Aa*ll few to be wi' ye the morn." This word is used 
in a similar sense to fend, which see. 

FEW, to show an aptitude. " He's a likely leukin chep ; he 
fews weel." 

FEW, a small quantity, or a number. " Will ye he' a few mair 
broth ?" " A pfood few*' or " a canny few " means a consider- 
able number of people or things. 

FEWSOME, very few. " Thor's oney fewsonte on us the neet." 
Not to be confounded with feiisome, altnough spoken like that 

FEY. Fie and fay in Halliwell. 

*' The word/o' was formerly used both in Scotland and in the North of 
England to express the state of a person who was supposed to be d3ring. 
but who woula rise from his bed and go about the bouse, conversing 
with his friends, as if nothing ailed him. Persons also in health, whose 
eyes displayed unusual brightness, and who appeared to act and speak in 
a wild and mysterious manner when preparing for battle or for a perilous 
journey, were frequently said to be *ffy*', that is, doomed shortly to meet 
with their death." — S. Oliver, RambUs in Northumhtrland, 1835. p. loS. 

FEYACE [S] , FYEACE, FYES [T] , the face. 

** His Av5 as white as ony cloot, 
Ses aw. • What he ye been aboot ?* " 

Song, As Axr Wis Gannin Oot Yen Nut. 

In a pit the/iiiV is the wall of coal at w^hich the hewer works. 
Sec Fyks. 

FEYACY. FACY, impudent, shame-faced. 

FEYACY-GATE, a brazen-faced person. 

FEYEL S\ FYEL T" , to fail. "To want a frien' when 
natur i\im$** 

FKVIL > , FYl'L T , a foot. Often spch/W/. 

F1B» to imisli. 

FlCKLl\ tc* pu-".'le» to do something which others cannot do. 

rH\r:\ to rv'gtt. ;o worry, :o K" arxiou?. ^* To ndge and 
:\ ke ■ *s :o Vo n stU>$ Jirvi u:um>\\ •• r ;iv::« tiin " is being 


FIE, predestined. See Fey. 

FIE, shortened form of signify. " What/^s taakin' ?" 

FIELD, a division of land consisting of many separate holdings, 
grouped together in the ancient system of cultivation for the 
purpose of a rotation of crops. The hedged rectangles which 
are now familiar to us as our fields are the result of Commons 
Enclosure Acts. For terms formerly used see Ather, Baak, 
Cable, Gable, Kyevel, Fall, Rean, Rig, Butts, Acre-dale- 

FIELD-LARK, the tree pipit, Anthus arhoreus. 

FIELDY, or FIELD-SPARROW, the hedge-sparrow. Prunella 
modularis. Called also smokey. Hedgy and hlney are also names 
by which this bird is known. The heldfare is also known as 
fieldy in some parts of South Northumberland. 

FIERY, applied to a coal-pit where gas is given off in dangerous 

FIERY-HEAP, a heap into which the small or duff coals of 

Northumberland were formerly teemed and burnt. — Gloss, of 

Coal Trade Terms, 1888. 

*' The deposit of rubbish and waste or unsaleable coal which usually 
takes fire spontaneously." — Grcenwell. 

FIFT, fifth. 

•• Here begyns the fifte part."— Pr/VA^ ofConscience^ a.d. 1349. 

flower heads of Planiago lanceolata {Linn,), or lamb's tongue, 
used by children in a game which tries the endurance of a 
cock, or " kemp," as it is called. Each combatant is provided 
with an equal number of stalks and heads (''kemps"), and 
holds out one to be struck by the opponent. If it is 
decapitated by the blow the player gives his return stroke 
with a fresh ** kemp " ; but if it survives the blow it is used 
in return. The play is thus kept up alternately until one of 
the players has lost all his heads. The victor then counts his 
survivors — or, as is usually the case, he is left with one only 
to mark his conquest in the game. See Kemps. 

FIKE, to be very fidgetty ; to move in an unconstant, 
undeterminate manner ; to go about idly. — HalliweWs Did, 
Fikes, restlessness, trifling cares. See Fidge. 

•' To have the /ikes.^'-^BrockeU. 

"Fifty, fidgetty, itchy, minutely troublesome.'* — Brockett. 


FILE, to make foul. The ''file in the foot '* is a disease peculiar 
to cattle and sheep. 

FILLERS, men employed in filling the loose coals where 
separate holers or kirvers and getters and fillers are 
employed. — Glossary of Coal Trade Terms , 1888. 

FILLETS, the hollow between a horse's ribs and haunch bones. 

FILLINGS, infiltrations of water. 

" A sump (or well to a coal-pit) to hold the drawings (or filings, as u^e 
call them here) of water, whether rain or otherwise." — J.C., Compleat 
Ccllur, 1708, p- 14. 

FILLY-FAIR, a concourse of young girls. 

FILLY-FWOAL, a young mare while sucking. The young 
horse of the same age is a coui-fwoaL 

FILLY-NAIL, a nail ijin. long by about j\in. thick in the 
stalk, having a large square head about i in. across and made 
Ain. thick. These nails were sp>ecially made in former times 
tor warships, to cover the bottoms before sheathing of other 
metal had been introduced. They were made by sup>erannuated 
nailors incapable of heaxder work. 

FILLY-TAILS, clouds of cirrus kind, long trailing white 

FIN, to find. Whenyfiwf is used, it is alwa^-s pronounced with 
the • short, as in u^indou* (p.t, fan J; /./. fund). •* Aa couldn't 
fin^ oot what ailed it.*' 

FIN, to feel. " It*s that dark, aall he' iofitt for the sneck." 
•'Justin me hands, hoo caud th'or." 

FINDY-FEE, the fee or reward paid to the finder of anything 

FINDY-KEEPY, who finds keeps. A formula repeated by 
children when searching for any lost thing, its utterance 
giving the finder the right to keep the article. The form is 
sometimes extended* as *' Lossy, seek}\,/z^«(^, kee/y.** 

FIN K, v;uite well, pleasant. ^* Hoo are ye thi day ? ** " O, lad, 

FINGER. This is invariably pronounced fiMg-or^ not, as 
modern use has it» nn-^er. 


FINGER-HAT, a finger-stool. Compare Hand-hat. 

FINOODLE, to fumble. ** What's i\ioo finoodlin there at ? " 

FIPPLE, the under lip, a pet lip, a wry face. "What a 
fipplc ! '* — What a face you're making. A person is said to 
** nang his fipple " when he looks sulky or discontented. After 
stooks of corn remain standing for a time, the bottoms of the 
sheaves become naturally longer on the outside than the 
inside, which is called iheit fipple. 

FIRE, to explode. A pit is said to hdive fired when an explosion 
of gas has taken place. 

FIRE, to throw. The phrase ^^fire away" is equivalent to the 
colloquial ** go ahead." 

"Th^y fired styens at him." 

** Pitman's Ghost:* 
Bards of the Tyne, 1849, p. 409. 

FIRE, or WILD FIRE, sheet lightning. ** Did ye see 
hoo the^r^ wis fleein last neet ? " FiV^-flaught, lightning. 

FIRE-CLAY, deposits of more or less silicious clay known as 
under-clay, seggar-clay, or thill, and often used sls fire-clay, — 
Professor Lebour, Geology of Northumberland and Durham, 1886, 


FIRE-COAL, coal supplied to workmen (at a colliery) for 
domestic purposes, free of charge, except sixpence per 
fortnight for leading, which is done by the colliery carts, 
within a reasonable distance. — Glossary of Coal Trade Terms, 

FIRE-ENGINE, the term formerly applied to the steam 
engine, distinguishing it from a ** horse engine," or **gin.'* 

" The charge of water was calculated as if to be drawn by horses, 
whereas now it may be done much cheaper by help of a/r^-^^in^." — 
Affidavit re Walker Coliiery, 1722. — Brand, History of Newcastle, vol. ij., 
p. 685, note. 

" At Walker Colliery there are two ventilators worked with a machine 
by the help of the fire-engine. This machine is also applied to turn a 
wheel for raising coals." — Wallis, History of Northumberland, 1767, vol. i., 
p. 128. 

FIRE-FLOUT, the common poppy, Papaver rhaas. Also 
called stinking poppy and lightning. See Cockens. 

FIRE-LAMP, a portable fire used as a lamp. 


FIRE-STEED, a fireplace. 

FIRE-STONE, a silicious sandstone, formerly used as furnace 


FIRST, until, hence, following. 

"Till you have occasion, which I hope will not be loDg ;?r5/.'* — J.C, 
CompUat Collier, 1708, p. 31. 

FIRST-CALLER, the time when the caller goes round to call 
the fore-shift men. — Glossary of Coal Trade TermSy 1888. 

FIRST-FOOT, the first who crosses the threshold after mid- 
night on New Year's Eve. The person so doing must on no 
account enter empty handed, and a present to the house even 
of a piece of coal or a piece of loaf will qualify the first-footer. 
The entrant, to be lucky, must be of the male sex. If he have a 
squint, he brings bad luck. If he be of dark complexion, he 
is not a desirable comer. The luckiest is a fair-haired first-foot. 
It is a kindly custom ; and a hearty welcome is always given 
to those who go first-footing on New Year's morning to carry 
from circle to circle the greeting ** A happy New Year." 

•' It is unlucky to lend anything whatever on New Year's Day. It is 
unlucky to meet a female first on New Year's Day, or indeed on any day 
of the year. Specially unlucky it is when a woman is yo\xrjirst-/oot."— 
W. Brockie, Legends and Superstitions, p. no. 

FIRTHLESS, unmethodical, shiftless, extravagant. " Aa 
nivver saa sic a firthless creetur." 

FISH, a flat plate of iron or other substance, laid upon another 
to protect it or strengthen it. A ^*fish beam " is a composite 
beam, where an iron plate is sandwiched between two wood 
beams. A ^^fish joint " is a joint made by bolting or riveting 
a plate on each side near the ends, as in a railway plate. 

FISH, to seek about blindly, or doubtingly. "What are ye 
fishin i' me box for ? " •* Aa'll gan Sinfish for mesel " — that is, 
endeavour to find something to eat. 

FISH, a tool used for bringing up a bore rod or pump valve. 

FISH-BELLIED, having the bottom part curved like the belly 
of a fish, as a '' fish-bellied raiily'* which was ** bellied '* or curved 
between each pair of chairs. 

FISH-FAG, a fishwoman. 


FISH-GARTH, an enclosure made of stakes and wattles for 
trapping fish in a river. See Cruiv£. 

FISH-HEAD, an implement used for drawing the clack from 
a set of pumps. 

FISSLE, FISSEL, to move about restlessly and with a gentle 
crackling noise. •* What do you ftssel aboot on the seat for ?'* 
** A moose went /isselin through amang the stray (straw). " A 
fisselin wund *' (wind). It is also applied to the crackling 
noise heard in a pit when the coal fissles, or crackles, in the 
early stages of creep. — GresUys Gloss, ^ 1883. 

FIT [N.] , FOOT or FUT [T.] , a foot, FiV-sted, a footprint. 

FIT, pJ. of fight. See Fowt. 

FIT, able, capable. ** He's not fit te gan.'* ** KdiS fit for owt, 
man." •* Fit te loup a yett or stile.'* 

FIT, to sell and load coals. 

" None shall fitt any keel or keeles of anie other brother without the 
consent of the owner thereof." — Order of Hostmen's Company^ January, 
1600-1. — Brand, History 0/ Newcastle t vol. ii., p. 272, note, 

FITCH, to shift (without a felonious intention). " Fitch that 
flake " — remove that hurdle. 

FITCHEL, a beam or shaft of a waggon. The fitchcl bolt is 
that which goes down through the block and holds it to the 
bearings, or vice vers^. 

FITT AGE, the commission allowed to a coal shipper. 

FITTEN, p.p. of fight. 

•* When we had fairly ///^» oursels clear o' them." — S. Oliver, Rambles 
in Northumberland t 1835, p. 156. 

FITTER, the agent at the shipping port who sells and loads 

the produce of a colliery. Formerly called hostmen. A 

'* running fitter '* is an outdoor messenger. 

•* Mourn, a' the fitters o' the Quay ! 
And a' the swarms o' Brokers, tee, 
That tell the captains mony a lee, 
To myek them fix ! " 
T. Wilson, A Dirge on the Death 0/ Coaly ^ 1843. 

FITTIN, coal shipping. 

•* The faithers o* the;f//m-trade 
The Quayside a'ways pacin' " 

T. Wilson, Captains and the Quayside. 


FIVE QUARTER COAL. The ** quarter" here is a quarter 
of a yard. Five quarters, therefore, = 3 feet 9 inches — this 
being the average thickness of the particular seam. 

" Which is of about that thickness of five quarters, and that is in 
collieries very fine.'* — The CompUat Collier^ 1708. 


FIX-FAX, the great white tendon of the necks of animals. — 
Hodgson MS, 

FIZ-BALL, a ball of damp gimpowder kneaded into the form of 
a cone. It is lighted at the apex, and burns with a hissing 

FIZ-BALL, FUSS-BA', the fungus (Lycoperdon hovista, Linn.) 
found in pastures. When dry the pores can be squeezed out 
like a cloud of smoke. Also called puff-hod's, devil's snuff boxes, 
and blind-man's-buff. 

FIZZER, a cake, with rich kneading, baked on the girdle. 
** A spice /izzer*' is a girdle-cake (singing-hinny) with currants 
(spice). Anything super-excellent is styled ^Jfizzer. 

FIZZERT, a term of reproach. " Ye z\zx\y fizzert:' 

FIZZY y anything well or cleverly done. " That's /^^y, noo!" 
It is used as the colloquial nobby is used. ** That's a /izzy 
coat he hes on." 

FLAA, flaw. Draa, laa, &c., are all similarly pronounced, the 
aw becoming a very long a. 

FLAA, turf for fuel. Compare Flag. 

FLACKER, to flutter, to vibrate like the wings of a bird. 
Compare Flaffer. 

FLACKET, a flask. (Obs.) 

•' A score jiacketts of stone and glass.*' — Inventory, 1577. 

FLAFF, to flutter ; same as flaffer. " Had yor skemy oot an' 
myek him flaffhis wings." Boys, in luring pigeons, /o^ their 
caps to imitate a fluttering bird. A flag on a staff is said to 
flaff in the wind. 

FLAFFER, to flutter, to move with an awkward rustling 


♦' It flaffered oot at neets, man.'* — R. Emery, d. 1871, The Owl. 


FLAG, a flake of sandstone used as a roofing tile ; sometimes 
called a " Northumberlandyfi:i^." Or a flake of sod used for 
the same purpose. " The j^ags ' is the common name for the 
side-walk of a street when paved with flat stones. A ^g is 
also a snow-flake. **What big ^a^s is comin* doon." A 
banner is not called a flag in Northumberland, but invariably 
" a colour." Water flag is the name for the Iris pseudacoris. 
See Seg. 

FLAGON, a tin water-can ; still known in places as 2l flagon. 

FLAG-POST, sandstone suitable for splitting into flags for the 
pavement or for roof tiles. 

FLAID, afraid, frightened, terrified. ''He'sflaid te deeth." 
See Flay. 

FLAIK, a space allotted for a stall in a market-place. So 

denominated to this day by the fishwomen in Newcastle. A 

Jiaik^ or fleak^ is a hurdle, especially a wattled hurdle, and 

thus applied to a space hurdled, or divided, or set apart. See 


" Aw've had B.flaik in this market thur sixty year.'* — Old Dolly Simfson. 
Brockett, ed. 1846. 

FLAIL. The Northumberland /<«7 consists of a ** handstaflf," 
3ft. gin. to 4ft. long, having a smooth eye in the end. Through 
this eye, and through a loop of cow-hide lashed to the end of 
a moveable arm, passes a leather **couplin." The moveable 
arm is 3ft. long, and is called the "swingle" or ** soople.** 
The loop of cow-hide is called the ** heudin," and its lashing 
is held by being passed through two holes in the end. The 
"handstaff *' is of ash, peeled smooth. The "soople** is 
made of any tough wood, having the bark left on. Flails are 
generally kept above a cow in the byre, the notion being that 
they are thereby toughened. 

FLAM, a heavy fall; a lie. See Flum. 

FLAME-STONE, the stone screen in front of a blacksmith's 
hearth to protect the smith's face from the heat of the fire. 

FLAMMY, or FLAMMIN, to praise, pet, or coddle. 

FLANG, flung, />.^ of fling. 


FLANK-HOLE, in mining, a bore-hole made from the side of 
a place where there is a danger of holing into old workings 
which may contain accumulations of gas or water. — W. E. 
Nicholson, Glossary of Coal Trade Terms, 1888. Also a hole put 
in the flank or side of a drift to widen it by putting in a shot. — 

FLANNEN, flannel. 

FLAP, anything that hangs broad and loose, fastened only by 
one side. — Todd. A manhole door in a pit. A "j^fl/-ower- 
tyeble " is a table with a folding leaf. 

FLAP an unstable person. A young giddy girl is called a flap, 
or a woman or girl who does not settle down to her domestic 
duties, but goes gadding about, and is generally one of 
slatternly habits. 

FLAP, a sharp blow. *' He hadn't his lessons off; so he gat 
hisy^i/5 at skyul." 

FLAP, to strike down quickly. 


Flap her doon at once \^'i' pouther." 

T. Wilson, Pitman's Pay, pt. ii., v. 76. 

FL.VPPER, a heavy, resounding fall ; or the noise of a heavy 

FLAPPER, a flat piece of leather on a stick, used by butchers 
for killing flies. 

FL.\PPY, uneven, unsteady. " The carpet's Ij-in' aall j^o^." 

FLARE-UP, a quarrel, usually applied to a domestic broil. 
Also a rout or entertainment. 

l'''LASH* the small globules of molten iron which drop from the 
Maoksmitirs anvil during the process of welding and become 
oonv ntMionary. F4jish is not to be confounded with " scale." 
l\>m\NAre Smitpy Gtm. 

Fl. ASS, A shalUnv. marshy pond ; swampy ground. 

IM.AT, the pArt of a screen at a pit where the coals rest, and 
.ux^ v*.oA;^Cvi l>eforc l^ing put into the waggon. — Glossofy of 

_ _s 


FLAT, the termination of the horseway in a pit, the coals being 
brought thereto by the putters. — Mining Glossary, Newcastle 
Terms, 1852. It is also called a " station." See Crane. 

•• The lateral extension of a lead vein."— Professor G. A. Lebour, M. A., 
Geology of Northumhsrland and Durkamt second edition, 1886, p. 62. 

FLATCH, to flatten by expansion. 

FLAT-LAD, the lad at the flats or crane in a pit. See 

FLATLINS, flatly. 

FLAT-SHEETS, smooth iron plates laid over an even floor at 
a pit bank, on which the tubs are run to be emptied or 
returned to the cage. Flat-sheets are also laid at the foot of a 
shaft where the tubs are run between the cages and the end 
of the tram lines, or in the workings at crossings or junctions 
of the lines of rail. See Settle Boards. 

FLATTY, a flatfish. See Fleuckor, Flucker, &c. 

FLAUGHTER, the thin turf turned up when ground is pared. — 

FLAUT, FLOUGHT, a roll of wool carded ready for 
spinning. — Hodgson MS, 

FLAUTCHING, flattery, hollow praise, false coaxing, pleasure, 
artful wheedling. — Hodgson MS. See Fleech. 

FLAW, a joiner's cut nail or brad. 
FLAY, a fright. 

FLAY, FLEY, to terrify, to frighten, 

FLAY [N.] , a flea. 
FLAY-CRAA, a scare-crow. 

FLAYSOME, like to frighten, awesome. " The plantin's that 
dark it's xe^Xfliysonie" " What a leuk ye he*, aa leiiflaysome 
at ye." 

FLEAK, a long, thin piece of timber or a lath. The use of 
fleaks appears in the weiring of rivers. Flakes also were laths 
adapted to lay barley cakes upon. Barley cakes were first 


baked on the "gairdel," then they were toasted before the 

fire, being placed on the **bake-sticks " ; afterwards they were 

laid on the flakes to dry. The forms are alsojlakef^aik, and 


"A gate to set up in a gap. This word fleak signifies the same as 
hurdle, and is made of hasel, or other wands."— Ray, Collection of North- 
Country Words, 1691. 

"The remains of this mill and the /leaks may still be seen in the Wear 
at Finchale. The fleaks are large, rudely -shaped oak trees, ^tened down 
in the water with iron cramps, hurdle-wise. In later times 2i fleak was a 
hurdle, suspended horizontally, a foot or two from the top of a room. It 
generally bears the cheese, bacon, &c., of the household.'* — Rev. James 
Raine, junr. — Archctologia ^liana, vol. i., p. 202, note. 

FLEAM, phlegm. 

FLEASTER, a fluster, a hurry-scurry. ** What are ye gettin' 
into sic difleaster for ? " 

FLEA-WOOD, the bog myrtle, or sweet gale, Myrica gale. A 
housewife's cure for fleas. 

FLECK, or FLICK, a flitch of bacon. 

FLEGDER, FLEDGY, a fledgling, an immature person, a 
child. See Fleg. 

FLEE, to fly as a bird. 

" Flock o' flock o' wild geese— where di yeflsi ? 
Fre Howdon to Bowden — to Newcasse! Quay." 

Old Rhyme. 

FLEE, a fly. ** Let that flee stick to the waall " (proverb)— 
**Let that matter rest." Halliwell gives fleg as Northumber- 
land for a fly. See Fleg. 

FLEE-BY-THE-SKY, a romantic or visionary person. 

FLEECH, FLAUTCH, to flatter, to wheedle. " Aa wadna 
gan ti church wi' him for a* his fleechin.'* 

** ThSii fleetching knave."— G. Stuart, Joco-Serious Discourse, 1686, p. 64. 
FLEECHY, a flattering humbug. 

FLEECY, laminated. Anything lying in leats, or thin, compact 
layers, like pastry, or the flakes of fish, is said to he fluey. 

FLEEIN-ETHER, the dragon fly. 

•* Probably called adder (ether) because in a winged state they rise oat 
of stagnant and putrid waters, and are constantly found hunting after 
other flies in damp meadows.** — Hodgson MS. 


FLEET, a fishing place. It occurs in the ancient spellings, as 
fiete SLud/let in place-names, and is applied to salmon fishings 
within the tidal flow. (Obs.) Compare Stell, Yare, Wear. 

FLEET, a row of floating herring nets at sea attached to each 
other and to the fishing boat. 

FLEET, to stop hauling so as to adjust the rope or chain. 
To ^*Jleet the rope" or *^ fleet the crab," is by gripping and 
holding the rope to adjust the coil on the crab. In hauling 
up a vessel on a slipway the slip is held by the pauls till the 
hauling chain is fleeted, by removing successive links and 
readjusting the shortened length for another haul. 

FLEET, to float, a fisherman*s term. 

FLEETERIN, FLETERIN, falling lightly. '^ IVs fleterin on 

o snaa." 

FLEG, to be furnished with feathers. ** Flegged and flown," 
said of young birds that have left their nest. See Fligged. 

FLERDS, showy or gaudy articles of women's dress. 

FLESH-AND-BLOOD, the plant sometimes known as 
shepherd's knot and blood-root (Potentilla tormentilla), 

FLESH-AND-KAIL, a name given to the religious persuasion 
otherwise known as Glassites or Sandemanians. The meeting- 
house of the persuasion in Newcastle was formerly on the 
town-wall, near the New Road, and was known as **The 
Flesh-and'hail Meeting-house," from the custom observed by 
the members of the church of dining together on Sunday 
morning after service. See Glassite. 

or JENNY-FLUCKER, a flounder. 

FLEYED [N.] , flew. ** Aw catch'd a burred, but it gat oot o' 
ma hand ^xC fleyed away." 

FLICKER, to flutter. See Flacker. 

PXIGARISHON, a lively meeting, such as a wedding party. 
Probably used jocosely. Compare Garishon. 

FLIGARY, finely dressed. " Ma word, she went dcon the 
street quite j/i^ar^." 


FLIGGED, or FLIG, fledged. ** Hardly fligged ower the 
dowp *' — young, immature. ** Yon borrids is flig'' — those birds 
are fledged. 

" Ah, hinnies ! About us the lasses did loup 
Thick as cums in a spice singin hinnie ; 
Some aud, and some \i2xd\y fligz*d ower the dowp." 

T. Thompson, d. 1816, Canny NeucastU. 

FLIGHT, to set a-flying, to start in flight. '' Ar'W Jlighi ye 
pigeons for a shillin'." 

FLINCH, finch ; as bull//»Wi for bullfinch 

FLING, to kick ; applied to a horse. Fling also means to 
vomit, to throw ; to make a sarcastic or scornful comment on 
a person or thing. 

FLINT, the core of an animal's horn. Called also the gowk. 
The term is likewise applied to the hard excrescence formed 
on a cow's head where a horn has been knocked off. 

FLIPE, FLYPE, to flay, to strip, to skin, to take off" the bark. 
" Aa fyped him," figuratively used, means, " I robbed or 
stripped him." To turn half inside out, as a stocking is fifed 
in order the more easily to put it on the foot. 

FLIPE. FLYPE, a thin piece, a piece of skin torn off. To 
take off in .r/i/rs, is to take off in thin pieces. A hat jHpe is 
the brim of a hat. 

FLIRE, FLYRE, FLEER, to laugh, to jeer. 

FLIRTIGIG, a forward, talkative, and unconstant girl. — 
Ilalliweirs Diet. 

FLISK, to flip in one's face. ** Dinna jUsk yor hankersher 
aKnit that way.*' *' Flisk ihem flies off." * Also to leap nimbi}'. 
** lie fiskf J ol^ like a lop." 

1'M-1TI\, to i^cold, 10 make a great noise. — Hcdgson MS. 
FLITIN, scoldinc:. 

FIa^A T-\VHV^Y» curv^is made from whey, much used in 
NvMihnmlviKuui."-i;*,:.Virw«75 D:\'t. Compare Flote. Milk 
.vqut 1 . t\l tioni clu^cse-mAking. 

• / V. r ., }.,\, thaso curv:s left in wbej\ which, when boiled, Jioat on the 

top " •4»..«,V>f. 


FLOG, to work with a hammer and chisel. The work of 
chipping and surfacing iron is spoken of 2ls flogging. To flog 
is any rapid action in striking. 

FLOORS, flat lands lying at the foot of slopes. Floors and 
flats are of frequent occurrence in field-names. 

FLOTE, to flatten in plastering. — Hodgson MS, To flote, to 
fleety to skim milk ; to take off the cream : whence the word 
fleeting dish. 

FLOTHERY, slovenly, but attempting to be fine and showy. — 
HalliweWs Did. " He's fat an' flothcryr 

FLOW, or FLOU, a peat moss, a peat bog, generally large 
and straggling. Flow in place-names occurs, as in Manside 
Flowy in Northumberland ; probably from its being on the 

" The rider dreading every instant that he will sink overhead into the 
jiow, crawls out on his hands and knees. — S. Oliver, RambUs in Northumber- 
land, 1835, p. 164. 

'* Between the hills are broad and flat morasses, called flow mosses." — 
Hodgson, Northumberland, pt. ij., vol. i., P- 84. 

" The bog overflows along the outlet or outlets, and that part of it 
which thus dips away from the bog proper is aptly called the flow of the 
bog." — Professor Lebour, Geology 0} Northumberland and Durham^ second 
edition, 1886, p. 11. 

FLOW, FLOU, gusty. •* It's a /oze; day." ''What sl flow 
neet ! " 

FLOWERY-DOCKEN, the Chenopodium bonus Henricus. 

FLOWS, FLOUS, floats, applied to the cluster of corks which 
support the *' bosom " of a salmon net. 

FLOWTER'D, affrighted.— i?fl/s Gloss., 1691. 

FLUCKER, or FLUKE, or FLATTY, a flounder. See 

FLUFF, a sudden ignition. ** A fluff of poother." The down 
from the wool of cloth. See Fuff. 

FLUFTER, FLUFFER, to disconcert, to fluster. 

FLUKE, the flounder, Platcssa flesus, Fletn. See Fleuckep, 


FLUM, deceit, misleading talk. " Let's he* nyen o' yor flum. 


FLUMMIX, to suprise, to overwhelm with astonishment. In 
argument the person who has the best of it says, " Aa 
flummix'd him. 

FLUTHER, a flutter, a state of mental agitation. " It put 
us aal iv B,/!uther,'' 

FLUTHERY, slovenly, in a state of bustle or confusion. See 

FLY, sly, crafty, smart. *• He's a fy chep." ** Aa see the 
gam— but yor not yTy." 

FLY-DOOR, or SWING DOOR, a door so constructed as 
always to fall close when left alone, but to open either towards 
or from the current of air, according to the direction of the 
force exerted against it. — Gloss, of Coal Trade Tertns, 1888. 

FLY-DROVEN, fly-blown. Applied to meat on which the 
eggs of the blow-fly have been deposited. 

FLYING-BENT, the Molittia carulca. See Bent. 

FLYING-CRADLE, a framing of about four feet by one and 
a half feet, upon which one or more men maj' sit astride to do 
temporary work in the shaft. — Gloss, of Coal Trade Terms, 1888. 

FO [W.-T.] , to fall. The as in smw. 


"Where a youth is too \^^ak \o put the tram by himself, he engages a 
junior assistant, ^%-ho is called the/<Mr/. and in this case the strongest pulls 
the tram by a short rope called a scam, M^hile the /i><i/ pushes behind." — 
S. Oliver, RamhUs in Sorthumhcrland, 1835, p. 41. 

The position of heedsman and foaUys appears to have been 
sometimes reversed ; for, whilst the description above given 
coincides with the note on the subject in The Piiman^s Pay, an 
experienced writer puts 

♦• The strongest one behind and the foaXey in front." — Mr. J. Rowell, 
.Vr»vj.N?.V HV^A/v Chi^nUf, April 14, 1SS8, article "Soam." 

In tlie same paper, Mr. G. Halliwell, Seaham Harbour, 
ii^ir->borales the latter statement. See Heedsman. 

r\WLl'.Y-MM.\K, a mare with young. 

KC).\LSFOOT, coltsfoot, Tussilafc farfara. 


FOG, the clover, or second crop, that follows a hay crop. 
^^Fogs to let" is the common heading of advertisements 
where the eatage of autumn pasture is to be let. Also 
moss or lichen growth. When mosses are in excess the 
pasture is said to be full oi fog. 

FOIL, scent or track. ** The hoonds hes lost the foil " The 
foiling, among hunters, is the mark, barely visible, where deer 
have passed over grass. — Todd. 

FOLK'S GLOVE, the foxglove. 

FOLLOWING-IN, the action of one man working after 
another in the same working place. 

FOLLOWING-STONE, loose stone lying on coal, which 
comes down as the seam is worked. Called also ramble, 

FOLLOW-TAR, a game at marbles played by two boys, who 
shoot alternately, one following after the other. 

FOLLY, any ridiculous building. At Byker an imitation of a 
ruined castle occupied the site of the new church, and it was 
always known as Byker Folly, Anderson's Folly was the 
name given to a mansion at Elswick, in which the builder 
carried out many original conceits. 

** Mr. Cuthbert Dykes and others, in 1693, agreed with the Corporation 
to erect a water engine, for supplying the town with river water, without 
Sandgate. This building was afterwards called ' the Folly. ^ " — Mackenzie, 
History of Newcastle, p. 724. 

The site of this is still known as the Folly Wharf on the 

FOND, soft, silly, half-witted, insane. In West Tyne and in 
East Cumberland the word is font, the t being most emphatic. 

FONDY, a fool. ** Sit doon, ye greet fojidy,'' 

FOOL-GOWK, an April fool. See April-gowk. 

FOOL-PLOUGH. See Full-plough. 

FOONDER, FOUNDER, to break down, to go lame. A 
horse is said to have foondered when it has become lame or 

FOOR, or FURE, a furrow which a plough makes in going up 
and down to form a rig. This is not an abbreviation of 
furrow, but the original word. Foorlang, a furrow long ; hence 
a furlong. See Rig-and-rean. 


FOOR-HORSE, the far horse, or right side horse of a pair in 
ploughing. The horse on the left is the ** land," or " nar-side 

FOOT, the lower part of a street, as " head " is the upper part. 
**Head of the Side" and ''Foot of the Side** are still 
constantly used in Newcastle. 

FOOTAGE-MONEY, the foy, or fee, received by a pilot. 
The footage-monies received by pilots are called by them " foys.** 

FOOT-AN*-A-HALF, a game like leap-frog. The last leaper 
must call out '' foot-an'-a-lmlf,*' If he fails he must become 
the ** back.** After each round the " back '* steps on to the spot 
where the last leaper touched, and the ** frogs ** who follow 
must in the second round leap from the original mark and 
clear the back. The move forward is repeated after every 
round till the players fail in turn. 

FOOT-COCK, a small hay-cock, of less size than a l^'le^ used 
in showery weather. It is a small heap of hay gathered off 
the ground and cocked lightly up with the foot and rake to 
assist drying. See Hay- making. 

FOOTH, plenty. See Fouth. 

FOOT-WASH IN. On the evening preceding the wedding day 
the feet of the bridegroom were washed in a company of two 
or three of his own particular friends. A similar office was 
also performed to the bride, but in a more private way. — 
Richardson's Table Book, Legendary, vol. i., p. 342. 

FOOTY, small, mean, insignificant, low, shabby. ** He*s a bit 
footy body." But when applied to a girl it means a small, 
neat person. 

FOOT- YELL, the drink customary on the ** footin,'* or beginning 
of a new work. When a young horse gets his first shoes, it 
is customary for the smith and the owner to drink the foot-yell. 
This IS the " footin.*' 

FOOZ, or FUETS, the common house leek, Sempervivum 


FOR, until. "Wait /or aa come.'* 

FOR, joined to r£//m/ = why ? As ** Wliat for will he not ?** 

FORAN, a person beforehand. 


FOR-A'-SYKES, a common exclamation. Probably ** for all 
our sakes.*' ** For-a'-sykes drop it. 

FOR-BECA AS. ** What for-hecaas ?"— what for ? 

FORBY, besides, over and above. 

•• To whom pigs and pullets are sent — and other good things forby." — 
Address to Mr. Peter Watson, 1824. 

*• He's sixteen stane onyway, forebye the heavy side-saddle." — James 
Armstrong, Wanny Blossoms, 1879, p. 122. 

FORCED-FIRE. See Need-fire. 

FORCE-PUT, a thing done of necessity or under compulsion. 
"We'll not dee'd except as a force-put.** '*A force-pufs ne 
plisure " — a thing done of necessity is no pleasure. 

FORDER, to further. 

FORE, the front. *^Fore door '' — the front door. " Is he still to 
the fore ? '* — is he still to the front — that is, still alive and 

FORE-DAYS, FOOR-DAYS, towards evening.— Hfl//ia/^//'5 

FOREIGNER, the name applied to any craftsman not 
belonging to the freelage of the town. Formerly the free 
burgesses of Newcastle-upon-Tyne were resolute in harassing 
and oppressing every foreigner^ as they emphatically call all 
non-freemen. K foreigner was not allowed to keep a shop but 
by the sufferance of the corporation. 

FORELOCK, a washer or circular disc of iron for the nut of 
a bolt to press against when screwed up. 

right in front, right against. 

FORE-SHIFT, the first shift of hewers that descends a pit for 
work. They go down two to three hours before the boys. 

FORE- WON, in a pit, ** a w^all driven over before the board 
was holed." — Gloss, of Coal Trade Terms. 

FOR-FAIRS, or FOR-FAIR, in earnest. See Fair. 

" Wheneer we saw his sonsy face, wor steam got up /of-/ai>."— 
R. Emery. 1853, Deetk 0' Bobby Nunn. 


mation of surprise. 

FORKY-TAIL, the earwig. Called also codgyhell, twitchhell, and 

FORPET, or F'OR-PIT, a measure containing — 

•* At Alnwick the fourth part of a peck, about three quarts. At Hexham, 
four quarts, ^ peck of wheat, 1-5 of barley and oats. At Wooler. 4 quarts, 
\ peck. 1-9 bushel. The word seems to be a corruption ol fourth-part " — 
James Britten, Old Country and Farming Words. (E.D.S.) 

FORRAT, FORRIT, FORRAD, forward, bending forward, 
. and, thus, weakened. ** Getten sd\r forrit i* the knees " — that 
is, bending very much with age. 

FORRATSOME, FORRETSOME, of a forward disposition, 

FORSMAN, foreman. 

" She smacked th^forsman on the face." 

}. P. Robson, Hamlick, pt. ii. 

FORTHERLY, forward, early, " A fortJurly harvest." 

• • Fortherly potatoes. ' ' — Brockett . 

FORTHY, industrious, well doing, free, kindly spoken. ** A 
forthy body." 

FORTYFOALS, a blue and white potato of good increase. 
Most likely originally called forty -folds,^' 

FORWHY, wherefore. ** He comes here ; forwhy aa's sure aa 
canna tell." 

FOTHER, FODDER, of coals, one-third of a chaldron ; about 
as many coals as a one-horse cart will contain. A father of 
lead = 21 cwts. The word has come to be applied to a cart- 
load of anything in general.'' " A father of muck, or of lime, 
&c." The father differs from the load, the latter being as 
much as can be carried on the hack of a pack-horse. 

•• A father [of coals] is properly as much as can be conveyed in a cart 
with one horse." — T. John Taylor, Archeology of the Coal Trade, 1852. 

**Fotkir, a measure of coals—six bushels." — Hugh Miller, Geology of 
Ottn^wn and Ehdon. 

FOTHER, to feed horses and cattle, to give them their fodder. 
To "do up** horses or cows for the night. **He y^ fathered 
the beass yit ? *' 

FOTHER-BARN, a straw barn. 

FOTHERIN, the last feeding at night for horses and cattie. 


FOUL, impure and inferior, as coal that is mixed with slaty 
materials, or is soft and sooty and not fit for use. 

FOULNESS, explosive mine gas. 

FOUMART, FOOMART, the polecat, Mmtdla putorius. 
The stoat is sometimes called polecat, or pow-cat, but the 
animal is almost extinct in South Northumberland. Foumartj 
at Hexham, means the stoat or marten, not the polecat, 
which is a much larger animal of the same species, extinct 
in Northumberland. 

FOUSTED, FUSTED, gone mouldy, spoiled. 

FOUT, a dear, fond, affectionate child. — Hodgson MS. The 
word has been wrongly defined as meaning, when applied 
to a person, lazy, untidy, dirty, or spoiled, like a spoiled 
child. It is really applied as a pet term to a romping, giddy, 
lively girl. See Fouter. 

FOUTER, a foumart, a term of contempt, ** Ye stinkin fouter ^ 

FOUTH, FOOTH, plenty, fill. 

FOUTHLESS, empty, useless. "He's nobbut a peer fonthless 

FOWER-BANWIN, four shearers on one rig. See Bandwin. 

FOWERSOME, four persons; like twosome for two persons, 
and threesome for three together. 

FOWIN, folding and foddering cattle. See Faain. 

FOWT, fought, pA. of fight. Fit is often used as the p.t. of 
fight^.p. fouten. " Hoo lang is't sin Sayers// Heenan ?'' 

FOX-FOOT, the grass Dactylis glofnerata. 

FOX'S-CLAWS, FOX'S-TAIL, the club moss, Lycopodium 
clavatum, L. It is also known as stag-horn moss and tod's tail. 
The spikes of it are called forks and knives, according as they 
are single, double, or triple. — Johnston's Botany of the Eastern 

FOX-TAIL-GRASS, the Alopecurus pratensis, L. 

FOY, a fee ; specially used formerly as a fee to a fitter's clerk ; 
also used for the money received for pilotage. The " footage" 
monies received by pilots are called by them foys. 


FOY-BOAT, a boat used by a/(?>'-boatman. 

FOY-BOATMAN, a boatman whose occupation is to watch at 
sea, off the mouth of the Tyne, for incoming ships, in order 
to obtain employment in mooring them on their arrival in the 

FOZY, applied to a turnip that is frost bitten; and, hence, 
spongy. A fozy turnip is also one overgrown, deficient in sap, 
and of a dry, spongy nature inside. These, when handled, 
are very light and have a hollow sound. The 3'oungsters on 
a farm sometimes use them for footballs. 

FRA, FRAE, FRE, FREV. FREN, from. "Where hes he 
come fra ? " This is the usual form in Northumberland. On 
Tyneside the sound is much shortened. 

*• Frae Team Gut to Whitley, wi' coals black and brown. 
For the Amphitrite loaded, the keel had com'd down.'* 

Robert Gilchrist, Skipper's Erudition, 1824. 

Fre is the usage when the word following begins with a 
consonant ; but when a vowel, or a mute aspirate, follows, 
the forms are frev and fren. See also Fren. 

•• Can they de owse wi' Crowley's crew, 
Frev a needle tiv an anchor, O ? " 

FRAC, audacious, undutiful, bold, obstreperous. 

FRAISE, FRAKE, a disturbance, a fight. •* A bonny frahe 
they gat up amang them." [Heard at Harbottle.J These 
appear to be variants oifray. Compare Fr-\sy and Fray. 

** The auld wives aften mak' ^f raise.** 

Poems, F. Donaldson, Glanton, 1809, P- 77* 

FRAKE, a freak. 

FRAME, to attempt, to strive, to show promise of ability. " He 
franus well.'' '* How does he frame ? " 

FRAME, the head gear carrying the puUe^-s of a pit. 

FRAME- DAM, a strong separation of wood and clay, to stop 
water back. — Mining Gloss. Ntu'castU Terwis^ 1S52. 

FRAME-DOOR, a pit door set in a frame of special construction. 

** It only opens in one direction, namely, against the pressure of the 
current of the air, and should always be hung so as to bSX to should any 
one passiiig through it n^ect to draw it dose.** — Glca. of Coal Tradi 
Terms, 188S. 


FR AM MELT, the bent portion of an obsolete form of cattle 
band, made of wood, to embrace and slide on the stake. The 
upright portion is called a " byeakie." 

FRAMPISH, to bend tightly. 

FRAP, to strike, to rap. " Aa'U frap yor heed when aa get a 
had on ye.'* 

FRASE, or PHRASE, a disturbance. ** What are ye myekin 
the frast aboot ; thor's neebody kill'd." See Frasy. 

FRASS, fine dust. 

" A caterpillar mines between the bark and the wood, and throws out 
a brown dust or frass'' —Dr. James Hardy, Hist, of Bwks. Nat. Club, 
vol. 9, p. 371. 

FRASY, fray, excitement, hubbub. The same as fraise. See 
Frase and Fray. 

•• Hoping the frasy might turn out a hoax." — James Armstrong, Wanny 
Blossoms f 1879, p. 132. 

FRASY, disturbing, talkative. " Hoot ! he's no worth mindin* ; 
a poor frazy body." Probably the adjectival form of the 
foregoing word. 

FRATCH, to make a disturbance in a querulous, fretful way ; 
also a slight quarrel, a disagreement, an obstruction. " He's 
niwor easy till he can raise a fratch wi* somebody." 

FRATCHER, a fault finder, a disturber about petty things. 

FRATED, frayed, fretted ; having rough, ragged edges, as torn 
or worn cloth. 

FRATISHED, perished, half frozen, benumbed with cold. — 
Brockett. See Fretished. 

FRATISHMENT, starvation from cold. 

FRAY, a great disturbance. A house cleaning or a washing 
day leads to the exclamation, " What a fray thor's on thi 

FRAZE. See Frase. 

FREAK, FREYK, FREKE, a strong man, a fighting man. 

FRECKEN, to frighten. 


FREE-COAL, coal well jointed, and working freely. — Hugh 
Miller, Geology of Otterburn and Elsdotty 1887. 

of peace. Still preserved at Hexham. 

"A Stone Chair in the Church near the Altar, to which Offenders used 
to fly for Sanctuary. Anglo-Saxon, fridh, peace, and stole, a seat."— 
Baileys Diet. 

FREELEGE, FRELIDGE, the privilege of acquiring the 
freedom of the town. ** He took up his freelege from his 
father." ** He served his freelege as a joiner." (Obs.) 

FREE-LEVEL, discharging at the surface without engine 
power. — Nicholson, Gloss, of Coal Trade Terms. 

FREEND, friend. Relatives are generally called freends. ** Aa's 
gan ti see ma freends.'' " He*s a far away freend o' mine." 
The word is frequently shortened to /n«, or frind, 

FREESE-ROOTER, possibly a name for a portcullis. (Obs.) 

FREET, fright ; FREETEN, to frighten. 

FRE-GITHER, apart. " They've been Ismg fre-giihcr:' 

FREM, FREMD, FREMIT, strange. "Frifwi folk"— alien 
people. **Aa*ve hed mair kindness shown us he frevid iolk 
nor fre me aan kin." Thus generally applied to distinguish 
people who are not one's blood relations. Hence anything 
out of the way or strange. '^ Afrefnd day." 

"Afremd man this." — Hodgson MS. 

" Frem'd or fremt, far off, not related to, or strange, an enmity."— /?d[y's 
Gloss. J 1691. 

FREMANG, from among. 

FREN, from. ** He's teyun'd fren him." This form is used 
instead oifre^ in the same way thdXfrev is used. ** Did ye get 
it fre Tom, or frev Anty ?" Here a vowel or consonant 
following determine the use oi fre, frev ^ ox fren. ** He gat the 
teyun fren an aad fiddler." ** He played the teyun fre 

FRENCH LENART, a redpole. 

FRESH-WOOD, the threshold, or foot-beam of the front door 
of a dwelling-house. — Hodgson MS. 


FRET, FREET, a wet fog. It is generally called a seafret. 

FRETISHED, FRATISHED, starved with cold (as fam*shed 
is starved with hunger). Common in Northumberland. 

FRETISHIN, FRETISHMENT, an attack of cold. " Aa've 
getten a tarrible /rtf^»sA»« ; aaVe neezed (sneezed) a* night." 
"He gat a real frctishtncnt.'' 

FRETTEN, or FRITTEN (the p.p. of fret), worn or eaten 
away ; fretted into marks or scars, as pock-fretten, marked with 
the small-pox. 

FREV, from, before a vowel. See Fren and Fra. 

FRIEZY, made of frieze. A fricBy coat is made of a kind of 
rough home- spun yarn, and has a woolly or hairy appearance. 

FRIM, vigorous, thriving, well fed. 

FRITH, a clearing in a forest. This term appears to be 
equivalent to the Cumberland thwaite. In Northumberland 
the word frith occurs as a place-name in one example only. A 
variant form of the same word probably occurs in Gosforth. 

FRIZZLE, in flint and steel guns the piece of iron acted on 
by the flint to produce the explosion. Also the piece of steel 
used for striking fire upon a flake of flint, often carried yet by 
old men to get a light with when in the fields. A piece of 
" matchy," or brown paper steeped in a solution of saltpetre, 
then dried, is used to take *• had " from the spark obtained by 
striking the frizzle against the sharp edge of the flint. The 
frayed edge of the ** matchy" projects well to the face of the 
flint in the operation. 

FROG, a disease in the throat of infants. •* Frogo' the mooth." 

FROST, in Northumberland is the name of dew, or the rime of 
hoar frost. The dew condensed on the glass of windows is 
also called frost. Also a fine September night which covers 
the grass with dew is called a frosty night. — Hodgson MS. 

FROST-RIND, or FROST-RY-END, frost-rime, hoar-frost. 

FROTH, FROUGH, weak, foamy. Applied to wood, it means 
light and brittle, as the crack willow. Light, like froth. — 
Hodgson MS. 

FROWDY, a slovenly or slatternly woman. 



FRUGGAN, a curved iron scraper with which ashes in an oven 
are stirred. — HcUliwcWs Diet. 

FRUSH, the thrush, or tender part of a horse's foot. 

FRUSH, brittle. "It's varry/riwA" (said by a mason hammering 
a quarl which broke easily, 1887). Anything full of sap and 
easily broken is said to be frush. 

FRY, children. 

'* The skulls are shut ; the gabblin fry 
A' skelp aboot at pleasure." 

The Oilin' 0' Dicky's Wig, 1826. 

" And them before the fry of children yong 
Their wanton sportes and childish mirth did play.*' 

Faerie Queene, I., xii., v. 7. 

FU, FUH, full ; generally shortened in this way when at the 
end of a word. Hoosefuk — housefull ; nief/«/* — hand/«//, &c. 

FUD, the tail, or ** scut," of the hare, rabbit, &c. 

FUDDLING, a practice in fish poaching. 

•• They not only use a net when they have one, but resort to the more 
destructive practice of what they cbXI fuddling the fish, by liming the water, 
or throwing into the pools a preparation of Coculus Indicus."— S. Oliver, 
Rambles in Northumberland ^ 1835, p. 83. 

FUE, or FEW, to endeavour, to struggle. ** Aa'll/we; to di'd." 
** He fues well at the job." See Few. 

FUE, an effort. ** He myed the best ftu on't aaVe seen." 

FUETS, the house-leek. See Fooz. 

FUFF, to puff out with an explosive or hissing sound. 
•• The poother /w/iftf off iv a jiffy." 


•• The fugieSt that is to say, such cowardly cocks as tried to run and 
avoid fighting." — \V. Brockie, Legends and Suferstitions, pp. iii and 133. 

FUIL, a fool. See Feyul. 

FULL, rich, well-to-do. (Obs.) 

T^ULL, FULLEN, the house-leek, Sempervivnm tectorum. See 
FuETs, Fooz. 

"Country people plant the house-leek, or sen-green, locally termed 
full or fullcn, on the thatched roofs of their cottages, in order to preserve 
hem from thunder and lightning, which, it is said, will never strike this 
'crgreen herh^— Legends and Superstitions, p. 117, 


FULLOCK, to jerk or advance the hand beyond the "past," 
or boundary line, in playing at marbles. It is a form of 
cheating at the game. ** Nee fullockin, noo,'* is the common 
expostulation to an unfair player. 

FULL-PLOUGH, or FOOL-PLOUGH. Anciently the 
hinds and agricultural labourers of Northumberland used 
to celebrate the termination of the labours of the plough 
by a pageant, which is variously called the white-plough^ 
stot-ploughf full-ploughf and fool-plough or fond-plough. The men 
who joined were dressed in white shirts (without coat or 
waistcoat), on which were stitched a profusion of coloured 
ribbons and rosettes. They yoked themselves to a plough, 
and went round the country-side preceded by a flag-bearer 
and accompanied by a man with a gun. At each house a fee 
was demanded, and when a gift was obtained the gun was 
fired. A refusal of the customary largess was followed by 
the plough being drawn in many furrows through the ground 
or pavement in front of the house. Compare Sword-dancers 
and Guizard. (Obs.) 

FUME, lead smoke. 

'* A sort of bad foul air, or fume, exhaliog out of some minerals." — 
Compleat Collier, 1708, p. 23. 

FUMMLE, to fumble, to do a thing clumsily. ** What are ye 
fmttmelin on that way for ?" To seek for in a fumbling 
manner. ** Aa fummeled on till aa fand it." In the dialect 
the b sound in tumble, grumble, humble, nimble, thimble, tremble, 
&c., is always elided. 

FUN, FUND, FUNDEN, preterites and p,p. oifind. 

FUNERAL-CUSTOMS. See Bidders, Lake-wake, Streek. 

FUNK, to kick, to kick up the heels as a horse or donkey does. 
" To funk off" is to throw the rider. ** To be in a funk " is to 
be in a tift or passion about anything. **The gaffer's in a 
fine funk " — in a great passion. 

FUNK, to raise a noisome smell, as is done by blowing 
pungent smoke through a keyhole— that is, ^^ Funkin the 

FUNKER, a hollow cabbage stalk or a horn filled with lighted 
tow, out of which volumes of smoke are blown by way of 
amusement or mischief. 


FUR, or FOOR, a furrow. 

FUR, FURRIN, the deposit of lime from limestone water. 
A pipe when choked with deposited matter is said to be 
furred up. 

FURNACE-DRIFT, a passage leading into an " upcast" pit 
provided with a furnace for the purpose of ventilating the 
mine. Where two such passages exist, one only of which 
has the furnace burning, they are distinguished as the furnau- 
drift and dutnh-drift. 

FURTHERANCE, extra price paid to the hewers when 
required to put the coals (Mining Gloss, Newcastle Terms, 1852), 
or as an allowance in respect of inferior coal, a bad roof, a 
fault, &c. (Gresley's Gloss,, 1883). 

FURTIG, fatigue. 

FUSHENLESS, FUZZENLESS, dry, wanting in nourish- 

** Fuzxen means 'nourishment, natural juyce, strength, plenty, abun- 
dance, and riches." — J. Britten, Old Country and Farming Words. (E.D.S) 

•• Nature should bring forth 
Of its own kind, all/o/roM, all abundance." 

Tempest, act ii., sc. i. 

Fushenless is, therefore, sapless, sackless, useless. ** He's a 
poor, fushenless body." 

FUSOME, FEUSOME, deft-handed, but generally in a 
sinister manner. 

FUTCHEN, fur, probably of the fitchet, polecat, or stoat. 

" A black futchen doublet, lined with sarsnet." — Will of John LawsoD. 
1578.— R. Welford, History of Newcastle in XVI. Century, p. 508. 

FWOAK, folks, people. See Folk. 

•• Jenny, the gardner, an sum mare sic leyke/tcoa*."— Thomas Bewick. 
The Howdy, ed. 1850, p. 11. 

FWOAL, a foal. A cov/t-fwoal is a young male horse whilst 
sucking. A filly-A^^^^ is a female of the same age. A foaly 
mear is a mare and foal. 

FYE, an exclamation calling to attention. ** Fye for a guide to 
Durham ! " exclaimed the broken fugitives after the battle of 
Newburn, in August, 1640. The word also occurs in early 


times. "Fy^-loan!** is a call to cows to be milked. ^^ Fye- 
nout ! " is the cry of the herd to his dog as he sends him away 
after straying cattle, and ** Fy^-yaud ! " when he is sent after 
sheep. "Fjr-lake ! ** or "Fy^-laig ! '* is the call when driving 
a flock of geese. Fye I is also used in urging a horse. In all 
cases the word is a cry of alarm, or a call to exertion or to be 
on the alert. 

FYES, the face. See Fe-yace. 

FYSEABLE, faceable ; something not to be ashamed of; any 
bit of work well done. 

FYES-STRAP, a strap suspended from the *• heed " of a horse's 
bridle, hanging down the face just above the ** nosepike," and 
generally ornamented with brass. 

FYKE, to fuss, to worry at trifles. See Feak and Fidge. 

FYLETT, probably a baptismal fee. (Obs.) 

The will of Robert Clayton, proved Jan. 19th, 1579. leaves to " Elinor, 
daughter of William Selby, whom he christened, 20s. and a fyUtty — 
Richard Welford, History 0/ Newcastle in XVI. Century, p. 511. 

" Fo'ht, baptism ; Folut^ baptised ; Folut in a font stone." — Anturs of 
Arthur, p. 9. — HalliweWs Diet, 

FYUL [T.] , a fool. See Feyul. 















lA// rights reserved] 





This Bibliography is based upon the List of Works 
published by Professor Wright for the English Dialect 
Dictionary; and the compiler is indebted to Mr. Edward 
T. Nisbet for examination and tabulation, in conjunction 
with Mr. John H. Harbottle, of dialect works in the 
Newcastle Free Library. The list has been further com- 
pared with the private collections of local imprints in the 
libraries of Mr. G. H. Thompson, Alnwick, Mr. Matthew 
Mackey, Junr., Newcastle, and of Mr. Richard Welford, 
Qosforth, to all of whom the writer is greatly indebted for 
personal assistance. Mr. Welford has added to this obli- 
gation by undertaking the onerous task of final revision 
and correction. 

R. Oliver Heslop. 


Ifay, 1896. 





ADAMS, T. W. Songs a/nd Sketches. By T. W. Adams, 
Leazes Lane, [Newcaatle]. i^mo, 8 pp. Newcastle, a d. 
[i 880]. (Contains the following local songs : — ' The Happy 
Fishwife of Canny Tyneside * ; ' The Sketches of New- 
castle * ; * The Parody of Billy Fine Day'; ' Happy Sally 
the Match Lass ' ; ' The Lass that wants to get married'; 
' The Rifleman Soldier '; * The Death of Billy Purvis.') 

ALLAN, EDWARD. Original Poems. By Edward Allan. 
i2mo, 36 pp. Newcastle: Pattison & Ross, 1837. (Con- 
tains three poems in Scotch dialect.) 

ALLAN, JAMES. 2%e Life of James Allan, the celebrated 
Northvmberland Piper ^ and other branches of his eoastra- 
ordinary family. 8vo. Blyth: Wm. Guthrie, 1817. 

The Life of James AUan, the celebrated Korthumber- 

land Piper, &c,<, taken principally from, his own relation. 
By Andkew Wight. 3rd ed. Newcastle: Mackenzie 
& Dent, 181 8. 

Another edition. 8vo, 384 pp. Blyth : W. Guthrie, 1818. 

Another edition. Collected by James Thompson. 

Illustrated by Cruikshank. 8vo, pp. vi, 480. New- 
castle: Mackenzie & Dent, 1818-1828. (This edition 
also issued in serial parts at 6d. and ^d. each.) 



ALLAN, JOHN WILLIdiM. NoHh Country Sketches. 
8vo, 227 PP- Newcastle: Courant Office, 1881. 

ALLAN, THOMAS (editor). Tynemle Songs, By Edward 
CoRVAN, G. Ridley, &c. Illustrated by beautiful engrav- 
ings of the most celebrated buildings in Newcastle, also 
portraits of Ed. Corvan and G. Ridley. i2mo, 96 pp. 
Newcastle-on-Tyne : Thomas Allan, 1862. 

A Choice Collection ofTyneside Songs. By E. Corvan, 

G. Ridley, J. P. Robson, R. Emery, &c. Illustrated by 
beautiful engravings of the most celebrated buildings in 
Newcastle and neighbourhood, to which is added a guide 
to Newcastle. i2mo, 180 pp. Newcastle: Published by 
Thomas Allan, n. d. [1863]. 

A Choice Collection of Tyneside Songs. By Wilson, 

Corvan, Mitford, Gilchrist, Robson, Harrison, Emery, 
Ridley, Oliver, Shield, &c., with Lives of the Authors. 
Illustrated with views of the Town and Portraits of the 
Poets and Eccentrics of Newcastle. i2mo, pp. vi, 373. 
Newcastle: Allan, 1873. 

Tyneside Songs. In two vols. 1874. (Same as the 

1873 Edition, but with the addition of new Titles and 
the omission of the Publisher's Note.) 

— lUustraied Edition of Tyneside Songs and Readings. 

With Lives, Portraits and Autographs of the writers, and 
notes on the Songs. Revised Edition [Edited by Thomas 
Allan]. 8vo, pp. xvi, 578. Newcastle-upon-Tyne: 
Thomas & George Allan, 1891. 

(The above is described as a revised and enlarged edition 
of Tyneside Songs (q.v.), published by Messrs. Allan 
in [1872-3] : but it is really an altogether new work, and 
forms by far the most complete collection of local 


ALLENDALE, A Dialogue between two Allendale Miners, 
which tack jilajce somewhere about forty years ago. By 
an Old Allendonian. 4 pp. 1878. (In the dialect of 
the south-western dales of Northumberland.) 

ALNWICK. The Alnwick Journal. 8 vols. 4to. Alnwick : 
J. L. Luckley, i859-82« (Vol. i, p. 88, et seq. contains, 
*The Alnwick Language,' a Glossary, by Mr. J. L. 
Luckley, and p. 99, et seq. *0n Names of Places in 

The Aln/wick PuTich. A serial in 1 2 nos., post 8vo, 1 1 a 

pp. Ahiwick: J. L. Luckley, 185 1-2. 

The Alnwick Vocal Miscellany. A selection of the 

most esteemed Songs. i2mo. Alnwick: W. Davison, 
— Botanical RamMes. A Flora of Alnwick. 8vo, 112 

pp. Alnwick : J. L. Luckley, n.d. 

— Flowers of the Aln. Post 8vo, 28 pp. Alnwick : 

J. L. Luckley, 1840. 

— Guide to Alnwick. Alnwick : W. Davison, n. d. 

— The Northwmbrian Minstrel. A Choice Collection 

of Songs. 3 no& i2mo. Alnwick: W. Davison, 1811. 

ANDERSON, JAMES. Tynedde Songs, Poems, &c. By 
James Anderson, i 2mo, 86 pp. Newcastle-upon-Tyne : 
T. Allan, 1875. 

ARCEAEOLOQIA AELIANA. Published by The New- 
castle Society of Antiquaries. 4 vols, quarto, 1822 to 
1825 > ftJ^d 18 vols, demy 8vo(New Series), 1857 to 1896. 
(Contain local terms passim, and the special articles 
following: voL i, p. 242, 4to series, 1822, 'Place Names 
of Northumberland,' by the Rev. A. Hedley; vol. ii, 
p. 189, 4to series, 1832, ^Origin of Anglo-Saxon,' &c., by 
Rev. J. BoswoBTH ; vol. v, p. 1 72, New Series, 1 861, vol. vi, 

B 2 


p. 5» 1865, *0n Corrupt Orthography of Local Names/ 
by R. Carr-Ellison ; vol. ix, p. 57, 1883, * Place Names of 
the County of Northumberland/ by J. V. Gbegort ; voL x, 
p. 173, 1885, 'Place Names of the County of Durham,' 
by the same; p. 93, 'The Permian People of North 
Durham/ by R. Oliver Heslop ; vol xiii. p. 7a, 1889, * On 
Certain peculiarities of the Dialect in Newcastle-upon- 
Tyne and Northumberland/ by Dennis Embleton, 
M.D. ; p. 223, * Notes on the Northumberland Bu^,' by 
J. V. Gregory.) 

ARMSTRONG, JAMES. Wanny Blossoms. A Book of 
Song, with a Brief Treatise on Fishing, sketches of 
Border Life, and Fox and Otter Hunting. By James 
Armstrong, Ridsdale, Bellingham. Second Edition. 
i2mo, 172 pp. Hexham: ^^roM Office, 1879. 

AWDE, ROBERT. Waiting at Table. Poems and Songs. 
i2mo. London, 1865. (Contains the following in 
Dialect: — 'My nice young wife an' me'; 'Johny and 
his Ghost ' ; ' My Canny Wife ' ; ' Jonny and Betty ' ; 
' The Bachelor in search of a Wife ' ; ' The Old Maid's 

BAGNALL, JOS. Songs of the Tyne. A Collection of 
Local Melodies, comic, satirical and descriptive ; to which 
is added several parodies on the most popular Songs. By 
Joshua Bagnall. i6mo, 32 pp. Gateshead: Printed by 
R. Rankin, 38 Bottle Bank, n.d. [1852]. 

BAILEY and CULLEY. Oeneral View of the Agriculture 
of the County of Northumberland, By J. Bailet and 
G. CuLLET. 8vo, pp. XX, 194. London : Phillips, 1805. 
(Appended to this are surveys of the Counties of Cumber- 
land, pp. 195-274, and of Westmorland, pp. ^75-361.) 



LLIE, Rev. JOHN. An ImpaHial Hutory of the 
Tmim and Cownty of Newcaetle-upon-Tyne and ita 
Vicinity. 8vo, pp. viii, 613. Newcastle: Printed by 
and for Vint & Anderson, in the Side, 1801. 
BANKS 0" TYNE {The). A Christmaa Annual, 1892, 
1893,1894,1895. South Shields : Gujeiie Office. (Con- 
taining articles by Richard Weipoed, Johm Shaw, R. 0. 
HEBLor, and others ; some in dialect.) 

BELL, JOHN (editor). Rhymes of NoHkem Bai-ds. Being 
a Curious Collection of Old and New Songa and Poems 
peculiar to the Counties of Newcastle-upon-Tyne, North- 
umberland, and Durham. Edited by John Bell, Jun. 
ismo, 334 pp. Newcast.le-upon-Tyne, 181 3. 
— A Qarland of BcUa, Whemin each rings to ita 
proper Tune, lamo, 24 pp. Printed for John Bell, 
on the Quay, by George Angus, in the Side, NewcaHtlo, 

OF THE. 14 volumes, 1831-1893, and one part, 1894. 
Printed for the Club by H. H. Blair, Alnwick. 

The papers and proceedings in the series include many 
dialect words throughout. Of special articles, vol. iv. 
1856^1862, p. 356, contains 'The present participle in 
the Northumbrian dialect,' by Ralph Cakb of Hedgeley ; 
Tol. vi, 1869-1872, p. 133, 'On the Stature, Bulk, &c., 
Ac., of native Northumbrians,' by Gfobge Tate, F.G.S. ; 
p. 141, 'The Northumbrians between Tyne and Tweed,' 
by Ralph Carb; voL vii, 1873-1875, p. 25,'Suggestion8 
OS to Border Dialect*,' by Dr. Stuakt; p. 337, ' On the 

Ignification of some Place-Naraes in North Northumber- 
' and vol. x, 1883-1884, p. 373.' Names of the Fame 

ilands and of Lindiafarne,' by Ralph Carr-Ellison. 


BEWICK, THOMAS (the wood engraver). The Howdy 
and the Upgetting. Two tales of aixty years sin seyne, 
as related by the late Thomas Bewick, of Newcastle, in 
the Tyneside dialect, i smo, 15 pp. London : Printed for 
the admirers of native merit, 1850. 

BISHOPRIC GARLAND (The); or, Durham Mvnetrd. 
Being a choice collection of excellent Songs, relating to 
the above county, i^mo, 24 pp. Stockton : Printed by 
R. Christopher, 1 784. (Contains thirteen Songs. Second 
Edition, published same year, contains sixteen Songs. 
Third Edition, published 1792, contains twelve Songs. 
See also Bitson.) 

BLAKEY, ROBERT. The Angler's Song Book. CompUed 
and edited by Robebt Blaket. Small 8vo, pp. xv, 276. 
London^ 1855. (Contains songs in dialect.) 

and 144 pp. Galashiels, 1880, 1881. 

BORDER GLOSSARY. Alnwick: Printed by W. Davison, 
n. d. (In the Collection of Prince L. L. Bonaparte.) 

BORINGS AND SINKINGS. A Collection published by 
the North of England Institute of Mining and Mechanical 
Engineers, A— B, 1878 ; C— E, 1881 ; P— K, 1885 ; L— R, 
1887; S— T, 1894. Published for the Institute by A. 
Reid, Newcastie. (These contain many coal-mining terms.) 

BRAND, JOHN. Observations on Popular Antiquities. 
Including the whole of Mr. Bourne's Antiquitates Vulgares, 
&c. By John Brand, A.B. 8vo, pp. xx, 432. New- 
castle: T. Saint, 1777. 

The History and Antiquities of the Town and County 

of Newcastle-upon-Tyne. Including an account of the 
Coal Trade of that place, and embellished with engraved 


views of the Publick Buildings, &c. By John Brand, 
M.A., Fellow and Secretary of the Society of Antiquaries, 
London. 2 vols, quarto. London, &c., 1789. (Vol. 
ii, p. 261, contains note on terms in use by Eeel- 
men, &c.) 

BROCKETT, JOHN TROTTER. A Glossary of North 
CouTiiry Words in Use. From an Original MS. in 
the Library of John George Lambton, Esq., M.P., with 
considerable additions. By John Trotter Brockett, 
F.S.A., London and Newcastle. Sm. 8vo, 243 pp. 
Newcastle-upon-Tyne : Printed by T. & J. Hodgson, for 
E. Chamley, 1825. 

A Glossary of North Country Words in Use ; with 

their Etymology, and Ajffinity to other Languages ; and 
occasional Notices of Local Customs and Popular Super ^ 
stitions. By John Trotter Brookett, F.S.A., London 
and Newcastle. New edition. Sm. 8vo, 343 pp. New- 
castle-on-Tyne : Emerson Chamley, Bigg Market, and 
Baldwin & Cradock, London, 1829. 

The same. Edited by W. E. Brockett. In 2 vols., 

with preface, portrait, and memoir. Vol. i, pp. xxv, 254 ; 
vol. ii, 242 pp. Newcastle-upon-Tyne : E. Chamley, 1846. 

BROCKIE, WILLIAM. The Family Names of the Folks of 
Shields traced to their origin ; with brief notices of dis- 
tinguished persons ; to which is appended a dissertation 
on the origin of the Britannic Race, By William 
Brooeie. ' Aal tegither, like the folks o' Sheels ' (Local 
Proverb). 8vo, 113 pp. South Shields: T. F. Brockie 
& Co., 1857. 

BRUCE and STOKOE. Northumberland MinstreUy, A 
Collection of Ballads, Melodies, and Small-pipe tunes of 
Northumbria. Edited by J. Collinqwood Bruce and 


John Stokoe. 8vo, pp. x, 191 and Index v. Newcastle : 
Published by the Society of Antiquaries of Newcastle- 
upon-Tyne, 1 88a. 

BULLEIN, W. A Dialogue bothe pteaoauTd wnd pietifuUy 
wherein is a godlie regvment against the Fever Pestilence. 
By Dr. William Bullein. Printed in London, 1 564 (8vo) ; 
reprinted in 1573 (8vo, pp. 216) ; 1578 (8vo). Also 
reprinted in the Early English Text Society's series, 1888. 
That portion of Bullein's work which contains the 
Speeches of the old Ridsdale Beggar is given in the 
Notes to Ramhles in Northumberland and on the 
Scottish Border i by Stephen Oliver the Younger; 
1835, p. 331. In this, an edition of Bullein dated 1569 
is mentioned. 

^BURR* (The Northumberland). See Dialects of the 
Southern Counties of Scotland. By J. A. H. Mubbat. 
Published by the Philological Society. Also references 
to the burr in Hogg's Instructor^ and Series, p. 14a ; 
Scot*s Magazine^ 1804, pp. 1 79-1 81, and 1802, pp. 
959) 960 ; Prof. Trautmann, in Anglia^yol. iii, p. 211, 
&c. (Halle, Max Niemeyer, 1880); R. Oliver Heslop, 
art. ' The Northumbrian Burr,' Monthly Chronicle, 1888, 
p. 59 ; Denha/m Tracts, ed. by Dr. Hardy, vol. i ; 
R. Oliver Heslop, Northumberland Words, Introduc- 
tion. Also, Archaeol. Adianxi, vol. xiii, pp. 72 and 223, 
arts, by D. Embleton and J. V. Gregory. 

CARGILL, JOHN, -M.D. The Knights of St. John and 
the Cross ; or, The Raid o' The Avid Musee. Royal 8vo, 
16 pp. Newcastle: J. M. Carr, 1875. 

CATCHESIDE, M. The Lambton Worm. Sung in the 
Tyne Pantomime, n. d. 


CHAKLETON, R. J. Newcastle Town. An account of its 
rise and progress: its struggles and triumphs: and its 
ending. By R. J. Chableton. 8vo, pp. iv, 433. London : 
Walter Scott, 1885. 

CHARLTON, EDWARD, M.D. Memorials of North Tyne- 
dale and its Four Surnames. By Edward Charlton, 
M.D., D.C.L. and ed. 8vo, loi pp. Newcastle: J. M. 
Carr, 1871. 

CHATER, J. W. Rlustraled Comic Tyneside Almanojcfor 
1862. Written in the Northumberland Dialect ' egzackly 
hoo the Newcassel Foaks tawk.' By J. P. Robson, ' an' 
uthor cliwor cheps a* owthor belangin Newcassel, 
G'yetsid, or sumways else.' i2mo. Newcastle-upon- 
Tyne: J. W. Chater, i86a. 

Illustrated Comic Tyneside Almanac for 1 863, '64, '65, 

'66, '67, '68, '69, and '7a, also '75. lamo. 

The Keelmin's Comic Annewalfor 1869, '70, '71, '72, 

'73> '77> '83 ; * gi'es ye the best bits o' wit an' wisdim be 
the clivYorest cheps aboot Tyneside.' Illustrated by J. L. 
M AROKE and C. H. Ross, i amo. Newcastle-upon-Tyne : 
J. W. Chater. 

Chater* s * Canny Newcassel ' Diary and Local re- 

m^mhran/cer. 8vo, 154 pp. Newcastle: J. W. Chater, 

CBLA.TT, GEORGE. Miscellaneous Poems. By George 
Chatt. 8vo, iiopp. Hexham: J. Catherall& Co., 1866. 
(Contains the following poems in dialect : — ^ Bonnie Tyne- 
side,' p. 9 ; ' Cash,' p. 28 ; ' The Countess of Derwent- 
water's Lament,' p. 79 ; ' Reminiscences of an old Farmer,' 
p. 84. The last is an admirable example of the dialect 
of West-Tyne.) 


CBLA.TTO, W. A. Scenes wnd RecoUecticyna of Fly Fishing^ in 
Northv/mberland, Cvmberlandy and Westmorland. By 
Stephen Oliver, the Younger, of Aldwark, in Com. Ebor. 
[W. A. Chatto]. i2mo, pp. 160, Appendix i6i-ai2. 
London : Chapman & Hall, 1834. 

Rarriblea in Northumberland avd on The Scottish 

Border: Interspersed with brief notices of interesting 
events in Border history. By Stephen Oliveb, the 
Younger [W. A. Chatto]. i!2mo, pp. vi, 347. London : 
Chapman & Hall, 1835. (The Appendix, pp. 329-347, 
contains an extract from BuUein's Dialogue against the 
Fever Pestilence, 1564, in Redesdale Dialect ; A Rhyme 
called 'News from Newcastle,' 1651, by Wm. Ellis; 
' Charge of the Warden Courte ' from Nicholson's ' Border 
Laws ' ; * Decay of Horsemen on the Borders,' 159a.) 

CHICKEN, EDWARD. The CoUie^'s Wedding. A Poem, 
by Edward Chicken. Fifth edition. 8vo, 32 pp. New- 
castle: T. Saint, 1778. 

The Collier's Wedding. i2mo, 24 pp. paper covers. 

Newcastle-upon-Tyne : William R. Walker, n. d. (Chap- 

Tlie Collier's Wedding. A poem by Edward Chicken. 

8vo, pp. XV, 32. (With a preface, notes, and life by 
W. Cail.) Newcastle : T. & J. Hodgson, 1829. 

CLARE, AUSTIN. See James, Clara. 

COLD WELL, T. (junr.) Bella Taylor's advice tiv her man 
on Strike. By T. Coldwell (junr.). A song. Newcastle, 
no date nor publisher. 

COMPLEAT COLLIER {The); or, The whole AH ofSink^ 
ing, Getting, and Working Coal MineSy dsc., as is now 
used in the Northern Parts, especially ahont Sunderland 
and Newcastle. 8vo. 1 708. (Reprinted in Richardson's 


I G 

' B 

I T 

I E 


1^ ^ 


Miecellan^eous Reprinta, 1845. The Author writes under 
the initials J. C. His work includes oiany terms used in 
Coal -mining.) 
collected and edited by a North-Country Angler. Sm. 
8vo, 16H pp. Edinbui^h: Blackwood, 185a. 
•RVAN, EDWARD. Corvan'« Sovga. 2 parts, larao, 
24 pp. each. Newcastle : W. R. Walker, d. d. 

CorvanB Song Book. lanao. 24 pp. Newcastle: Wm. 
Stewart, n. d. 
COUPEB, GEORGE WILLIAM. Origirud Poetnj. By 
Qforge William CourER. Teacher of Navigation, &c, 
Hill Street, South Shields ; and author of The Eaut Coast 
TUle Tables. Post 8vo, 34 pp. North Shields: R. 
Henderson, 1 828. (Contains ' The Shields Steam Ferry.' 
A new song, written in the provincial dialect.) 
'XE, R. C, The Snow Shroud ; or, the Lost Bairn, o' 
Biddleeton Edge. By R. C. Coxe. 8vo, pp. vi, 30. 
Newcastle: M, A. Richardson, 1845. 
.AWHALL, JOSEPH. Notes on the Sword Dancers. 
Compiled by J. Crawhall, and read by Dr. J. C. Bbdcb 
at the Northumberland Small-Pipes Competition, Doc. 7, 
1870, i2mo. Newcastle. 

— A Collection of Right Merrie Garlands for North 
Country Anglers. Edited by Joseph Crawhall and 
continued to this present year. 8vo, pp. sv, 312. New- 
castle: George Rutland, 22 Btackett Street, 1864. 

Cliapleta from Coquet-Skle. By Joseph Crawhall. 
8vo, 84 pp. 100 copies printed, sixteen with etchings. 
Newcastle: R. Robinson, 1873. (Contains 'A Lay of 
Rimside ' and ' Happy Friendship,' in dialect.) 


CBAWHALL, JOSEPH. A Btuk o' Nefwvassel Savgs. 
Collected by Joseph Cbawhall. Sm. 4to, pp. xi, 131. 
Newcastle : Mawaon, Swan & Morgan, 1888. 

CREIGHTON, THE Rev. Canon (Bishop of Peter- 
borough). The Nortkumhrian Border. Large 8vo. 
Overprint from article in The Hietoncal Review, with 
Appendices. (Local terms in the l&tter.) 

CRESSWELL, MARSHALL. Local a-nd other Songs, 
Recitations, dc. Composed by Marshall Cresswell, 
Dudley, Northumberland, with introductory autobio- 
graphy, lamo, 36 pp. Newcastle: J, W. Chater & 
Co.. 1876. 

Second Edition, 1883, 143 pp. 

DAWES, RICHARD. The Origin of the- Nevvastle Burr. 
The Second Edition with alterations and additions. A 
Satirical Poem. By Richard Dawes. London, 1767. 
Reprinted, 1844, in vol. iii of Richardson's Newraeile 
Reprints of Rare Tracts. (A Satire ; with no dialect value 

DENHAM, M. A. Proverbial Folk-Lore of Neiucaetle-on- 
Tyne. 4to. Richmond in Com. Ebor. : J. Bell, 1855. 

Folk-Lore ; or, A collection of Local Rhifme8,Provei'ba, 

Sayings, Prophecies, Slogans, Jhc, relating to North%t/m- 
herland, Newcastle-on-Tyne and Beru-ick-on -Tweed. Sm. 
8vo, 154 pp. Richmond in Com. Ebor: J. Bell, 1858. 

The Denkam Tracts. A collection of Folk-Lore by 

Michael Aislabie Denhah, and reprinted from the 
original tracts and pamphlets printed by Mr. Denham 
between 1846 and 1859. Edited by Dr. James Hardt. 
Demy 8vo, vol. i, pp. xi, 367 ; vol. ii, xi. 396. Published for 
the Folk-Lore Society. London; David Nutt, 1893-1895. 


DIXON, D. D. Tlie Vale of Whittingham^ NorthwnibeT- 
land. By D. D. Dixon, ismo, 72 pp. Newcastle- 
upon-Tyne: Daily Journal Office, 1887. 

-^— Old Wedding CusUyms in Upper-Coquddale and 
Alndale, Northumberland. By D. D. Dixon. i2mo, 
15 pp. Reprinted from the Newcastle Cov/ranl, December, 

Shrove-Tide Customs. Shrove Tuesday, called also 

Fastems, Fasten, or Fasting Eve, or Pancake Tuesday. 
By D. D. Dixon, Rothbury. i amo, 7 pp. Reprinted from 
• the Newcastle Gourant^ February 29, 1894. (Contains 
on pp. 4, 5 and 6 a description, in the dialect, of the 
Football Play at Rothbury.) 

Coquetdale Customs. Archaeologia Adiana^ voL xiii, 

p. 306. 

Whittin^fham Vale, Northumberland: its History, 

Traditions and Folk-Lore. By David Dippie Dixon, 
with illustrations by John Tubnbull Dixon. 8vo, pp. 
XX, 348. Newcastle : Robert Redpath, 1895. 

DONALDSON, T. ('Tarn o* Glanton'). Poems. With 
Glossary. Post 8vo, 205 pp. Alnwick : Davison, 1809. 

DUNBAR, WILLIAM. Local and other Songs, Redtalions 
and Con/undrumSy a Local Tale^ dkc. Composed by the late 
William DuNBAB, Wardley Colliery. i2mo,48pp. New- 
castle: Stevenson & Dryden, 1874. 

EDINGTON, J. S. BUly Purvis's Benefit ; ' The Keelman's 
Orand Remonstran^Cy and other Poems. 8vo, 40 pp. 
North Shields, 1863. 

Low Notes from a Small Pipe. 8vo, 107 pp. North 

Shields: W. J. Potts, 1896. 


EMBLETON, DENNIS, M.D. Local Dialect Dialogues. 
8vo, 6a pp. Privately printed, 189a. (Contains copious 
notes to the dialect words.) 

EMERY, R. The Newcastle Champion, or the Battle of 
Barlow Fell, A local song in dialect. Broad-sheet. 
Printed by R. T. Edgar, Pilgrim Street, Newcastle, 
[1824]. (Emery wrote many songs in dialect which were 
broad-sheeted. No collection of his works has been made.) 

FARRER, JOHN. The Poetical Works of John Farrer, 
Netherwitton, i amo, 238 pp. Blyth : J. . Robinson, 
1 83 1. (A few of the poems are in dialect.) 

FOLK-LORE. Notes on the Fdk-Lore of the Northern 
Counties of England and the Border. 8vo. London: 
1866. Republished by the Folk-lore Society. 8vo. 
London, 1879. 

FORSTER, J. G. The Song of Solomon in the NewcasOe 
Dialect, By J. G. Forster. (250 copies printed.) Sm. 
4to, pp. iv,' 19. London: Barclay, n.d. [1859.] 

FORSTER, ROBERT. History of Corbridge and its 
Antiquities, dkc. By Robert Forster. 8vo, pp. vi, 
202. Newcastle: J. Beall, 1881. 

FORSTER, WESTGARTH. A Treatise on a Section of 
the Strata from Newcastle-^pon-TyTie to the Mountain 
of Cross Fell in Cumberland; with remarks on Mineral 
Veins in general, &c, 2nd ed. By Westgarth Forster. 
8to, pp. X, 422, Appendix, xvi pp., Lidex and Glossary, 
-A fp. Printed for the Author, at the Geological Press, 
sold by John Pattinson, Alston, Cumberland, &c. 

Fraser's Tyneside Comic Annual. Unpaged. 


FRASER, J. Fraser'a Blyth and Tyneside Comic Annual. 
i2mo. Blyth: J. Eraser, 1890. 

Fraser*8 Blyth and Tyneside Comic Annual, and 

Year Book of Drollery, i2mo. 1891. The Same. 
i2mo. Unpaged. Blyth : J. Eraser, 1892. (All the 
above are largely made up of advertisements.) 

GALLOWAY, THOMAS. Overlooked Odes {Serious and 
Otherwise), Collected and arranged with Critical Notes, 
by Thomas Galloway. lamo, 24 pp. Gateshead: 
Howe Brothers, 1887. (Number One, 'Jubilee Day,' is 
in dialect.) 

GILCHRIST, ROBERT. A Collection of Original Local 
Songs. Second Edition. To which is added ' The loss 
of the Ovington,' a poem. 8vo, 24 pp. Newcastle: 
Mitchell, 1824. 

Poems, 8vo, 88 pp. Newcastle : Printed by Boag, 


A Collection ofOriginxd Songs, Local andSentimenial. 

By Robert Gilchrist. i2mo, 36 pp. Newcastle: 
W. A. MitcheU, 1836. 

GRAY, WHiLLAM. Chorographia ; or, a Survey of New- 
castle-upon-Tin^yJkc. 4to,pp. viij,34. Newcastle : Printed 
by S. B., 1649. 

Ditto. Reprinted Harleian Misc. vol. iii, 1745, and 

voL xi, 1 8 10; by the Society of Antiquaries, Newcastle 
(folio, Newcastle, 181 3 and 1820); by Wm. Garrett, 
1 81 8; in Richardson's Antiquities of the Border, 1881 ; 
with illustrations by Jos. Crawhall, 4to, 1884; by Geo. 
Nicholson, South Shields (twenty copies printed with 
appendix) 1892. 

GREENWELL, G. C. A Glossary of Terms used in the 
Coal Trade of Northumberland and Durham. First 


Edition, 1 849. Second Edition. 8vo, pp. vi, 56. London : 
J. Gray Bell, 1851. Third Edition. 8vo, 92 pp. 
London: Bemrose & Sons, 1888. 

HALL, JAMES. Guide to Olendale. By James Hall. 
i2mo, pp. xii, 130. Wooler: M. Brand, 1887. (Contains 
many local terms for natural features of the country.) 

HARBOTTLE, JOHN. Fishing Songs sun^ at the Annual 
Meetings of the Newcastle ' Fishing ClvhJ Broad-sheets, 
various dates. 

HARRISON, ROWLAND. Jubilee Song Book. Small 
quarto, 8 pp. (No date or publisher, but probably Allan, 

— ^— Tyneside Songs. i2mo, 52 pp. Newcastle: Allan, n.d. 

HASWELL, G. H. The Maister, A Century of Tynedde 
Life. By GEORaE H. Habwell. 8vo,pp. xv,339. London: 
Walter Scott, 1 895. 

HENDERSON, GEORGE. The Popular Rhymes, Sayings, 
and Proverbs of the County of Berwick. With illus- 
trative notes. By Geobge Hendebson, Surgeon. i2mo, 
pp. viii, 184. Newcastle-upon-Tyne: W. S. Cix)w, 1856. 

HESLOP, R. OLIVER. Ncrrthmnberland Words, a Glossary 
of Words used in the County of Northumberland and an 
the Tyneside. By R. Oliver Heslop; English Dialect 
Soc, Series C, Original Glossaries, Nos. 66, 68, and 71. 
Vol. i. A — Fy, pp. xxxii, 310. London: Regan Paul, 
Trench, Trlibner & Co., 189^. Vol. ii. Ga — Z, pp. 311- 
313. London: H. Frowde, 1 893-1 894. 

Geordy's Last. By Harry Haldane (R. Oliver 

Heslop). Sm. 8vo, 20 pp. Newcastle-upon-Tyne: 
Courant Office, 1878. 2nd ed. with songs, 42 pp. 


HESLOP, R OLIVER. Hia Other Eye, A sketch in the 
Newcastle Folk Speech. Newcastle: Courant Office, 
1880. (Reprinted in Allan's Collect, 1891.) 

The Keeker's Cat 4 pp. Newcastle : Courant Office, 


Newcastle Toon ne Mair, (Broad-sheet, 1885.) 

the direction of the Northumberland History Committee. 
4to, vol. i, 1893, pp. xiv, 462; vol. ii, 1895, pp. xi, 570. 
By E. Bateson. Vol. iii, 1896, pp. x, 352. By A. B. 
Hinds. Newcastle : A. Reid. (Contain field names and 
other terms.) 

HODGSON, Rev. JOHN. The Picture of Newcastle-wpon- 
Tyne, being a brief historical and descriptive guide to 
the principal buildings, streets, Ac, and a History of the 
Coal Trade, lamo^ pp. iv, 306. Newcastle: Akenhead, 

History of Northumberland. In three parts, 4to. 

By Rev. John Hodgson Vol. i, part iii, * Ancient 
Records,' &c. (London, 1820); vol. ii, part iii, * Ancient 
Records/ &c. (Newcastle, 1828) ; vol. iii, part iii, * Pipe 
Rolls,' &c. (Newcastle, 1835); vol. i, part ii, * Parish 
Histories ' (Newcastle, 1 827) ; vol. ii, part ii, * Parish His- 
tories' (Newcastle, 1832); vol. iii, part ii,' Parish Histories' 
(Newcastle, 1840). (Several local words will be found, 
especially in the volumes forming Part ii.) 

HORSLEY, JAMES. Lays of Jesmond, and Tyneside 
Songs and Poertis. By the late James Horsley. 8vo, 
pp. xvi, 174. Newcastle: Andrew Reid, 1891. 

HOUSTON, T. A Collection of Poems, Odes, and Songs. 
Never before published. By the late T. Houston, author 
of The Term day, Progress of Madness, &c. 8vo, 48 pp. 



Newcastle: Printed and sold by David BasB, foot of 
Filgrim Street, 1864. 
HOUSTON, T. The Progress of Mud.nes8 ; or, TJie Irish- 
man Insave. A. Poem Id two parts. &c., to which is 
added, The Squire's Expedttwn ; or, TJie On-iiiea Hen, 
a Song. 8vo, 48 pp. Newcastle : Printed by Vint 
& Anderson, 1803. 

JAMES, CLARA. A Pearl in the Shell : A Tate of Life 
and Lorn in the Nmih Countrie. By ' Austin Clars.' 
8vo, 218 pp. London : S. P. C. K., n.d. 

For the Love of a Lass : A Tale of Tynedale. By 

'Austin Clare.' 2 vols. Hvo. Vol. i, 320 pp. ; vol. ii, 
208 pp. London : Chatto & Windus, 1 890. 

The Way Out : A Nurlkumbrian Pitvutn's Story. 

By 'Adbtin Clark,' 8vo, 68 pp. London: J. Masters 
Sc Co., 1890. 

JOHNSTON, Dr. GEORGE. The FUrra of Ber^tdck on 
Tv.-eed. 2 vols. 8vo. 1839, 1831. 

The Botany of the Eastern Borders (Terra Lindia- 

famensiB). With the popular names and uses of the 
plants, and of the customs and beliefs which have 
been aflsociated with them. By Geubqe Johnston, M J). 
8vo, pp. X, 366. Plates I- XTT T. London: John Van 
Voorst, 1853. (This is vol. i of the ' Nat. History of the • 
Eastern Borders." No second vol. was published.) 

JONES, S. S. Northuniherland and ite Neighbour Lands. 
4to. pp. vi, 295. By S. S, Jones. Newcastle : S. S. 
Jones, n. d. 

LEBOUR. G. A. Outlines of tfie Geology of Northvm\ber- 
laivd and Durham. By G. A. Leboob.M.A., F.G.8. (and 
ed, as regards Northumberland.) Cr. 8vo, pp. vi, aao. 
Newcastle: Lambert JJc Co., 1 886. (Contains local terms.) 


LONG PACK {The). A Northumberland Tale, An 
Hundred Years old. i2mo, 24 pp. Printed for John 
Bell, on the Quay, Newcastle, 181 7. 

Another edition. Geo. Angus, Printer, Newcastle, 


Another edition. i2mo, 24 pp. Newcastle: Wm. 

Hall, 1818. 

LUCKLEY, J. L. The Alnwick Language. By J. L. 
LuOKLET. (A glossary of the Alnwick dialect. See 
p. 3, under * Alnwick.*) 

MABSELALL, J. The Northern Minstrel, or Gateshead 
Songster. Being a choice Collection of the most ap- 
proved modem songs : including also a number of 
originals from the manuscripts of the respective authors. 
Gateshead-upon-Tyne : Printed and sold by J. Marshall ; 
and may also be had of the principal Booksellers in 
Great Britain. (A serial, in four parts, i6mo. Parts I 
and n, 7a pp. each, 1806 ; Pt. Ill, 74 pp., n. d. ; Pt. IV, 
76 pp., n. d. The following are the pieces in dialect : — 
Pt. I, p. 66, * Donocht Head,* by G. Pickebinq ; Pt 11, 
p. 61, *My Lord *Size,' by J. Shield ; Pt. IV, p. i, *Bob 
Cranky's 'Size Sunday*; p. 72, 'Bob Cranky *s Adieu,' 
^^^ P- 73> * Swalwell Hopping.* There are also a few 
songs in Scotch.) 

The Newcastle Songster. Being a choice Collection 

of songs, descriptive of the language and manners 
of the common people of Newcastle and neighbour- 
hood. i2mo, 24 pp. Newcastle : Printed by J. Marshall, 
n. d. [18 1 a]. (Afterwards re-issued in chapbook form, 
as Part I of a series of six booklets.) 

Newcastle Songs. A Collection of popular songs 

c 2 


illustrative of the language and manners of the common 
people on the banks of the Tyne. lamo, i6 pp. New- 
oastle-upon-Tyne : Printed and sold by J. Marshall, in 
the Old Flesh Market, 1819. (Contents :—* The Pit- 
man's Courtship ' ; * The Barber's News ' ; * The Eagle 
Steam Packet ' ; ' Weel may the Keel Row '; * The Pit- 
man's Skellyscope ' ; ^ The Sandgate Lassie's Lament ' ; 
* My Lord 'Size,' and ' The Baboon.') 

MARSHALL, J. The Gateshead Cabinet. Being a small 
Collection of songs. By T. R V. lamo, 14 pp. New- 
castle : J. Marshall, 1816. 

-^^ A Collection cf Original Netvcastle Songs. Not 
before published in any Collection, i^mo, 16 pp. New- 
castle-upon-Tyne : J. Marshall, 1819. (Contains nine 
songs : — * Jemmy Joneson's Whurry ' ; * Orangeman's 
Walk ' ; * Canny Newcastle ' ; * Sir Tommy made an 
Oddfellow'; * Billy Oliver'; 'Coaly Tyne'; * Jenny 
Howlet ' ; ' Eeelman's Stick ' ; < Burden's Address to 
his Cavalry.') 2nd edition, 18 19. 3rd edition, 1820. 
4th edition, 1823. 

A Collection of Songs, Comic and Satirical. Chiefly in 

the Newcastle dialect, and illustrative of the language 
and manners of the common people on the banks of the 
Tyne and neighbourhood. By Messrs. Thompson, Shield, 
MiDFORD, and others. (2nd edition.) i2mo^ 72 pp. 
Newcastle-upon-Tyne : J. Marshall, 1819. (Issued also 
in penny n1^nber8 as chapbooks.) 3rd edition, 1820. 
Another edition^ including Songs on the Coronation, 
"-^ lyp.^ printed 1822. 4th edition, 72 pp., 1823. 

cf SongSi Comic, Satirical and Deacrip- 

n the Newcastle dialect. By T. Thompson, 

[DVOBD, H. RoBSON, and others. Pp. ii, 


228. Newcastle-upon-Tyne : Printed by John MarshaD, 
in the Old Flesh Market, 1827. 

MARSHALL, J. The Newcastle Songster. Being a choice 
Collection of songs, descriptive of the language and 
manners of the common people of Newcastle-upon-Tyne 
and neighbourhood, a new edition with additions. 1 2mo, 
in six parts, 24 pp. each. Newcastle-upon-Tyne: J. 
Marshall, n. d. 

A Complete Collection of Original Newcastle Coronor 

tion Songs. Comprising all that have been written on 
the coronation of George IV. i2mo, 16 pp. Newcastle, 
1822. (Only one song, ' Newcastle in an Uproar/ con- 
tains dialect words.) 

A Complete Collection of Original Newcastle Corona- 

tion Songs. Comprising all that have been written on the 
coronation of George IV, and on the intended removal of 
the Custom House. i2mo, 76 pp. Newcastle, 1822. 

A Collection of Songs on the Intenxied Branch Custom 
House at North Shields. i2mo, 12 pp. Newcastle-upon- 
Tyne: J. MarshaU, n. d. [1822]. 

A Oarland of Newcastle Songs. Eighteen numbers. 
i2mo. Newcastle-upon-Tyne : J. Marshall, n. d. 

MARSHALL, THOMAS. A Collection cf Original Local 
Songs. By Thomas Marshall, Newcastle-upon-Tyne. 
i2mo, 24 pp. Printed for the author by Wm. Fordyce, 
Dean Street, [Newcastle], 1829. 

MAXWELL, W. H. Border Sketches. 2 vols. cr. 8vo. 1 847. 

MIDFORD, W. A Collection of Songs^ Comic and Satirical. 
Chiefly in the Newcastle dialect. By William Midfobd. 
To which are added a few local songs, by various authors. 
i2mo, 70 pp. Newcastle, 181 8. (The author here spells 
bis name * Midford,* but elsewhere * Mitford.') 


MIDFORD, W. The Budget ; (yr, Newcastle Strngder f<rr 
1816. i2mo, 24 pp. Newcastle: J. Marshall, 1816. 
(Sub-title on inner page.) * The Feast of Momns or Odd 
Fellows' Cabinet for 1816, contains a collection of songs, 
chiefly in Newcastle dialect, never before published, && 
Dedicated by Brother Mitford.' (Contains: — *TyneFair'; 
' X. T. Z. at Newcastle races ' ; ' Gappy * ; ' Local Militia- 
man ' ; ' Mayor of Bourdeaux ' ; ' Staffordshire Ware ' ; 
' Tyne Cossacks.*) 

MURRAY, Db. WM. Hazelton ; A Northumbrian Story, 
By Dr. Wm. Mubbay. Cr. 8vo, 297 pp. Newcastle : 
J. M. Carr, 1 895. 

NEWCASTLE. Advice to the Advised, or the Philosopher 
Confuted. Li a poetical dialogue, between William 
Shuttle, the weaver, Thomas Thimble, the taylor, and 
his wife Peggy ; never before made public. By Theo- 
PHILU8 Cbispin, a Northumbrian. 8vo, 12 pp. New- 
castle : Printed for the Author by S. Hodgson, and sold 
by E. Chamley & Son, 1803. 

The Blo/ck Garland. Containing ' The Holy Puzzle ' ; 

* The Meikle Black Deil, or the Bogle-bo ' ; 'The Chield 
wi' the Swingeing Tail'; ' L — t's Speech' ; * Presbyterian 
Minister's Prayer for the Deil ' ; * The Cardiometer,' 
&c. 8vo, 16 pp. Newcastle: Printed by W. Fordyce, 
29 Sandhill, 1827. (Scotch dialect.) 

Caps Well Fit; or^ Select Epigramsy Serious and 

Comic. By * Titus in Sandgate,* and * Titus Everywhere.' 
[Wm. Hilton, of the Customs]. i2mo, 191 pp. New- 
castle : Printed by T. Angus, for T. Fishbum, Monk- 
wearmouth, and sold by all booksellers in town and 
country, 1785. (Contains a few dialect words.) 


NEWCASTLE. Chambers aTid Cooper. By R. L, W. 
(Broad-sheet.) Newcastle : Allan, n. d. 

A Collection of Right Merrie Garlands for North 
Country Anglers. Sm. 8to. Newcastle: E. Chamley, 
1836, 1842. 

— Ditto. Edited by Joseph Cbawhall, and continued 
to this present year. Newcastle : George Rutland, 1864. 

— A Collection of Comic and Descriptive Songs. Chiefly 

in the Newcastle dialect, i smo. Alnwick : W. Davison, 

n. d. 

— The Contented Couckovld; or^a Pleasant New Songe, 

of a NeW'Castle Many Who's Wife being Gone from Him ; 
Shewing how he Ca/me to London to Her, and when he 
Fov/ndHer, Carried Her back again to New-Castle TowTie. 
i2mo, 12 pp. (Reprint by John Bell, on the Quay, New- 
— The Custom House Branch; or, NewcasUe Undone. 

(Broad-sheet.) North Shields: PHnted by Roddom & 

Son, n. d. 

— Hie Custom House Garla nd ; or. Nine Pleasant Ditties. 

Sung while the question was pending whether or no 
a branch of the Custom House at Newcastle should 
be established at North Shields. 8vo, 20 pp. Newcastle : 
Printed for John Bell, on the Quay, 1816. (Fifty copies 

Fisher's Garlands. By Roxby, and others, 1820, 

1821, 1830, 1833, 1843-1865. Newcastle : E. Chamley. 
— Glassmaker^s Procession, 1823. (Broad-sheet.) 

Jubilee of George the Third. A Poem. Newcastle : 

J. Marshall, 181 o. Republished, i2mo, 4 pp. R. J. 
Wilkinson, Newcastle, n. d. 

— The Life and Adventures of Billy Purvis. Cr. 8vo» 
pp. iv, 200. Newcastle : D. Bowman, Nun's Lane, 1875. 


NEWCASTLE. Local Songs. Sung by William Thompson 
at the Oxford Music Hall, Newcastle. No. i. 1 2mo, 16 pp. 
Gateshead : W. H. Brockett, 1866. (This Collection 
includes the following songs : — * Aw's Sittin on Th' Kee, 
Mally/ by Joshua Bagnall; 'Aw've lost maw poor 
Muthor/ by W. Thompson ; * Aw's Bill Thompson, Oh ! ' 
Anon. ; * Changes on Banks o' Tyne/ by J. P. Bobson ; 
' Dolly May/ by J. P. Robson ; ' Fishing for Eels upon 
the Kee/ by J. P. Robson ; * The Pawnshop in a Bleeze/ 
[J. P. Robson]; *0n the Kee/ by J. P. Robbon ; 'The 
Rifleman Sowldjer/ by J. P. Robson ; * When we went 
doon to Tynemouth/ by J. P. Robbon.) 

ITie Monthly Chronicle of North Country Lore and 

Legend. 5 vols. Newcastle : Walter Scott, 1887-91. 

The Newcastle Magazine, Various publishera New- 

castle, 1 81 8-1 831, &c. (Vol. i, pp. 197-236, contains 
art. * On the Etymology of Parishes, &c., in Northumber- 
land/ Newcastle: J. Clark, 1818; vol. iii, p. 420, 
Review ' Border Ballads,' by James Telfeb. Newcastle : 
Mitchell, 1824; vol. viii. p. 130, 'Dialogue between 
Master and Servant.' Newcastle: Mitchell, 1829. See 
also under Wilson, * Pitman's Pay.') 

The Newcastle Song Book; or, Tyneaide Songster. 

Being a Collection of comic and satirical songs . . . 
chiefly in the Newcastle dialect. Small 8vo, 332 pp. 
Newcastle-upon-Tyne : W. & T. Fordyce, n. d. [1842]. 

— The Newcastle Songster. Being a choice collection of 

songs in the Newcastle dialect. Small 8vo. Newcastle : 
D. France & Co., n. d. 

Newcastle Songster; or, Tyne Minstrel. Containing 

a choice selection of modem and original songs. i2mo. 
Newcastle-upon-Tyne : David Bass, 1806. 


NEWCASTLE A New Sang, entitled StrtH Piracy or 
LarUem Jugtice; to which is added, ' The Dying Reflec- 
tions of Poor Snap.' 8vo, 4 pp. Ne¥rcastle : John Booth, 

Niaon's Gateshead and Tyneside Almanac^ 1883. 
— North Country Traditions, Legends and Ballads. 
i2mo, 96 pp. Newcastle-upon-Tyne : D. Bowman, 1 875. 
(A pamphlet reprint of ' Chevy Chase,' ' The Long Pack,' 
* Hennit of Wark worth,' * The Laidley Worm of Spindleston 
Hengh,' 'Jock o' the Side,' ' Newcastle Mary's Lament,' and 
a few added paragraphs containing historical notes, n. d.) 

Northern Khynxes. Liduding ' Delaval and the Monk/ 

with nnmerons other pieces, general and local. By the 
writer of 'The Lambton Worm.' VoL i, 8vo, 24a pp. 
London: J. R. Smith. Newcastle: J. W. Chater, 1872. 
(Contains some dialect.) 
— The Northumberland Garland ; or, Newcastle Night- 

ingale. A matchless collection of famous songs. i6mo, 
71 pp. Newcastle: by and for Hall & Elliot. 1793. 
(See also Ritsgn.) 

An Odd Collection of Odd Songs. Original, local and 

miscellaneous, as sung by Odd Fellows in the Newcastle 
Lodges, and principally written by Odd Members of that 
Odd Fraternity. 1 2mo, 24 pp. Newcastle : R. T. Edgar, 

The Picture of Newcastle-upon-Tyne. Containing 
a guide to the town and neighbourhood, an account of 
the Roman wall, and a description of the coal mines. 
Illustrated by a Map of the coal district and a Plan of 
Newcastle Newcastle : Printed by and for D. Akenhead 
& Sons, 1807. 

Pitman Ga'n to Parlimint (Broad-sheet, by R. 



NEWCASTLE. The Pitman Prophet. A local song as 
Bung by Mr. John Bessford, &c., 1840. (Broad-sheet.) 

Poems. Addressed to several persons by a lady 

residing in Newcastle.. 8vo. Newcastle : Wm. Fordyce, 
1829. (Contains a few dialect words.) 

Rqected Papers, (No. i.) From a late local com- 

petition, including others. i2mo, 24 pp. (a fragment). 
Newcastle: E. Tinlin, 1870. 

A Songe, made in Edvxirde the Fourthe hys tyme, 

of ye Battele of Hexhamms, in Northomherlonde : anno 
M.CCCC.LXIV. 8vo, 13 pp. ; Notes a pp. Newcastle- 
upon-Tyne: M. A. Richardson, 1848. (A modem poem 
in antique style, with notes of obsolete words.) 

Tlie Songs of the Tyne. Being a choice collection of 

popular local songs, comic, satirical, and descriptive ; 
chiefly in the Newcastle dialect. i2mo, 10 numbers. 
Newcastle-upon-Tyne : John Boss, n. d. 
— The Songs of the Tyne. Being a collection of popular 

local songs. i2mo, 7 numbers. Newcastle-upon-Tyne: 
W. R. Walker, n. d. 

Tracts^ Issued by John Sykes. A collection, con- 

taining — (i) Account of the proceedings in Newcastle and 
Gateshead at the Coronation of George III and Queen 
Charlotte, Sept. 1761, and George IV, 1821. 16 pp. New- 
castle, 1822. (2) Trial of Watson v. Carr, for assault 
and false imprisonment at Newcastle. 37 pp. Ibid., 1823. 
(3) Stanzas on the intended new line of road from 
Potticar Lane to Leybum Hole, with an account of the 
memorable events which have occurred on Gateshead Fell. 
16 pp. Ibid., 1825. (4) Account of the statue of King 
Charles 11 formerly on Tyne Bridge, with the pasquinade 
on its removal to the Exchange and the reply. 8 pp. Ibid., 
1826. (5) La Belle Assemblee ; or the Tinmouth Bathers. 


A poem, humbly inscribed to the ladies of Newcastle, 
&c., by Q. K. pp. vi, 10. Ibid., i8a8. (6) Verses on 
the Earl of Northumberland's restoring Alnwick Castle ; 
Lines on the Hermitage of Warkworth, and an Elegy on 
the Quakers' burial ground at Cullercoats. 12 pp. Ibid., 
1829. (7) An account of the Rebellions in 1715-16 and 
^745-46, so far as relates to the counties of Northumber- 
land and Durham, the towns of Newcastle-upon-Tyne 
and Berwick. 36 pp. Ibid., 1831. (8) An account of 
the dreadful explosion in Wallsend Colliery on June 18, 
1^35 ; to which is added a list of explosions, inundations, 
&c., which have occurred in the coal mines of Northumber- 
land and Durham. 38 pp. Ibid., 1835. Collected in 
I vol. 8vo, boards. 

NEWCASTLE. Tyneaide Songs. lamo, in 8 parts, 24 pp. 
each. Parts i, ii, iii, Newcastle : W. R. Walker. Parts 
iv and v anonymous. Parts vi, vii, and viii, Newcastle : 
J. Ross, n. d. 

The * Tyneeide ' Sang Beuk. Chapbook. Demy 8vo, 

16 pp. Newcastle : J. W. Swanston, n. d. 

The Tyneeide Songster. A choice collection of comic, 

satirical and descriptive songs, in the Newcastle dialect. 
i8mo, 108 pp. Alnwick : W. Davison, n. d. [i8a6]. 

The same, first edition, reprinted from the stereotype 
plates, 108 pp. Newcastle: W. Bowman, 1887. 

— An enlarged edition, 144 pp. Alnwick : W. Davison, 


The same, second edition, reprinted from the stereo- 

type plates, 144 pp. Newcastle: T. Allan, 1889. 

The Tyne Songster. A choice collection of songs in 

the Newcastle dialect. i2mo, 72 pp. North Shields: 


Printed and sold by W. Orange, 1827. (A reprint of 
MarshalFs collection.) 

NEWCASTLE. The Tyne Songster. A choice selection 
of songs in the Newcastle dialect. i2mo. Newcastle: 
W. & T. Fordyce, 1840. *^, 

The Tyneside Songster. Containing a splendid collec- ^*-i^ 

tion of local songs by popular authors, in the Northum- 
brian dialect. Demy 8vo, 16 pp. Newcastle: J. W. 
Swanston, n. d. 

Watty and Meg, or the Wife r^ormed Chapbook. 
i^mo, 24 pp. Newcastle : W. & T. Fordyce, n. d. 
— Willy Wood and Greedy OHzde. A tale of the 

present century founded on fact To which are subjoined 
three new songs. (One of these is * The Dream, a song 
for a Newcastle Man.'} 8vo, 32 pp. London : J. Forbes, 

NICHOLSON, W. E. A Glossary of Terms used in the 
Coal Trade of Northumberland and Durham. With 
App. By W. E. Nicholson. Sm. 8vo, 156 pp. New- 
castle: A. Beid, 1888. 


N ORTHUMBERLAND. The Noble Laird of Thomyburrie. 
A Northumbrian Border Ballad in three fyttes ; with 
Litroduction and Glossary. 8vo, pp. xvi, 55. London : 
Saunders & Ottley, 1855. (The Glossary includes thirty 
words only.) 


land of. i2mo, 24 pp. Newcastle-upon-Tyne: Printed 
for J. Bell, on the Quay, 18 14. 

NUNN, R. A Collection of Local Songs, Ac. By Robebt 
NuNN. lamo, 46 pp. Newcastle, n. d. 


OlFTSIL a (tfaft Tomgar). See Chatto, W. A. 

OUDfTEBU W. A GoOeetion 'jf OriyiiMjd Local ^/m/» u-W 
(stiar Fieem, By Wx. Oliyeb. i2ino, 24 pp. Xow*- 
cMde-opub-ryxift: FmitBd by K T. Ed^^, afi the >(«)w 
frriinhtiiig Ubaacy, Pilgnin Street 1824. 

The mam. an ealftrged editLon. 8vo, 70 pp. New*^ 

: Si. Walker. 1829. 

fEACQCE, K B. Oil name Lscuiimj Charf.icteruitiL'» uf 
Jfortiiwnibriarn, Jhc. PhiL Sims. Trans^ pp. ^34-264, 

PEASE, HOWARD. Borderland Simdist^ By Howabd 
Fu^a;. 8vo, ijo pp. Newcastle: Mawson, Swan & 
; Loniion : Simpkin, M^i^r^hi^n & Co., 1893. 
7h Mark a' the DeU. And other Northoiabrian 
By KowxED PKAfflC. 8to, i<56 pp. Locuif^u: 

T. Tiabex Unwixi, 1894. 

PBBCT. Dtt. THOa Th€ EermU of Warhjj^rrth. Alu- 

wick : W. Dm^ison, n. d. 
Bdiqnea of Ancient EngtUh Poetry. Var. dUtiuiuti. 

PROXJDLOCK, LEWIS. Poeine and Sowjh. By Uhw 
Pbotdlock, ' The Bodrder MiostreL' i2mo. HallwhUtlo: 
J. Clemenfloii, lud. 

The Shepherd cf the Beacon ; or. The Uetv 1/ the 

Khyher Paes. A story of Coquetdale. By Li:wih ruiU'l^ 
LOCK4 Dinningion, Northumberland. 1 21U0. Hexham : 
Herald Office, 1877. 

The Borderland Muse. By Lewis PROUULOi^K. 8m. 

8vo, pp. xi, 358. London: O'DriB0oll> Lennox & Co., 
n.d. [1896]. 

RICHARDSON, M. A. Local Historian's Table Book of 
Remarkable Occurrences^ Historical Facts, Tmditious^ 


Legendary and Deacriptive BaUadsy <fec., connected with 
the Counties of NewcasUe-upon-Tyne, Northumberland^ 
arid Durham. By M. A. Richardson. 8 vols, royal 8vo. 
Vols, i-v, BQstorical; Vols, vi-viii, Legendary. New- 
castle: M. A. Richardson, 1 841-6. 

RICHARDSON, M. A. The Borderers Table Book. By 
M. A. Richardson. 8 vols. 1846. (This is the same 
work as the 'Local Historian's Table Book'; but 
issued by H. G. Bohn^ London, with a different title 

RICHLEY, JOHN. The Poetical Works of John Rickley, 
of Corbridge, Northumberland. Sm. 8vo, 15a pp. New- 
castle : Printed by John Marshall, 1824. (Contains song, 
' Aydon Wedding,' in dialect.) 

RIDLEY, GEORGE. Broken Hearted Keehnan. By Geo. 

Ridley. (Broad-sheet.) Newcastle : Allan, n. d. 
New Local Song Book, i amo. Newcastle : T. Allan, 

n. d. 

The Time Gun. By Geo. Ridley. (Broad-sheet.) 

Newcastle : T. Allan, n. d. 

RITSON, JOSEPH. The NoHhumberland Oarland, or 
Newcastle Nightingale. A matchless collection of famous 
songs. 8vo, 94 pp. Newcastle, 1793. (Edited by 
Joseph Ritson, and reprinted among the ' Northern 
Garlands.' 8vo. London, 1810; to which an advertise- 
ment is prefixed by J[oseph] H[azlewood].) 

Northern Garlands. Collection of songs. Edited 

by Jos. RiTSON, 1784-93. 8vo, a6o pp. Reprint, 
Edinburgh: E. & G. Goldsmid, 1887. (Contains * The 
Bishopric Garland, or Dui*ham Minstrel,' 1784, 179a; 
*The Yorkshire Garland/ 1788; *The Northumberland 
Garland,* 1793 » *The North Country Chorister,' 179a.) 

BOBSOir ^l 

OBSOS, HESnELT. Fign,rm m Bhymm; trr, Mnirictd 
Ccmkpmitaiitmii addmami to Jbrthfumlyriam. By £L IJL 
{Hearj Botwon, iwrnpowttir]. Newewtle: Fttnted for 
J. BdD, on the Qosy. i2§i4. 

The JarOern MimstnCa B%uig€t. By H. R $vo» 
p. (So pExnter'a ii«me or place. A m«dl«)y of ^^7 

OBSOK^ J. P. Tyn,ai€U Sarkga^ As sozig by W. Thoia|H 
8cn and otfaeis. iimo^ 5 parts. Newcastle: W. K 
Bowman, B.d. 

Tke McmamaniaCj and Minor Poen^i^ $v<x p]K xvi» 

387. Newcastle: Robert Ward. 184S. (Contains the 
following Local Songs: — ^ Nanny Jackson's Letter to 
Lord Morpeth'; 'The Militia'; 'The Ether Doctor'; 
*The Wcmderfol Tallygrip'; 'The High Level Bridge'; 
' Jenny Lind ' ; ' Newcassel in a Stoure * ; ' The Collier's 

— Songa of the Bards of the Tifne ; or a ohoioe selection 
of original songs, chiefly in the Newcastle dialect, with 
a Glossary of 800 words. Edited by J. P. Kobson. 1 i^mo, 
55a pp. Newcastle: P. France & Co., n.d [1H49]. 
Original Tyne&ide Songs, By J. P, Robson. lawo, 

7a pp. Newcastle-upon-Tyne: Printed for the author 
by M. Ross, 48 Pilgrim Street, 1849. (Oontaius remarks 
on the Northumberland dialect.) 

The Sick Teetotaller; or, Nancy* s Choice of a Doctor, 

A burlesque tale in verse. By J. P. Uobson. lauiu, 
20 pp. Newcastle-upoD-Tyne : John CJhriHtie, 1 8,50. 
HermdoTie the Beloved ; T/ie Village Queen ; (h'iineun 

Sketches; Solomon tfie Seco'iui^wnd Miecdlanenus Voefins, 
Sm. 8vo, pp. viii, 310. Edinburgh, 18,57. (^'^^u^^t* 
'Maw Qranfeyther Dan' ; or, 'The Toon o* NdWisaiMit)!) 
i* the Awd Times/ and others in dialect.) 


ROBSON, J. P. The Song of Solomon. In the Northum- 
berland dialect. By J. P. Bobson. Sm. 4to, 20 pp. (250 
copies printed for Prince L. L. Bonaparte. London : Gteo. 
Barclay^ n. d. [ 1 859].) 

The Song of Solomon. Versified firom the English 

translation of James of England, into the dialect of 
the colliers of Northumberland, but principally those 
dwelling on the banks of the Tyne. By J. P. Robson. 
4to. London, i860. 

The Book of Ruth. Li the Northumberland dialect. 

By J. P. RoBSON, i860. Small, %\ inches by 4i inches. 
24 pp. (250 copies printed for Piince L. L. Bonaparte. 
London : George Barclay.) 
— The Poetical Works of J. P. Bobson, Bard of Old 

Tyne and Minstrel of the Wewf. i2mo. Part i, new 
series, 80pp. London: W. Kent&Co. ; Leeds: J. Heaton 
& Son ; Sunderland : John P. Robson. Author^s address, 
37 High Street, Sunderland. 1862. 

Evangeline; or^the Spirit of Progress. Together with 

a copious selection of Miscellaneous Poems. By J. P. 
RoBSON. Fcap. 8vo,pp. xxii, 372. Newcastle : J. M. Carr, 
1870. (Pages 320-372 are in dialect.) 
— Life and Adventures of the far-fam^d Billy Purvis. 

By J. P. RoBSON. Sm. 8vo, 240 pp. Newcastle : John 

Clarke, 1850. 

— Autobiography of J. P. Bobson. Post 8vo, 22 pp. 

Newcastle: J. W. Chater, 1870. 

ROTHBURY. Ouide to Rothbury and Upper Coquetdale. 

1 2mo, 56 pp. Rothbury : Dixon Brothers, n. d. 
Ouide to Rothbury and Upper Coquetdale. 8vo, 

60 pp. Alnwick : J. L. Luckley, 1873. 

ROXBY, R. Lay of the Reedwater Minstrel. By Robert 


RoxBY. 8vo, pp, vi, 46. Newcastle : T. & J. Hodgson, 
183;^. (A cut by Bewick shows a player upon the 
Northumberland small-pipes.) 

RULE, GEORGE. A Border Legend, and Local Rhymes. 
i2mo, 52 pp. Newcastle: Robert Ward, 1857. (Contains 
dialect rhymes.) 

RUSSELL, DORA. The Miner's Oath; and Underground. 
By Dora Russell. 8vo, 204 pp. London ; Routledge, 

RUTHERFORD and TELFORD. A Selection of Poems 
and Songs, By W. Rutherford and J. Telford. 8vo, 
103 pp. Gateshead : Howe Brothers, 1878. 

SCOTT, R. A Treatise on the Ventilation of Coal Mines, 
Together with a narrative of scenes and incidents from 
the life of a practical miner. By Robert Soott. 2nd 
ed. 8vo, 72 pp. Newcastle : M. & M. W. Lambert, 1868. 
(Contains local mining terms.) 

SCOTT, Sm W. Minstrelsy of the ScoUish Border. 
Edited by Sir W. Scott, various dates. 5th ed. 
Edinburgh, 1821. 3 vols. (These volumes contain 
some ballads belonging to the English side of the 
Border as well as some imitations of old ballads by 
Surtees. Li vol. i the following Nortljem English pro- 
ductions may be noted : — * Battle of Otterbum' ; 'The 
Rookhope Ryde'; * Hobbie Noble'; *The Fray of 
Suport ' ; also, perhaps, * Jock o' the Side,' with Surtees* 
ballads — * Lord Ewrie ' ; ' Death of Featherstonhaugh * ; 
and ' Barthram*s Dirge,* Li vol. ii ' A Lyke-wake 
Dirge,' and in vol. iii * Kempion,* also may belong to 
the same category.) 



SELEIRE, J. Collection of SoTigs cmd Ballads for the 
People. Original and aekct Small 8vo, 256 pp. New- 
castle: James Selkirk, 1853. 

SERVICE, JAMES. Metrical Legends of Northumberland, 
Jkc, By James Sebyioe. i2mo> 160 pp. Alnwiek: 
W. Davison^ 1834* (Some dialect words in the poem 
* Hob o' the Stob Hill/ p. 140.) 

SHELDON, FREDERICK. Minstrelsy ^ the English 
Border. Being a collection of ballads, ancient, re- 
modelled, and oiiginal, founded on well known Border 
legends. With illustrative notes. By Frederick 
Sheldon. Square 8vo, pp. xvii, 43a. London : Long- 
mans, 1847. (Contains modem-antique work.) 

SHIELDS SONO BOOK. South Shields, 1826. 

SMITH, LAURA A. The Music of the Waters. A collection 
of the Sailor s Chanties and working songs of the sea of 
all maritime nations; boatman's, fisherman's and rowing 
songs, &c. By Laura A. Smith. 8vo, pp. xxxii, 360. 
London : Kegan Paul & Co., 1888. 

SOPWITH, THOMAS. An Account of the Mvndng 
Districts of Alston Moor, Weardale, and Teeadale^ in 
Cvmiberland and Durha/m, Comprising descriptive 
sketches of the scenery, antiquities, geology, and mining 
operations in the upper dales of the Tyne, Wear, and Tees. 
By T. SopwTTH. pp. viii, 183. Alnwick: W. Davison, 

SPRINGMANN, C. F. Six Exercises on the Letter R. 
AiTanged to obviate the difficulty of its articulation 
(peculiar to the natives of Newcastle and Northumber- 
land). By C. F. Sprinqmann. 8vo, 16 pp. Newcastle : 
Printed for the Author [by T. Hodge, Sunderland], 1827. 




PHENSON, W. The Tyneside Minstrel. Being a 
collection of original local songa arranged to popular airs. 
Sm, 8vo, 72 pp. Gateshead : W. Stephenson, Bridge 
Street, 1834. 

STEPHENSON, WILLUM (eenior). A CoUection of 
Loval Poeme, Songs, &c. By William Stephenson, aenr. 
8to, pp. xi, 113. Gateshead: W. Stephenson, 13 Bridge 
Street, 183a. 

STUART, GEORGE. A Joco-Seriow Discourse, in t-wo 
Dialogues, betiveen a Northv/mberland Oentleman and 
his Tenant, a Scotchman, both old Cavaliers. With an 
Anagram prcExt to them ; being Some Miscellaneoua 
Esaaje, Written upon several Occasions. (All in veree.) 
By Oeorqe Stuaet. 4to. pp. xv, 76, London, for Ben- 
jamin Toole; Newcastle, for John Story, 1686. (The 
Scottish dialect of the tenant is mingled throughout with 
the provincialism 8 of Northumberland.) 

Budget of Laughthhs. Containing a collection of original 
comic BODgB, medleys, and recitations, in the Newcastle 
dialect, ismo, 20 pp. Newcastle-upon-Tyne: Printed 
for the Author at tig Side. 1842. 

Geordy Brown's Budget of Laugkailea. Containing 

a collection of original comic songs, medleys, and recita- 
tions, in the Newcastle dialect. By R. P. Sutherland. 
London : Webb, MiUington & Co., 1857. 

jSWANSON, THOMAS. SdeH Poems. By Thomas 
SwANflON, Old Hartley. Small 8vo, pp. iv, 96. North 
Shields: J. PhilipsoQ, 1878. (Foui- poems are in dialect.) 

TATE, GEORGE. History of the Bmmujh, Castle, and 
Barony of Alriwick. By Georqe Tate, F,G.S. 3 vols.. 



8vo. VoL i, pp. ix, 480 ; vol ii, pp. vi, ii, 481, and App. 
xxiv. Alnwick : H. H. Blair, 1866-69. 

TATE, MATTHEW. PU Life in 1893. By Matthew 
Tate, Blyth. 16 pp. Blyth : Alder, 1893. (A rhyming 
pamphlet with some dialect verses on pp. 11 and 12.) 

THOMPSON, HENRY. A Reference Catalogue of Books 
relating to the Cov/rUies of Durham arid Northvmherland. 
Divided into parishes, &c. Part i. Historical and Topo- 
graphical. Compiled by Henry Thompson. 8vo, 36 pp. 
Newcastle-upon-Tyne : Lambert, 1888. (A useful refer- 
ence book. No second part published.) 

THOMPSON, Rev. J. PoeniSy Morale Descriptive, and 
Elegiac. By the Rev. J. Thompson, Curate of Netherton, 
Northumberland. 2 vols., post 8vo. Newcastle : Printed 
by K. Anderson, 1806. (Contain some dialect words.) 

THOMPSON, ROBERT. Poems. By Robert Thompson, 
of Newsham. Revised and enlarged edition, i^zmo, 
120 pp. Blyth: T. Messer, 1879. (Contains songs in 
dialect, including * Aw wish Pay Friday wad cum.') 

TOMLENSON, W. W. Comprehensive Guide to the County 
of Northumberland. By W. W. Tomlinson. Sm. 8vo, 
pp. xii, 574. London : Walter Scott, 1888. 

CASTLE-UPON-TYNE. Vols, i and ii, 4to, 1831-1838. 
Ditto, new series, 8vo. Vols, i to xi, 1876 to 1894. (Vol. i, 
4to series, p. 148, contains an example of West Tyne 
dialect by Thomas Bewick, the wood engraver, in a note 
to Mr. Atkinson's paper ; vol. ix, new series, * Catalogue 
of Place-names in Teesdale,* by D. Embleton, M.D.) 


ISTS' FIELD CLUB. 6 vols., 8vo, 1846 to 1864. 
Vol. i, 1846-50, p. 338, and vol ii, 1854, p. 98, contain 
' Observations on Composite Names of places, chiefly 
in Northumberland, of Anglo-Saxon Derivation,' &c., 
by Ra. Carr. Vol. v, i86o-6a, p. 88, contains 'Local 
Superstitions at Stamfordham,' by the Rev. J. F, BiaaB. 
Vol. vi, 1864, p. 200, * Coal Miners of Durham and 
Northumberland,* by Robt. Wilson, M.D.) 

WADDELL, JAMES. The Poetical Works of JaTnes 
Waddell, of Plessey, late of Morpeth. lamo, 104 pp. 
Morpeth: S. Wilkinson, 1809. (Contains a few local 

WARD, R. North of England AlmannCy containing songs 
in the Local Dialect, &c. Newcastle : R. Ward, 1 847— 1 896. 

WEAMS, JAMES. Tynedde Song Book Written and sung 
by himself. In parts, 8vo. Newcastle: Barnes, 1887. 
(Part i, 8 pp., contains five songs in dialect.) 

WELFORD, RICHARD. History of Newcastle and Oates- 
head. By Richard Welford. Royal 8vo, vol. i, pp. 
xii, 455, fourteenth and fifteenth centuries. London : 
Walter Scott, 1884. Vol. ii, pp. viii, 547, sixteenth 
century. London: Walter Scott, 1885, Vol. iii, pp. 
viii, 464, sixteenth and seventeenth centuries. London : 
Walter Scott, 1887. (Mr. Welford has given many 
extracts from Wills, Inventories, and other documents 
containing local terms.) 

WHITE, JOHN. Local Songs, Poems, ike. By John 
White, of Spital Tongues. i2mo, 19 pp. Newcastle: 
Robert Watson, 1884. 


WHITE, ROBERT. Poems. 8vo, 33a pp. Kelso : Ruther- 
furd, 1867. (Mr. White oontributed io Richardson's ' Table 
Book/ q.v.) 

WHITE, WALTER NoHhvmberlaTid and the Border. 
By Walter White. Post 8vo, 427 pp. London: 
Chapman & Hall, 1859. 

WHTTTELL, THOMAS. Part i of the Poeti4iaL Works 
of Thomas WhitteU, the celebrated Northumbrian Bard 
of Cambo and Wallington. Printed from the Author's 
own manuscript. i2mo, 24 pp. Newcastle-upon-Tyne: 
G. Angus, 1815. Chapbook. 

The Midford Oalloway's Ramble. 8 pp. n. d. Chap- 

— The Oenuine Thomas WhUteLl. Chapbook. 

— The Midford OaUoways Ram>ble, and other Poems. 
lamo. Morpeth: P. Blair, n.d. Chapbook. 

The Poetical Works of the late Cdebrated and Ingeni- 

ous Tlu/nias Whittell. Consisting of poems on various 
occasions, satires, songs, &c., transcribed from an 
original MS. in the Author's own writing. By William 
RoBSON, late of Cambo. i2mo, pp. vi, 186. Newcastle : 
Ed. Walker, 1815. 

WILKINSON, R. J. The Tyneside Songster. By R. J. 
Wilkinson. lamo, 32 pp. Newcastle-upon-Tyne: 
H. Nixon, 1886. 

WILSON, K J. Eglingham and its Vicinity ; Chilli ng- 
ham and its Wild Cattle^ Jkc. By E. J. Wilson. 8vo, 
pp. vii, 69. Alnwick : Gazette Office, 1886. 

WILSON, JOE. Budjit of Tyneside Drolleriesy Sangs, an* 

Funny Stories. 8vo, 8 pp. Newcastle: Allan, 187a. 
Joe WUson^s TemperaTiceSongs^ Readings^ and Recita' 


tiona. In the Tyneside dialect, comic and sentimental. 
i8mo. Part i and Nos. i, 2, 3. Containing about sixty 
songs. Newcastle : T. Allan, n. d. 

WILSON, JOE. Joe Wilson's Tyneside Songs, BaUads, and 
Drolleries. Penny numbers. 292 pp. Newcastle: T. Allan, 
n.d. [1874]. 

Tyneside Songs, Ballads, and Drolleries. i2mo, 

pp. viii, 202. Newcastle : Allan, n. d. [1874]. Second 
edition. (First edition, issued in four parts.) 

Tyneside Songs and Drolleries, Readings, and Temper^ 

ance Songs. By Joe Wilson. Collected edition. Edited 
by Thomas Allan. 8vo, pp. xliii, 472. Newcastle-upon- 
Tyne: T.& G. Allan, n.d. [1890]. 

WILSON, THOMAS. Stanzas on the Intended New Line 
of Road from Potticar Lane to Leybum Hole. With 
an account of the memorable events which have occurred 
on Gateshead Fell ; and additional notes by the Author. 
]6mo, 16 pp. ; also in 8vo, and Roy. 8vo. Newcastle: 
Printed for and published by John Sykes, Bookseller, 
Johnson's Head, 1825. 

ITie Oiling of Dicky's Wig. By Thos. Wilson. 

Reprinted from The Tyne Mercury, July 18, 1826. i2mo, 
8pp. Newcastle: W. A. Mitchell, 1826. 

The Pitman s Pay ; oi\ a Night's Discharge to Care. 

By Thomas Wilson. In three parts — part i, reprinted 
from The Newcastle Magazine^ 1826; pp. iv, 16: part 
ii, from The Tyne Mercury, 1828 ; 12 pp. : part iii, from 
The Newcastle Magazine, 1829; 16 pp. i2mo. Gates- 
head : G. Watson, 1830. 

— The Pitman's Pay, and other Poems. By Thomas 
Wilson. (With Glossary, pp. 17-34.) pp. xxxvi, 

4|0 Sll£#C'*3^ — ''r»>>Xrf 

7fo /**>p»3ii"* Pj*- a'fa'i iciif:' P<tm^ Bt tiie la&e 

WOODMAN. WILLIAM- r:.»j7=^ si» <.?-%, An anonr- 

xr:u>: hc-b^cx m\xz, rurxxR 10 tsk rs;i-nb»TT 

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